Communication presentation public speaking- Brabim K.C
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  • Writing, Speaking, Presentation – can’t talk on this topic much. Just know that it is important. You can have the best ideas in the world, but if you can’t get them across, they are not much good. In my experience, the main cause for projects to fail, for friendships to fail, for wasted time & effort
  • Writing, Speaking, Presentation – can’t talk on this topic much. Just know that it is important. You can have the best ideas in the world, but if you can’t get them across, they are not much good. In my experience, the main cause for projects to fail, for friendships to fail, for wasted time & effort
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Communication presentation public speaking- Brabim K.C Communication presentation public speaking- Brabim K.C Presentation Transcript

  • Communication – Presentation - Public speaking
    • Compiled by -
    • Brabim Kumar
    Adapted from materials provided by Allyn and Bacon
  • What if communication were not possible?
  • Frustration and Chaos!
  • Public Speaking Produces Anxiety in Most People
    • 3. Death
    • 2. Snakes
    • Public Speaking
    • 80% of Speakers Feel Nervous
    People’s Biggest Fears
  • Most common ways to communicate Speaking Visual Images Writing Body Language
  • Communication SENDER RECEIVER Feedback receiver sender Communication is the process of sending and receiving information among people… Source: CGAP Direct
  • Speaking Opportunities
    • At work
      • Selling your ideas
      • Technical presentations
      • Customer Presentations and Reviews
    • Daily Life
      • School Board Meetings
      • Town Zoning Board Meetings
      • PTA Meetings
      • Boy and Girl Scout Meetings
  • Messages not delivered due to “distortion” Sender Receiver Feedback Distortion
    • 30% of you aren’t paying attention right now!
    • But
    • I am not surprised
  • Clues that you are not listening
    • Are you simply waiting for your turn to talk?
    • Are you thinking about your reply before the other person has finished talking?
    • During presentation/public speaking???
  • Listening and speaking require energy
    • Listening takes. . .
      • concentration and energy
      • curiosity and open-mindedness
      • analysis and understanding
    • Speaking requires. . .
      • sharp focus
      • logical thinking
      • clear phrasing
      • crisp delivery
  • Communication Goals To change behavior To get action To ensure understanding To persuade To get and give Information Source: CGAP Direct
  • Critical success factor for life
    • The majority of your perceived ability comes from how you communicate
    70% How you communicate it 30% What you know Source: CGAP Direct
  • Listening and Speaking are used a lot…
  • … But not taught enough Amount taught
  • Public Speaking & Conversation
    • Similarities :
      • Organizing thoughts logically
      • Tailoring message to audience
      • Telling story for maximum impact
      • Adapting to feedback
  • Public Speaking & Conversation
    • Differences :
      • Public speaking more highly structured
      • Public speaking requires more formal language
      • Public speaking requires different method of delivery
  • Speech Communication Process
  • Speech Communication Process
    • Speaker
    • Message
    • Channel
    • Listener
    • Feedback
    • Interference
    • Situation
  • The Speech Communication Process
    • Speaker - speech communication starts here
    • Message - whatever is communicated
    • Channel – means by which a message is communicated
    • Listener – the receiver of the communicated message
    • Feedback – comes in many forms and must be understood
    • Interference - anything impeding the communication of the message
    • Situation – the time and place of occurrance
  • Vocal Expression
    • There are five dimensions of voice that can be
    • manipulated for greater effect.
    • Volume - Speak louder or softer for emphasis.
    • Pitch - Stay at an appropriate mid-range level.
    • Rate - Accelerate for a few sentences to excite,
    • Slow down and pause to emphasize some words.
    • Articulation - Speak clearly with full voice.
    • Quality - The personality of your voice, resonant,
    • throaty, nasal, etc.
  • What makes a good presentation?
  • What makes a good presentation?
    • Content - ? 7%
    • Body language - ? 55%
    • Vocal Variety - ? 38 %
  • Vocal Expression
    • * Be appropriate in tone . Sometimes when we get nervous we laugh inappropriately during serious moments. We may even become self-satirizing when nervous, playing as if it weren’t important.
    • * While you don’t want to take yourself so seriously that you pressure yourself into errors, you should treat the process with respect.
