Rainwater Management for Food Security and Environmental Services in Ethiopia  International Conference   on Ecosystem Con...
CPWF aims to increase water productivity and resilience of social and ecological systems Through its broad partnerships, i...
CPWF Consortium Members AREO
Phase 2
Basin Development Challenges (BDCs) <ul><li>Andes – Benefit sharing mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Ganges – intensification ...
Make Choices : Scenarios to 2050 Based on WaterSim analysis for the CA Today CA Scenario Without productivity  improvement...
Dependence on rainwater or irrigation agriculture
Water Scarcity by 2020
Stagnant food productivity
Rainwater management <ul><ul><li>Rainwater collection and storage in soils, micro-basins, ponds, dams; </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Rainfall –Runoff distribution High rainfall variability & unreliability; significant runoff variability Considerable spati...
Rainfall variability affecting economies Ethiopia
CC IMPACTS on RAINFED AGRICULTURE <ul><li>Climate variability will increase: Recurrent & severe floods and droughts </li><...
<ul><li>What has been done in Ethiopia to reverse and degradation, drought effects and food insecurity?  </li></ul>
WHAT WE DID, HOW WE DID IT <ul><li>Synthesize existing knowledge, lessons, gaps as foundation for NBDC projects; </li></ul...
<ul><li>Over past 10-15 years, increasingly detailed & coherent policy framework developed for agriculture, water, natural...
<ul><li>Long-running projects (e.g. MERET of WFP), combining support to food-insecure people with promoting natural resour...
<ul><li>Strong bias towards land management (i.e., reversing degradation) </li></ul><ul><li>Neglect of improving productiv...
Key findings -4 : Low storage capacity
<ul><li>Evidence on RWH ponds, shallow wells, terraces & bunds [ fanya juu , stone & soil bunds, ditches];—high potential ...
<ul><li>Early (1970s-1980s) highly coercive, based on standardized packages, no regard for peoples’ views; </li></ul><ul><...
Key findings -6 <ul><li>Re-orientation of government from centralized authoritarian implementation to decentralized servic...
RECOMMENDATIONS <ul><li>Moving from ‘reversing degradation’ as a goal to sustainably improving productivity and livelihood...
GAPS IN KNOWLEDGE <ul><li>What are the potential and means to improve productivity of water used by crops, livestock, agro...
Increasing water productivity <ul><li>Water productivity refers to the amount or value of product over volume or value of ...
Improved water productivity of  Irrigation  Investments <ul><li>Weak institutional arrangements </li></ul><ul><li>Poor ext...
Canal water losses due to water surface evaporation and seepage from  Guanta  small-scale irrigation
Building on traditional innovations (water management) Photo Courtesy: Mr  Admasu
SWC affecting land and water productivity  (Yihenew etal, 2008) SE X CV (%) 9-yrs soil bund 9-yrs soil bund + vetiver 9-yr...
Micro dose Zai
Rehabilitated farm lands in Areka, Southern Ethiopia Year 1 Year 3 Year 2 <ul><li>Increased water infiltration </li></ul><...
Effects of Zai on productivity of potato, 2005.
Identifying   where water saving could be at farm and landscape scales?  High unproductive water losses = indicator of pro...
~ ¾ of energy spent on maintenance Livestock energy budget 67% of feed from crop residues  low quality: 5.8 – 7.4 MJ ME kg...
E.g. Watering Points for Improved Livestock Production Energy for walking is reduced from 1956 MJ ME / TLU to 584 MJ ME / ...
Reducing Livestock Mortality (diseases)  Source: Asfaw and Jabar, 2007 14 34 9 % Others 34 22 66 % Sales 6 8 5 % Others 8 ...
  Building on local experiences .. <ul><li>Building on local wisdom; Water User Associations  </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate...
Amede et al., 2009 Towards Water Productivity Political  change  Women’s   empowerment Good  Leadership Institutional chan...
Challenges in Rainwater Mangement  <ul><li>Competing and increasing demands  </li></ul><ul><li>Low water productivity: inc...
More information  http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/20/pid/6106.htm
Thank you !
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Rainwater management for food security and environmental services in Ethiopia

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Presented by Tilahun Amede at the International Conference on Ecosystem Conservation and Sustainable Development, Ambo, Ethiopia, 10-12 February 2011.

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  • 80% of agricultural production comes from rainfed, only 20% from irrigated, with significant regional variation.
