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SUSTAINABLE SILVOPASTORAL RESTORATION TO PROMOTE ECOSYSTEM SERVICES IN TUNISIA

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25 - 29 November 2019. Antalya, Turkey. Near East Forestry and Range Commission (NEFRC) - 24th Session
Presentation by Dr. Mounir Louhaichi
Rangeland Ecology & Management
International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas
M.Louhaichi@cigar.org

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SUSTAINABLE SILVOPASTORAL RESTORATION TO PROMOTE ECOSYSTEM SERVICES IN TUNISIA

  1. 1. Near East Forestry and Range Commission Mounir Louhaichi (ICARDA) & Jamel Kailene (DGF-Tunisia) SUSTAINABLE SILVOPASTORAL RESTORATION TO PROMOTE ECOSYSTEM SERVICES IN TUNISIA Near East Forestry & Range Commission
  2. 2. Near East Forestry & Range Commission • Silvopastoral systems, a form of agroforestry, involve the interaction of woody perennials, forages, and livestock. The three components in the system are intentionally managed for optimal interactions aimed at augmenting agricultural production and environmental services (Sharrow, 1999). Importance of silvopastoral production system
  3. 3. Near East Forestry & Range Commission Restoration vs. Rehabilitation Rehabilitation - the reparation of ecosystem processes, productivity and services… but.. - does not necessarily mean a return to pre- existing biotic conditions. Restoration - the process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged, or destroyed. - attempts to return an ecosystem to its historic trajectory. Source: Society for Ecological Restoration International Science & Policy Working Group. 2004. The SER International Primer on Ecological Restoration. www.ser.org &Tucson: Society for Ecological Restoration International.
  4. 4. Near East Forestry & Range Commission The Sbaihia pilot site, Zaghouan - Tunisia
  5. 5. Near East Forestry & Range Commission Objective / Purpose Purpose: To develop a pilot site in semi-arid Tunisia that will be scaled up in the Near East and North Africa (NENA) region illustrating sustainable management of silvopastoral production systems. Overall Objective: Improve the livelihood of agro- silvopastoral communities through increasing community resilience, income and capacity of the local population.
  6. 6. Near East Forestry & Range Commission Approach To achieve this objective, the initiative is axed on the following pillars: ➢ Adopt a participatory multidisciplinary approach ➢ Implement selected proven technology aimed at sustainable development of the silvopastoral production system of Sbaihia site with focus on climate change adaptation: ➢ choice intervention, ➢ choice of species, etc. ➢ Enhance capacity of all concerned parties including farmers, extension specialists, local authority, etc.
  7. 7. Near East Forestry & Range Commission Developing Workplan
  8. 8. Near East Forestry & Range Commission Choice of Species ▪ Need assessment, capitalizing on indigenous knowledge. ▪ Selecting species using participatory approaches with local communities and relevant stakeholders. ▪ Selecting multi-purpose plant species based on socio-economic as well as environmental criteria.
  9. 9. Near East Forestry & Range Commission Choice of Species ▪ Favoring as much as possible the use of indigenous and well-adapted species. ▪ Select species that require minimum care and protection: • Less capital and labor demand • Social fencing versus physical fencing • Carefully considering the use of exotic species
  10. 10. Near East Forestry & Range Commission Ceratonia siliqua Carob tree 500 of Ceratonia siliqua Benefits: n Tolerates drought n Grows on a wide range of soils n Performs as a multipurpose tree n Produces nutritious fruits (carob beans/ pods) n Provides shades for livestock during summer
  11. 11. Near East Forestry & Range Commission Medicago arborea tree medic 500 of Medicago arborea Benefits: ▪ Is excellent to feed livestock due to its high protein content ▪ High palatability ▪ Long lived (at least 25years) ▪ Improve soil fertility
  12. 12. Near East Forestry & Range Commission Atriplex nummularia oldman saltbush Benefits: ▪ Drought resistant ▪ Can grow in areas with high salinity (max 300 mM) ▪ Is a good maintenance feed when other feed sources are depleted ▪ Is grown in arid areas all over the world ▪ Adequate source of crude protein
  13. 13. Near East Forestry & Range Commission Opuntia ficus-indica Cactus pear 3,200 cladodes of Opuntia ficus indica Benefits: n Drought-tolerant n Evergreen plant n Easy to establish, maintain, and use n Multipurpose species n High fodder potential n Resolves livestock watering in the dry areas n High palatability n High in soluble carbohydrates
  14. 14. Near East Forestry & Range Commission Hedysarum coronarium L. Sulla Benefits: n Drought resistant n Improves soil fertility and erosion control n Prefers slightly acid to alkaline soils n Highly palatable, nutritious, and productive forage n High-protein forage crop
  15. 15. Near East Forestry & Range Commission Stone gabion constructed within the pilot site The two gabions are expected to preserve at least 2,400T / ha / year from degradation
  16. 16. Near East Forestry & Range Commission Benches constructed manually at the pilot site With a total distance of 700 m and a water retention capacity of 0.4m²/m, a total estimated water harvesting is expected to be 280 m3/year
  17. 17. Near East Forestry & Range Commission Capacity Development 405 294 111 0 100 200 300 400 500 Total number Males Females Number of Trainees
  18. 18. Near East Forestry & Range Commission Capacity building
  19. 19. Fliers, Factsheets, etc. Carobtree
  20. 20. Fliers, Factsheets, etc. Lentisktree
  21. 21. Fliers, Factsheets, etc. Sulla
  22. 22. Near East Forestry & Range Commission Planning phase ▪ Understanding socio-cultural, land tenure, rights to access - rather than focusing only on biophysical and technical aspects. ▪ Identifying targeted groups (homogenous, less conflict) to start with. ▪ Setting restoration priorities and targets. ▪ What type of interventions, where, how and for what use?
  23. 23. Near East Forestry & Range Commission Summary Lessons learned ❑ For the first time different departments representing Ministry of Agriculture (regional as well as national level) are working together talking a common challenge combatting land degradation. ❑ There is a need to establish a functional CBO (elected member) to serve as a link between community and various agencies and for sustainability (ownership). ❑ The workplan (choice of species & interventions and management (grazing)) should be agreed with full participation of the local community. ❑ Once the site is rehabilitated, it is recommended to include a small grazing fee (legislation exist). The generated fund can be used to maintain and expand site. ❑ Forestry Department in Tunisia is scaling up the approach to other regions in the country.
  24. 24. Near East Forestry & Range Commission Use of a particular intervention in the restoration of degraded silvopastoral site is site specific – no one single rule to apply anywhere!! The more time is invested in the planning phase – more chance for success of the programme. Summary Keep in mind
  25. 25. Near East Forestry & Range Commission Mounir Louhaichi Rangeland Ecology & Management International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas M.Louhaichi@cigar.org Thank you! Near East Forestry & Range Commission

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