2. Questions: What exactly is Personality? How does it develop? Are we born with certain personality? Or is experience critical in shaping the qualities the make us who we are?
3. Defining Personality:Consistency and Distinctiveness  1. Consistent Tendency - Consistent across situations and over time.  Distinctiveness - Behavioral differences among people reacting to same different situations.
4. Defining Personality:  Hall & Lindsey, 1970 wrote: It is our conviction that no substantive definition of personality can applied w/ any generality.  * Personality is a pattern of relatively permanent traits and unique characteristics that give both consistency and individuality to a person’s behavior.
5.  Traits- Unique, common to some group or shared by the entire species. Characteristics- Unique qualities of an individual ( such as temperament, physiqu e and intelligence.)
6. Guide Questions: What exactly is Personality? How does it develop? Are we born with certain personality? Or is experience critical in shaping the qualities the make us who we are?
7. Theories of Personality
8. PsychodynamicPerspectives Focuses on unconscious mental forces. Behavior is influence by childhood experiences. People uses method to cope with their sexual and aggressive urges.
9. Sigmund Freud’sPsychoanalysisLevels of Awareness1. Conscious- whatever one is aware of at the particular point of time.2. Preconscious- materials just beneath the surface of awareness.3. Unconscious- thoughts, memories, desires , urges and drives that exert great influence on behavior.
10. Structure of Personality
11. Structure of Personality Id- Pleasure principle- Instincts, biological urges.- Primary-process thinking ( illogical, irrational and fantasy- oriented ) Ego- Reality principle- Decision-making component- Secondary process thinking. Superego- Idealistic principle- Moral component ( Conscience& Ego-ideal)- Guilt and Inferiority feelings
12. Dynamics of PersonalitySex and Aggression
13. Anxiety and Defense Mechanism Intrapsychic Reliance onConflict (between Anxiety Defense id, ego & Mechanisms superego)
14. Defense mechanisms Are largely unconscious reactions that protect s person from unpleasant emotions (anxiety and guilt)
15. Psychosexual Stagesof Development
16. Alfred Adler’s  People begin life with bothIndividual Psychology striving force and physical deficiencies, which combine to produce feelings of inferiority.  The one dynamic force behind our behavior is the striving for success or superiority. (compensation)  Overcompensation will result into a inferiority complex.  Family constellation or birth order.
17. Behavioral Perspectives  A theoretical orientation based on the premise that psychology should study only observable behavior.  Explain personality in terms of learning theories.  Behavior is fully determined by environmental stimuli.
18. B.F. Skinner’sBehavioral Analysis People show some consistent patterns of behavior because they have some response tendencies. Personality is determined by principles of operant conditioning which focuses on the relationship of behavior to the environment. Mental processes and structures are not important in determining a link between behavior and its controlling environmental conditions.
19. Behavioral View of Operant Response tendenciesPersonality Circulate andStimulus Situation Socialize Stick only to the Large people you party, where already know you know few people Politely Withdraw yourself. Leave at the first oppurtunity
20. Behavioral View of Personality
21. Albert Bandura’sSocial Cognitive Theory  OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING. Posits that people learn from one another, via observation, imitation, and modeling.  Necessary conditions for effective modeling: 1. Attention 2. Retention 3. Reproduction 4. Motivation
22. Reciprocal Determinism Persons behavior both influences and is influenced by personal factors and the social environment
23. HumanisticPerspectiveCarl Roger’sPerson-Centered Theory Assumes that one has to appreciate individuals personal and subjective experiences to truly understand their behavior.
24. Carl Roger’sPerson-Centered Theory  Central to Rogers personality theory is the notion of self or Self-Concept. This is defined as "the organized, consistent set of perceptions and beliefs about oneself". The self-concept includes three components:  Self worth (or self-esteem) – what we think about ourselves  Self-image – How we see ourselves, which is important to good psychological health. Self-image includes the influence of our body image on inner personality.  Ideal self – This is the person who we would like to be. It consists of our goals and ambitions in life, and is dynamic
25. Carl Roger’sPerson-Centered Theory
26. Practice Test: ____________1. Proponent of Psychoanalysis. ____________2. Oriented by pleasure principle. ____________3. Learning through observing other people’s behavior. ____________4. Operates under idealistic principle. ____________5. Proponent of Behavioral Analysis. True or False: “No two people, not even identical twins, have exactly the same personalities.”