  • Rainwater management for food security and environmental services in Ethiopia

    1. 1. Rainwater Management for Food Security and Environmental Services in Ethiopia International Conference on Ecosystem Conservation and Sustainable Development, Ambo, Ethiopia, 10-12 February 2011 Tilahun Amede and Team Nile Basin Coordinator, CGIAR Challenge Program Water for Food
    2. 2. CPWF aims to increase water productivity and resilience of social and ecological systems Through its broad partnerships, it conducts research that leads to local impact and political change
    3. 3. CPWF Consortium Members AREO
    4. 4. Phase 2
    5. 5. Basin Development Challenges (BDCs) <ul><li>Andes – Benefit sharing mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Ganges – intensification in coastal areas </li></ul><ul><li>Limpopo – rainwater management and water access </li></ul><ul><li>Mekong – dams, reservoirs and livelihoods </li></ul><ul><li>Nile – rainwater management in landscapes </li></ul><ul><li>Volta – rainwater management and small reservoirs To improve rural livelihoods and their resilience through a landscape approach to rainwater management </li></ul>
    6. 6. Make Choices : Scenarios to 2050 Based on WaterSim analysis for the CA Today CA Scenario Without productivity improvements CA Scenario: Policies for productivity gains, upgrading rainfed , revitalized irrigation, trade
    7. 7. Dependence on rainwater or irrigation agriculture
    8. 8. Water Scarcity by 2020
    9. 9. Stagnant food productivity
    10. 10. Rainwater management <ul><ul><li>Rainwater collection and storage in soils, micro-basins, ponds, dams; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rainwater management; distribution, access, use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watershed management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upstream-downstream interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple use of water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water productivity of crops, livestock and systems; Kg or $ produced per unit of water consumed </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Rainfall –Runoff distribution High rainfall variability & unreliability; significant runoff variability Considerable spatial and temporal redistribution is needed for meaningful development
    12. 12. Rainfall variability affecting economies Ethiopia
    13. 13. CC IMPACTS on RAINFED AGRICULTURE <ul><li>Climate variability will increase: Recurrent & severe floods and droughts </li></ul><ul><li>Droughts may decrease yields / productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Floods may damage crops and infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Fluctuations in farmers’ income: poor farmers may lack means to buffer extreme years </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on national economy </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>What has been done in Ethiopia to reverse and degradation, drought effects and food insecurity? </li></ul>
    15. 15. WHAT WE DID, HOW WE DID IT <ul><li>Synthesize existing knowledge, lessons, gaps as foundation for NBDC projects; </li></ul><ul><li>Study is based on review of policy & project documents, research as reported in Ph.D. theses, journal articles, workshop papers, etc; </li></ul><ul><li>Database of nearly 400 references; </li></ul><ul><li>Discussions and interviews with researchers, policy makers at early phase; </li></ul><ul><li>Developed detailed data tables on policies, programs, interventions, inventory of organizations, & references </li></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>Over past 10-15 years, increasingly detailed & coherent policy framework developed for agriculture, water, natural resources, poverty reduction, climate change adaptation, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Recently: “National SLM Framework” to guide SLM planning & investments in coherent way to address linkages of poverty and land degradation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence of TerrAfrica, CAADP on program design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shift conservation to livelihood improvement focus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CPWF’s NBDC program can directly support this </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Issues : Insufficient attention to integrating water with land management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for “green water” policy integrated with SLM & “blue” water resources policy </li></ul></ul>Key findings -1
    17. 17. <ul><li>Long-running projects (e.g. MERET of WFP), combining support to food-insecure people with promoting natural resources management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changed over time based on lessons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution from “coerced” to “bribed” participation: Food for Work (FfW), Cash for Work (CfW) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed participatory methodologies now used in newer programs, “Community-Based Participatory Watershed Development” Guidelines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Added income-generation to meet households’ short-term needs – important innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong influence on Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) & new SLM Program; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moving towards community supported initiatives, beyond handouts </li></ul></ul>Key findings -2
    18. 18. <ul><li>Strong bias towards land management (i.e., reversing degradation) </li></ul><ul><li>Neglect of improving productivity of water in agriculture – though land management is a means to improve WP </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to recognize and build on farmers’ knowledge and indigenous practices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmer scepticism about introduced packages often well-founded; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness, knowledge not sufficient condition for adoption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Farmer risk aversion in context of binding consumption, finance constraints </li></ul>Key findings -3
    19. 19. Key findings -4 : Low storage capacity
    20. 20. <ul><li>Evidence on RWH ponds, shallow wells, terraces & bunds [ fanya juu , stone & soil bunds, ditches];—high potential but often not achieved: </li></ul><ul><li>serious implementation problems; </li></ul><ul><li>targeting; </li></ul><ul><li>unanticipated impacts; </li></ul><ul><li>lack of extension advice, </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives; market access, </li></ul><ul><li>water lifting technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shallow wells perform better but aquifer depletion threat </li></ul></ul>… .Key findings 4