  • Vocalization 4P
    • Power – Pitch – Pace – Pause
    • Volume – loudness or softness
      • adjust to the situation (electronically if necessary, don’t yell)
    • Pitch – highness or lowness of the voice
      • use inflections in your voice to avoid “monotone”
    • Rate speed at which you speak
      • 120-150 wpm is normal, too slow leaves people hanging on your words, too fast and they get confused and miss information
  • Vocalization… contd
    • Pauses – momentary breaks in your speaking
      • takes experience to know when to pause, pause at the end of thought units
      • avoid vocalized pauses (“uh”, “er”, “um”...)
    • Variety
      • vary the loudness, pitch and rate to make the speech sound more natural and interesting
    • Pronunciation – use correct pronunciation of common words
      • genuine, arctic, theater, err, nuclear, February, library
    • Articulation – physical production of speech sounds
      • we habitually chop, slur and mumble, rather than vocalizing
      • “ ought to”, “didn’t”, “for”, “don’t know”, “ask”
    • Dialect – variety of language distinguished by variations of accent, grammar or vocabulary
  • Nonverbal Expression
    • The nonverbal frames the verbal in this sense: Whichever behavior interrupts the other is the one that takes audience focus.
    • If I move to draw their attention - gesture or take a step - then speak, they’ll hear me.
    • If I start to speak, then move aimlessly, they’ll watch but not hear.
  • Body Language
    • Eye Contact
    • gesture
    • posture
    • Hand positioning
  • Things You Shouldn’t Do
    • Read directly from notes
    • Read directly from screen
    • Turn back on audience
    • Slouch, hands in pockets
    • No um, ah, you know’s
    • No nervous gestures
    • Talk too fast,
    • Talk too quietly
  • Organizing a Speech – Main Points
    • Main Points
      • Number of main points
        • It is better to be remembered for covering 3 or 4 points well than to leave the audience confused and sorting out 7 or 8 points you made.
      • Strategic Order of Main Points
        • Chronological Order
        • Spatial Order
        • Casual Order
        • Problem Solution Order
        • Topical Order
  • Understand the Speech Making Process
    • Choosing/Narrowing a Topic
    • Researching Topic
    • Organizing Your Speech
    • Developing an Outline
    • Rehearsing Speech
    • Delivering Speech
  • Choosing an Appropriate Topic
    • Is It Important to You?
    • Is It Important to Your Audience?
    • Will It Hold Audience’s Attention?
    • Is It Manageable in the Time Available?
    • Is It Appropriate for Oral Presentation?
    • Is It Clear?
  • Develop Central Idea
    • Write a one sentence summary of speech.
    I want to be a good leader
  • Generate Main Idea
    • Does It Have Logical Divisions?
    • Are There Reasons Why It Is True?
    • Can You Support It?
    A... B... C... Because...
  • Narrowing a Topic - Example
    • Protecting the Environment
    • Water Quality in My State
    • Well Water Problems
    • Utilizing Home Well Assessments to Reduce Contamination Risk
  • Getting Topic Feedback
    • From Members of Potential Audience
    • From Friends
    • From Family
  • Researching Topic and Finding Supporting Material
    • Sources of Supporting Material
    • Types of Supporting Material
    • Tests of Supporting Material
  • Sources of Supporting Material
    • Libraries
      • Books
      • Periodicals
      • Newspapers
      • Reference Materials
      • CD-ROM Data Bases
      • Government Documents
  • Sources of Supporting Material (con’t)
    • The Internet/World Wide Web
      • Search Engines
        • Infoseek
        • Yahoo
        • Lycos
        • HotBot
        • Google, etc.
      • Online Libraries
  • Tests of Supporting Material
    • Is Information Specific?
    • Is Source an Expert?
    • Is Source Unbiased?
    • Is Information Timely?
  • Tests of Supporting Material (con’t)
    • Is Information Relevant to Point Made?
    • Does Information Support the Point?
    • Is Information Timely?
  • Types of Outlines
    • Preliminary Outline (Rough-Draft)
      • Main points to research
    • Preparation Outline
      • Title & Topic
      • Purpose
      • Introduction
      • Main and Sub-Points
      • Transitions
      • Conclusion
      • Support/Evidence
  • Types of Outlines
    • Speaker’s Outline
      • Introduction
      • Main Point
      • Support
      • Transitions
      • Conclusion
  • Overcoming Speech Anxiety
    • Acknowledge Your Fear
    • Act Confident
    • Channel Nervous Energy
  • Improving Your Confidence as a Speaker
    • Why Nervous?
