Resource utilization and managing conflict in the pastoral community of Ethiopia


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Presentation by Dr Tilahun Amede for the 5th All Africa Conference on Animal Agriculture and the 18th Annual Meeting of the Ethiopian Society of Animal Production (ESAP), Addis Ababa, October 25-28, 2010.

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Resource utilization and managing conflict in the pastoral community of Ethiopia

  1. 1. Resource utilization and managing conflict in the pastoral community of Ethiopia." Presented by Dr Tilhaun Amede for the 5th All Africa Conference on Animal Agriculture and the 18th Annual Meeting of the Ethiopian Society of Animal Production (ESAP), Addis Ababa, October 25-28, 2010.
  2. 2. CPWF aims to increase water productivity and resilience of social and ecological systems Through its broad partnerships, it conducts research that leads to local impact and political change
  3. 3. CPWF Consortium Members AREO
  4. 4. Phase 2
  5. 5. Basin Development Challenges (BDCs) <ul><li>Andes – Benefit sharing mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Ganges – intensification in coastal areas </li></ul><ul><li>Limpopo – rainwater management and water access </li></ul><ul><li>Mekong – dams, reservoirs and livelihoods </li></ul><ul><li>Nile – rainwater management in landscapes </li></ul><ul><li>Volta – rainwater management and small reservoirs To improve rural livelihoods and their resilience through a landscape approach to rainwater management </li></ul>
  6. 6. Climate Change.. <ul><li>Change in climate attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere; in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods ( /article/ United_Nations_Framework_Convention_on_Climate_Change_(full_text ) </li></ul><ul><li>Increased concentrations of greenhouse gases ( Carbon dioxide, Water Vapor, Methane, Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s), and others) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the burning of fossil fuels such as gasoline, oil, coal and natural gas; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and the release of CFC’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>deforestation </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Climate Change Mitigation and adaptation through better water management Mitigation is about gases. Adaptation is about water.
  8. 8. Water Scarcity by 2020
  9. 9. Make Choices : Scenarios to 2050 Based on WaterSim analysis for the CA Today CA Scenario Without productivity improvements CA Scenario: Policies for productivity gains, upgrading rainfed, revitalized irrigation, trade
  10. 10. Rainfall –Runoff distribution High rainfall variability & unreliability; significant runoff variability Considerable spatial and temporal redistribution is needed for meaningful development
  11. 11. Rainfall variability affecting economies Zimbabwe Ethiopia
  12. 12. Livestock-Land-Water interaction in pastoral systems <ul><li>Because livestock is a major user of water and a major source of livelihood support; </li></ul><ul><li>Livestock by far the single largest anthropogenic user of land. </li></ul><ul><li>Grazing occupies 26% of the Earth's surface, </li></ul><ul><li>Feed crop production requires about a third of all arable land (Steinfeld et al. 2006). </li></ul>
  13. 13. Water use by livestock <ul><li>Livestock production accounts for more than 8% of global human water use, mainly for the irrigation of feed crops (Steinfeld et al. 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>Although of local importance in some regions (e.g. Botswana (23% of the total water use in the country) and India), the importance of livestock water use for drinking is small compared to other sectors </li></ul>
  14. 14. Nile
  15. 15. Source, Ahmad et al., 2007
  16. 16. Pastoral systems are constrained: <ul><li>Declining livestock and agricultural productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental degradation and deterioration of natural resources ; below recovery levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Breakdown of traditional institutions and social relations. </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to access reliable markets </li></ul><ul><li>Low socio-economic empowerment of women and youth. </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical isolation in terms of infrastructure, </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing impoverishment of communities and households. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Mega woreda, pastoralists in a focus group discussion (Pantuliano and Wekesa, 2008) “ Food relief is the opium of pastoralists, given by the government and donor agencies to ensure that pastoralists do not think of alternative livelihoods and become dependent on food aid so that they can be easily controlled by the international community and the regional government. It is expensive and it does not help make pastoralists stronger in the long term” Lack of investments in resources development and management; food aid
  18. 19. Inefficient use of resources: Land and water resources <ul><li>In-effient use of pasture land; access to watering points dictate decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Land degradation around watering points as too many animals stay around them </li></ul><ul><li>Water quality and livestock diseases </li></ul>
  19. 20. Conflict with agro-pastoral and crop-livestock systems The need for forage banks and reserves Need for developing crop and pasture fields Need for payment for environmental services Stronger upstream-downstream relationships e.g. irrigation in uplands
  20. 21. Effect on livestock systems <ul><li>Decline in livestock number, except oxen </li></ul><ul><li>Decline in grazing area, and reduced feed due to expansion of vegetable at the expense of cereals /legumes </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-pastoralists (e.g. gedemmso) converted to sedentary agriculture, reduced their stock from about 60 to 9. </li></ul><ul><li>Shift from free grazing to cut and carry systems + </li></ul>
  21. 22. CC IMPACTS: On agro-pastoral systems <ul><li>Climate variability will increase: Recurrent & severe floods and droughts </li></ul><ul><li>Droughts may decrease yields / productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Floods may damage crops and infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Fluctuations in farmers’ income: poor farmers may lack means to buffer extreme years </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on national economy </li></ul>
  22. 23. IMPACTS: Pastoral systems <ul><li>; </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in groundwater recharge (affecting pastoral access to water) </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in timing and magnitude of river flows from upstream watersheds (irrigation schemes tapping directly from river, and storage requirements) </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature effects on water productivity: water depletion </li></ul><ul><li>CO 2 fertilization and irrigation productivity: unknown </li></ul>
