Livestock and water in developing countries (SSA)

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Invited paper presented by Don Peden on the BSAS Annual Conference, Southport, UK, April 2-4, 2007.

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Livestock and water in developing countries (SSA)

  1. 1. Livestock and water in developing countries (SSA) (Invited paper) BSAS Annual Conference (2 to 4 April 2007) Southport, UK Presented by Don Peden, ILRI, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
  2. 2. First key message <ul><li>Reduce poverty (People) </li></ul><ul><li>Increase food production (Livestock) </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce pressure on scarce water resources (Environment) </li></ul><ul><li>Animal sciences are needed but have been neglected. </li></ul>Integrating livestock and water development in developing countries can help:
  3. 3. Second key message <ul><li>Water used for African animal production be easily be reduced by more than 50% </li></ul>
  4. 4. Research on livestock & water <ul><li>was part of </li></ul><ul><li>The Comprehensive Assessment of </li></ul><ul><li>Water Management and Agriculture </li></ul>in collaboration with:
  5. 5. What was the CA? <ul><li>5 year global study. </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of benefits, costs, and impacts of 50 years of agricultural water development. </li></ul><ul><li>To enable better future investment and management decisions in water and agriculture. </li></ul><ul><li>>700 experts; many institutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsors: CGIAR, Convention on Biological Diversity, FAO, Ramsar Convention on wetlands & investors. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Three developing country questions were asked <ul><li>Is there enough water to feed the world? …with animal products? </li></ul><ul><li>Do livestock excessively use and degrade water resources? </li></ul><ul><li>How can livestock production contribute to more sustainable and productive use of water resources? </li></ul>
  7. 7. What is the CA? – The synthesis <ul><li>Water for food; water for life was launched at World Water Day (22 March 2007) in Rome and Stockholm </li></ul><ul><li>ILRI lead chapter: “ Livestock and water for human development ” </li></ul>
  8. 8. Global livestock distribution <ul><li>Livestock production more extensive than croplands </li></ul><ul><li>Sustains poor people in developing world. </li></ul><ul><li>Often located where water is scarce. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Sub-Saharan livestock distributions <ul><li>Livestock and human densities correlated . </li></ul><ul><li>Linked to agricultural intensification. </li></ul><ul><li>Expanding croplands encroach on grazing lands. </li></ul><ul><li>Competition for water - a major factor in African conflicts. </li></ul>11 Grazing 20 Rainfed crop-livestock 33 Irrigated TLU (TLU/km 2 ) Production system
  10. 10. We used a livestock water productivity assessment framework <ul><li>LWP = ∑(Net beneficial outputs) </li></ul><ul><li>∑ (Depleted water) </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits: Milk, meat, hides, manure, wealth savings, cultural roles </li></ul><ul><li>Depleted water: Evaporation, transpiration, discharge/flood </li></ul>
  11. 11. LWP Schematic Rain Surface inflow Non-productive depletion Transpiration Ground H 2 O recharge <ul><li>A water accounting approach </li></ul><ul><li>Scales: Field & farms to large river basins </li></ul>Agricultural production system Water loss or depletion
  12. 12. LWP Schematic Rain Surface inflow Non-productive depletion Transpiration GW H 2 O recharge Trees Pas- ture Feed crops Food crops Grain Residues Evapo-ration Discharge & flood Contami- nation Available animal feeds Drinking Water Conserving strategies Benefits from plants Feed Sourcing strategies Imported feed Net Animal benefits Meat, milk, hide, manure, power & wealth Productivity- enhancing strategies
  13. 13. Strategy 1: Strategic feed sourcing <ul><li>Focus on water for feed that can be 50 to 100 times more than drinking. </li></ul><ul><li>Make effective use of crop residues/byproducts. </li></ul><ul><li>Improve pasture by transferring evaporation and excessive run-off to transpiration. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember, procuring feed is a primary African livelihood challenge with high labour costs. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Strategy 1: Strategic feed sourcing <ul><li>Science has failed to understand water cost of feed production. </li></ul><ul><li>Varying methods &concepts. </li></ul><ul><li>A 70 fold variability in WP is probably not a biological reality. </li></ul>Example reported water productivity of animal feeds 0.1 – 0.7 USA rangeland 1.1 – 1.7 Irrigated alfalfa 6.0 – 8.0 Irrigated sorghum WP (kg/m3) Feed
  15. 15. Strategy 2: Enhance animal productivity <ul><li>Improve: </li></ul><ul><li>Animal nutrition & veterinary care. </li></ul><ul><li>Animal genetic resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Access to markets & value-added animal products. </li></ul><ul><li>Grazing, watering and housing. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced labour and other costs. </li></ul>Drought hardy Kenana cattle, Gezira, Sudan
  16. 16. Strategy 2: Enhance animal productivity <ul><li>Provide: </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative wealth savings </li></ul><ul><li>Drought risk insurance. </li></ul><ul><li>Apply: </li></ul><ul><li>Animal/water demand management approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate Animal Sciences into agricultural water development </li></ul>Drought hardy Kenana cattle, Gezira, Sudan