    • Fear of Humiliation
    • Personal Insecurity
    • Inexperience
    • Fear of Failure
    • Being the Center of Attention
  • Overcoming Speech Anxiety (con’t)
    • Practice, Practice, Practice
    • Simulate Setting at Home
    • Ask Friends to Be Practice Audience
  • Overcoming Speech Anxiety (con’t)
    • Visualize Your Success
    • Use Deep-breathing Techniques
    • Focus on Message, not Fear
    • Give Yourself a Mental Pep Talk
  • Understand Audience and Listening
    • People Think Faster Than Hear
    • Have Short Attention Span
    • Jump to Conclusions
    • Easily Distracted
  • Understand Audience Memory Time Amount of Speech Remembered + + -
  • Understand The Speech Context
    • Audience
    • Setting
  • Context –
  • The Audience
    • Size
    • Demographics
    • Beliefs and Values
    • Receptive/ Antagonistic
  • Context - The Setting
    • Indoor/Outdoor
    • Size and Shape of Room
    • Arrangement of Seating
    • Equipment Available
    • Lighting
    • Acoustics
  • Understand & Define Your Purpose
    • Inform
    • Inspire / Persuade
    • Entertain
    • Introduce
    • Accept
    • Pay Tribute
  • The Psychology of Audiences
    • It’s up to the speaker to make the audience choose to pay attention.
    • Every speech contains two messages:
      • One from the speaker
      • One received by the listener
      • “ People hear what they want to hear and disregard the rest.” – Paul Simon’s The Boxer
    • People are egocentric
      • Egocentrism – the tendency for people to be most interested in themselves, their own problems and the way to solve them.
      • They pay closest attention to what affects their own values, beliefs and well being.
  • Demographic Audience Analysis
    • Look for observable audience traits
      • Identify the general features
      • Gauge their importance to the situation
    • Traits
      • Age
        • Whatever your age, you’re a product of your world
      • Gender
        • Old stereotypes no longer apply
        • Avoid sexist language and references
      • Racial, Ethnic or Cultural Background
        • Be aware of differences and be able to adapt
      • Religion
        • Highly charged emotional issue, be sure to consider the religious orientation or you might end up being embarassed.
      • Group Membership
        • Guilt by association – people judge you by the company you keep
  • Situational Audience Analysis
    • Builds on demographic analysis ; identifies traits unique to the speaking situation
      • Size
      • Physical Setting
      • Disposition toward the Topic
        • Interest
        • Knowledge
        • Attitude
      • Disposition toward the Speaker
      • Disposition towards the Occasion
  • Adapting to the Audience
    • Before the Speech
      • Assess how the audience is likely to respond
      • Adjust what you say to make it
        • Clear
        • Appropriate
        • Convincing
    • During the Speech
      • Things may/will not go exactly as you plan
      • Don’t panic, remain calm and adapt
      • Remember:
        • Who am I speaking to?
        • What do I want them to know, believe or do?
        • What is the best way to accomplish this?
    • Practice, practice, practice
  • Ethics in Speech Preparation - Researching
    • Take Accurate Notes When Researching
    • Record Complete Source Citations
    • Credit Source of Ideas
    • When in Doubt, Cite Source
  • Don’t Use Someone Else’s Speech!
  • Rehearsing Speech
    • Recreate Setting
    • Practice Without Memorizing
    • Time Speech
  • Rehearsing Speech
    • Practice Out Loud
    • Practice Standing Up
    • Watch Yourself
  • Rehearsing Speech
    • Practice Gestures
    • Practice Eye Contact
    • Practice Volume
  • Plan, Prepare, Polish, Practice, Present
    • The better you know your material the less anxious you’ll be about presenting it.
    • Smile and act natural. Don’t apologize for being nervous. No one will know you’re nervous unless you call attention to it.
  • Exercise
    • Write the general purpose, specific purpose and central idea of your chosen topic/s.