    21. 21. <ul><li>Early (1970s-1980s) highly coercive, based on standardized packages, no regard for peoples’ views; </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution to participatory community-driven approach at policy level, & increasing reality locally; </li></ul><ul><li>Recently: shift to systematic approach to targeting small watersheds in larger planning context, & enhancing farmers’ incomes </li></ul><ul><li>But: </li></ul><ul><li>evidence of coercion locally; </li></ul><ul><li>use of quotas continues; </li></ul><ul><li>FfW raises questions on ownership of infrastructure; </li></ul><ul><li>high staff turnover & </li></ul><ul><li>disruptive institutional re-structuring and loss of capacity </li></ul>Key findings -5
    22. 22. Key findings -6 <ul><li>Re-orientation of government from centralized authoritarian implementation to decentralized service-provision. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems continue : overlapping mandates & communication-coordination issues; lack of systematic M&E & use in management; de facto continuation of command & control through top-down quotas, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need to build more effective collective action capacity on watersheds & aquifers, building on indigenous institutions; </li></ul><ul><li>Need for nested watershed & basin institutional arrangements for effective integrated management; </li></ul>
    23. 23. RECOMMENDATIONS <ul><li>Moving from ‘reversing degradation’ as a goal to sustainably improving productivity and livelihoods through integrated RWM programs </li></ul><ul><li>From a negative to a positive goal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration of landscape components to improve production and productivity; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replace ‘packages’ [“best practices”] with a menu of possible interventions and let clients “mix and match” & adapt according to their needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Link research to stakeholders needs </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. GAPS IN KNOWLEDGE <ul><li>What are the potential and means to improve productivity of water used by crops, livestock, agro forests; social & economic outcomes? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to improve water productivity in crop livestock systems? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to optimize productivity & sustainability of investments (e.g., water harvesting ponds, shallow wells, etc)? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is nature of interactions & synergies among RWM technologies & practices? </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Increasing water productivity <ul><li>Water productivity refers to the amount or value of product over volume or value of water depleted/diverted </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. CWP refers to economic (grain, fruit, lint, fiber, feed..) yield divided by the volume of water consumed (evapo-transpiration) in the production of the total yield </li></ul><ul><li>Physical or economic terms </li></ul><ul><li>WP = ∑(Net beneficial outputs) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>----------------------------------- </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>∑ (Depleted water) </li></ul>
    26. 26. Improved water productivity of Irrigation Investments <ul><li>Weak institutional arrangements </li></ul><ul><li>Poor extension services </li></ul><ul><li>Limited flow of information & technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Limited market access & information </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of collective action </li></ul><ul><li>Weak enforcement mechanisms </li></ul>
    27. 27. Canal water losses due to water surface evaporation and seepage from Guanta small-scale irrigation
    28. 28. Building on traditional innovations (water management) Photo Courtesy: Mr Admasu
    29. 29. SWC affecting land and water productivity (Yihenew etal, 2008) SE X CV (%) 9-yrs soil bund 9-yrs soil bund + vetiver 9-yrs soil bund + lucerne 6-yrs soil bund + lucerne Control (no conservation) Treatments 0.23 12.8 5.5 3.3 5.0 2.4 1.5 OM (%) 0.03 14.17 0.28 0.22 0.28 0.17 0.12 Nitrogen (%) 53.89 8.1 1712.5 1187.5 1878.7 1284.3 561.3 Grain Kg/ha
    30. 30. Micro dose Zai
    31. 31. Rehabilitated farm lands in Areka, Southern Ethiopia Year 1 Year 3 Year 2 <ul><li>Increased water infiltration </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration of resources </li></ul><ul><li>(OM, nutrients, water) </li></ul>
    32. 32. Effects of Zai on productivity of potato, 2005.
    33. 33. Identifying where water saving could be at farm and landscape scales? High unproductive water losses = indicator of productivity gap
    34. 34. ~ ¾ of energy spent on maintenance Livestock energy budget 67% of feed from crop residues low quality: 5.8 – 7.4 MJ ME kg -1 Productivity gaps and losses..
    35. 35. E.g. Watering Points for Improved Livestock Production Energy for walking is reduced from 1956 MJ ME / TLU to 584 MJ ME / TLU per year (Milk equivalent of 252 litre) Survey: milk production increased from 343 liter to 463 liter per lactation per cow Water: no change in water depleted for feed production Milk water productivity per cow improves by 35% (survey)
    36. 36. Reducing Livestock Mortality (diseases) Source: Asfaw and Jabar, 2007 14 34 9 % Others 34 22 66 % Sales 6 8 5 % Others 8 8 3 % Purchases 86 84 92 % Births Incoming Species 52 44 25 % Deaths Outgoing Goat Sheep Cattle Herd Parameter
    37. 37. Building on local experiences .. <ul><li>Building on local wisdom; Water User Associations </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitated flow of information & technologies using local channels </li></ul><ul><li>Strong collective action spirits: </li></ul><ul><li>Upstream-downstream </li></ul><ul><li>Favourable support from local authorities and policy makers </li></ul><ul><li>Home gardens </li></ul>
    38. 38. Amede et al., 2009 Towards Water Productivity Political change Women’s empowerment Good Leadership Institutional changes Feed management Water management Animal productivity 1.Technologies 2. Institutions More grain and livestock product per unit of investment of labour, water and land Community Innovation & empowerment <ul><li>Impact </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Resilience </li></ul>Targeting and dissemination W P 3. Supportive policy
    39. 39. Challenges in Rainwater Mangement <ul><li>Competing and increasing demands </li></ul><ul><li>Low water productivity: incentives to use inputs; fluctuating markets </li></ul><ul><li>Weak institutional linkages </li></ul><ul><li>Moving into non-conventional frontiers </li></ul><ul><li>Dealing with diversity & land use complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Communities taking charge slowly </li></ul><ul><li>Forming and maintaining partnership for efficient use </li></ul><ul><li>Weak research in water mangnt </li></ul>
    40. 40. More information http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/20/pid/6106.htm
    41. 41. Thank you !

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