  17. 17. Strategy 2: Enhance animal productivity <ul><li>Farm power: </li></ul><ul><li>Water used to maintain draft animals is an input into crop but not animal production. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethiopian soils to heavy for people power. </li></ul><ul><li>Trade-off between using water and petrol </li></ul>
  18. 18. Strategy 3: Reduce grazing and watering impact on water resources <ul><li>Limit conversion of range to annual croplands >Grass if best vegetation to protect soil< </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce run-off, erosion, sedimentation. </li></ul><ul><li>Promote transpiration, infiltration, soil water holding capacity & vegetation cover. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Strategy 3: Reduce grazing and watering impact on water resources <ul><li>Community management of range & water. </li></ul><ul><li>Limit stocking rates and grazing pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish riparian buffer zones. </li></ul><ul><li>Apply zero grazing and watering. </li></ul><ul><li>Adopt conservation agriculture. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide quality drinking water for dairy cows. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Strategy 3: Reduce grazing and watering impact on water resources <ul><li>Restrict animal access to water to avoid: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of riparian & aquatic habitats. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk to human health. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water quality loss. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sedimentation. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Case 1 Preliminary Comparison of WP in rainfed farming in Ethiopia * Source: LWP from ILRI; Grain WP from ECSA (2005); Tomato WP from SG2000. 0.73 Tomatoes Water harvesting & drip irrigation 0.68 Multiple animal products & services Rainfed mixed crop-livestock Wheat Barley Teff Commodity 0.18 0.18 0.28 WP (US$/m 3 ) Rainfed grain production System & Scale
  22. 22. <ul><li>LWP compares favourably with house-hold water harvesting WP. </li></ul><ul><li>Even without efforts to increase either LWP. </li></ul><ul><li>But improved methods and filling data gaps still needed. </li></ul><ul><li>And complexity of mixed crop livestock systems is challenging. </li></ul>Case 1 Preliminary Comparison of WP in rainfed farming in Ethiopia
  23. 23. Case 2 Cattle corridor, Nakasongola, Uganda (Problem: Low LWP) <ul><li>Overgrazing; charcoal making; lost vegetation </li></ul><ul><li>High run-off + evaporation </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced infiltration </li></ul><ul><li>Contaminated domestic water. </li></ul>WHAT IS WATER PRODUCTIVITY OF THIS LAND?
  24. 24. Case 2 Cattle corridor, Nakasongola, Uganda (Problem: Low LWP) <ul><li>Ecosystem flips to LOW WP state. </li></ul><ul><li>Termites dominant. </li></ul><ul><li>Without vegetation, clay soils expand with light rain sealing surface, preventing infiltration & limiting plant production. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Case 2 Cattle corridor, Nakasongola, Uganda (Problem: Low LWP) <ul><li>Better design and community management of community ponds and drinking troughs. </li></ul><ul><li>Better watering practices. </li></ul><ul><li>Reseeding upslope pasture. </li></ul><ul><li>Erosion control. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Case 3 Household water harvesting (with Sasakawa Global 2000 in Ethiopia) <ul><li>Problem: </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfed farming; low productivity; very poor households (<$300/year); high drought risk. </li></ul><ul><li>Long treks for water for people & animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Milk production < 3 litre/day/cow. </li></ul><ul><li>Highly degraded land and water resources. </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Integrating livestock and crop production </li></ul>Case 3 Household water harvesting – Underground tank Home consumption Give water Zero-grazing & hybrid cow Adding value & markets Benefits > $1500 High LWP
  28. 28. Key Message #1 <ul><li>Integrating livestock & water development in developing countries can help: </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Increase food </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce pressure on scarce water </li></ul><ul><li>But animal sciences are needed but have been neglected. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Key Message #2 <ul><li>Water used for African animal production be easily be reduced by more than 50% </li></ul><ul><li>Can we collaborate to ensure that livestock make a positive contribution to the development of the world’s poor? </li></ul>
  30. 30. Three developing country questions answered <ul><li>There enough water to feed the world with diets including moderate amounts of animal products. </li></ul><ul><li>African livestock do use and degrade water resources but …. </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating livestock and water development can result in increased livestock water productivity . </li></ul>
  31. 31. THANK YOU <ul><li>BSAS skills are needed to help reduce pressure on global water resources </li></ul>

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