  • Organize Your Speech
  • Things You Should Do
    • Eye contact
    • Can glance at notes
    • Appropriate gestures
    • Rhetorical questions to involve audience
  • Ten Successful Tips Control the “Butterflies”
    • Know the room- become familiar with the place of presentation
    • Know the audience- greet or chat with the audience before hand. It’s easier to speak to friends than to strangers
    • Know your material-increased nervousness is due to un-preparedness
  • Control the “Butterflies”
    • Relaxation- relax entire body by stretching and breathing so as to ease the tension
    • Visualize giving your speech-Visualize yourself giving your speech from start to finish. By visualizing yourself successful, you will be successful
  • Control the “Butterflies”
    • People want you to succeed-the audience is there to see you succeed not to fail
    • Don’t apologize-by mentioning your nervousness or apologizing, you’ll only be calling the audience’s attention to mistakes
  • Control the “Butterflies”
    • Concentrate on your message-not the medium. Focus on the message you are trying to convey and not on your anxieties
    • Turn nervousness into positive energy-nervousness increases adrenaline, transform it into vitality and enthusiasm
  • Control the “Butterflies”
    • Gain experience-experience builds confidence, which is key to effective public speaking
  • Practice takes you from this..
  • To this….
  • Thank you
    • [email_address]
  • Analyzing the Audience
    • Good speakers are audience-centered
      • Primary purpose of a speech is to get a desired response
    • Keep the audience foremost in mind at every step of preparation and presentation
      • To whom are you speaking?
      • What is it you want them to know, believe or do as a result?
      • What is the most effective way to compose and present your speech to accomplish those ends?
  •  
  • Special Considerations for Online Information
    • In Physical Print, Quality Is Controlled by Experts
      • Journals - Peer Review
      • Periodicals - Editors
      • Published Texts - Editors, Librarians
    • Online, Must Do Own Quality Control
      • Beware! Everything On the Web Is Not ALL True
  • Organizing Your Speech
    • Chronological
    • Topical
    • Spatial
    • Cause-Effect
    • Problem-Solution
    • Comparison- Contrast
  • Listening Remedies
    • Keep Speech Focused
    • Divide Speech into Compact Segments
    • Analyze Audience Carefully
    • Adapt to Situation
  • Types of Supporting Material
    • Common Knowledge
    • Direct Observation
    • Examples & Illustrations
    • Explanations & Descriptions
    • Documents
  • Methods of Delivery
    • Manuscript Reading
    • Memorized
    • Impromptu
    • Extemporaneous
  • Types of Introductions
    • Identification with Audience
    • Reference to Situation
    • Statement of Purpose
    • Statement of Importance of Topic
    • Surprise Audience with Claim or Statistic
  • Types of Introductions (con’t)
    • Anecdotal Story
    • Rhetorical Question
    • Quotation
    • Humor
    “ So there I was at the summit of Mt. Killimanjaro, and I turned to the guide and said…”
  • Functions of Introductions
    • Get Attention
    • Introduce Topic
    • Provide Motivation
    • Establish Credibility
    • Preview Speech
  • Conclusions
    • Types
    • Functions
  • Types of Conclusions
    • Summary
    • Quotation
    • Personal Reference
    • Challenge to Audience
    • Offer Vision of the Future
  • Types of Conclusions
    • Anecdotal Story
    • Rhetorical Question
    • Quotation
    • Humor
    Remember what Dwight D. Eisenhower once said: “Things are more like they are now, than they have ever been before.”
  • Functions of Conclusions
    • Summarize Speech
    • Reemphasize Main Idea
    • Motivate Response
    • Provide Closure
  • Delivering Speech - Beginning
    • Walk Calmly with Confidence to Front
    • Establish Eye Contact
    • Smile Naturally
    • Deliver Introduction
  • Delivering Speech - During
    • Use Effective Eye Contact
    • Use Effective Language
    • Use Effective Gestures
    • Be Enthusiastic
    • Use Conversational Style
    • Use Notes As Needed
  • Delivering Speech - Ending
    • “ Frame” the Speech
    • Pause before Returning to Seat
      • But Don’t Ask for Questions
    • Accept Applause Graciously
  • Elements of Vocal Delivery
    • Speech Rate and Pauses
    • Volume
    • Inflection and Pitch
    • Quality of Voice
    • Pronunciation and Articulation
  • Elements of Physical Delivery or Body Language
    • Appearance
    • Posture
    • Facial Expression
    • Eye Contact
    • Movement
    • Gestures