  23. 24. “ Over the past Gada, we have lost two months of rain. Now the rain is not coming at the right time: it is starting later and finishing before long. My daughter is now five years old and she has not seen a good harvest yet. ” Lars Naess, 2009
  24. 25. Multi-Scale Water Interventions <ul><ul><li>Basin water management/ efficient and equitable use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landscape water management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple use systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farm-level water management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conservation, Irrigation, Drainage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plot-level Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservation + Biological + Physical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant water management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Varieties / species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell water management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Osmotic adjustments. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional Institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policies </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Investing in Irrigation Irrigated Area Food price index World Bank lending for irrigation 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 320 280 240 200 160 120 80 40 0 Dependency effect?
  26. 27. Increased Storage Capacity
  27. 28. Improved return from Irrigation Investments <ul><li>Weak institutional arrangements </li></ul><ul><li>Poor extension services </li></ul><ul><li>Limited flow of information & technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Limited market access & information </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of collective action </li></ul><ul><li>Weak enforcement mechanisms </li></ul>
  28. 29. Building on local experiences .. <ul><li>Building on local wisdom; Water User Associations </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitated flow of information & technologies using local channels </li></ul><ul><li>Strong collective action spirits: </li></ul><ul><li>Upstream-downstream </li></ul><ul><li>Favourable support from local authorities and policy makers </li></ul><ul><li>Home gardens </li></ul>
  29. 31. Water Saving for Multiple Use Hydroflume replacing feeder canals and siphons
  30. 32. Increasing water productivity <ul><li>Water productivity refers to the amount or value of product over volume or value of water depleted/diverted </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. CWP refers to economic (grain, fruit, lint, fiber, feed..) yield divided by the volume of water consumed (evapo-transpiration) in the production of the total yield </li></ul><ul><li>Physical or economic terms </li></ul><ul><li>WP = ∑(Net beneficial outputs) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>----------------------------------- </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>∑ (Depleted water) </li></ul>
  31. 33. Soil Carbon Sink <ul><li>Soil organic matter is the largest global terrestrial carbon (C) pool and is a source of CO2, CH4 </li></ul><ul><li>Soil management affects the amount of C held in soil and the greenhouse gas emissions from soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Soil water management dictates soil-based emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Conventional tillage practices such as the use of plow, lead to a steady loss of soil C to the atmosphere. </li></ul>
  32. 34. Building on traditional innovations (water management) Photo Courtesy: Mr Admasu
  33. 35. Micro dose Zai
  34. 36. Identifying where water saving could be at farm and landscape scales? High unproductive water losses = indicator of productivity gap
  35. 37. ~ ¾ of energy spent on maintenance Livestock energy budget 67% of feed from crop residues low quality: 5.8 – 7.4 MJ ME kg -1 Productivity gaps and losses..
  36. 38. E.g. Watering Points for Improved Livestock Production Energy for walking is reduced from 1956 MJ ME / TLU to 584 MJ ME / TLU per year (Milk equivalent of 252 litre) Survey: milk production increased from 343 liter to 463 liter per lactation per cow Water: no change in water depleted for feed production Milk water productivity per cow improves by 35% (survey)
  37. 39. Reducing Livestock Mortality (diseases) Source: Asfaw and Jabar, 2007 14 34 9 % Others 34 22 66 % Sales 6 8 5 % Others 8 8 3 % Purchases 86 84 92 % Births Incoming Species 52 44 25 % Deaths Outgoing Goat Sheep Cattle Herd Parameter
  38. 40. Cattle mortality rates for poor and better-off farmers 0.10 0.05 Adult (males) 0.15 0.10 Sub-adults (males) 0.15 0.10 Adult (females) 0.22 0.15 Sub-adults (females) 0.22 0.09 Juveniles (males and females Better off farmers Poor farmers Cattle classes
  39. 41. Causes of cattle deaths for poor and better-off farmers 100.0% 25 Total 4.0% 1 fell in a ditch 4.0% 1 bad weather conditions 4.0% 1 plant poisoning 88.0% 22 disease cattle cause deaths Better-off [KD1]   100.0% 58 Total 1.7% 1 beaten by herders 10.3% 6 plant poisoning 8.6% 5 feed shortage / drought 79.3% 46 disease cattle cause deaths Poor Percent N Responses Farmer category
  40. 42. Amede et al., 2009 Towards Water Productivity Political change Women’s empowerment Good Leadership Institutional changes Feed management Water management Animal productivity 1.Technologies 2. Institutions More grain and livestock product per unit of investment of labour, water and land Community Innovation & empowerment <ul><li>Impact </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Resilience </li></ul>Targeting and dissemination W P 3. Supportive policy
  41. 43. Challenges in Agricultural Water Mangnt <ul><li>Competing and increasing demands </li></ul><ul><li>Low water productivity: incentives to use inputs; fluctuating markets </li></ul><ul><li>Weak institutional linkages </li></ul><ul><li>Moving into non-conventional frontiers </li></ul><ul><li>Dealing with diversity & land use complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Communities taking charge slowly </li></ul><ul><li>Forming and maintaining partnership for efficient use </li></ul><ul><li>Weak research in water mangnt </li></ul>
  42. 44. Pastoral Dry-land systems <ul><li>Drought needs to be seen as a normal and often predictable event, and efforts must be focused on strengthening response capacity while at the same time continuing long-term development efforts. </li></ul><ul><li>There is an urgent need to promote ‘joined up’ humanitarian and development interventions based on a sound understanding of local livelihoods systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Drought Management systems, with emphasis on water and land management </li></ul>
  43. 45. More information
  44. 46. Thank you ! “ These aid and research organizations belong to us, and it is our responsibility to make them work... We are able to do so only when the weather is not disturbing. If the climate keeps changing we will pack and they will pack. ”
  45. 49. Human and livestock population in the pastoralist systems of Ethiopia