1
Personality
Chapter 13
Write down some characteristics of your friends in one column.
Write down some characteristics of your (fr)enemies next to...
What is a trait?
An individual’s unique constellation of
durable dispositions and consistent ways of behaving
(traits) con...
4
Exploring Traits
Each personality is uniquely made up of multiple traits.
The study of trait psychology really began wit...
Through factor analysis, a statistical approach used to describe and relate personality traits,
Hans and Sybil Eysenck sug...
Can personality traits be essentially reduced to two dimensions?
What do you think?
Current researchers say no. The Big 5 ...
Consciousness
Organized
Careful
Disciplined
Disorganized
Careless
Impulsive
Controlling
Unreliable
Agreeableness
Softhearted
Trusting
Helpful
Ruthless
Suspicious
Uncooperative
Compassionate
Unkind
Neuroticism
(Emotional stability vs. instability)
Calm
Secure
Satisfied
Anxious
Insecure
Nervous
Able to handle stress
Ten...
Openness
Imaginative
Preference for Variety
Independent
Practical
Preference for Routine
Conforming
Inventive
Consistent
Extraversion
(Introversion to Extraversion)
Sociable
Fun-loving
Enjoy time alone Reserved
Outgoing
Feel drained after
soci...
12
Questions about the Big Five
These traits are common across
cultures.3. How about other cultures?
Fifty percent or so f...
13
Evaluating the Trait Perspective
The Person-Situation Controversy:
How consistent are personality traits over time and ...
Traits themselves are enduring across time but are not good predictors of behavior.
As Walter Mischel (1968, 1984, 2004) p...
15
Biology and Personality
Personality dimensions are influenced by genes.
1. Brain-imaging procedures show that extravert...
Social-Cognitive Perspective
This perspective was developed
by Albert Bandura and
emphasizes the interaction
of our traits...
Social-Cognitive Perspective
Social-how we learn our behaviors (modeling, conditioning)
Cognitive-what we think about situ...
18
Reciprocal Determinism
How we view and treat people
influences how they treat us.
Our personalities shape situations.
A...
Reciprocal Determinism
Examples
Our personalities shape situations.
Our personalities shape how we
react to events.
Differ...
20
Behavior
Behavior emerges from an interplay of external
and internal influences.
21
Personal Control
External locus of control refers to the perception
that outside forces beyond your control
determine y...
Why does locus of control matter?
Social-Cognitive Perspective
External Locus-survivors of catastrophic events may be able...
What can we learn from marshmallows?
http://www.ted.com/talks/joachim_de_posada_says_don_t_eat_the_marshmallow_yet.html
24
Learned Helplessness
When unable to avoid repeated adverse events
an animal or human learns helplessness.
25
Evaluating the Social-Cognitive
Perspective
Cons: It pays a lot of attention to the situation and
less attention to the...
26
Assessing Behavior in Situations
Social-cognitive psychologists observe people in
realistic and simulated situations be...
27
Assessing Traits
Personality inventories are questionnaires (often with true-
false or agree-disagree items) designed t...
And why should I care about a personality inventory?
Want a job?
Often places of business will ask employees to take a
per...
But what if your life depended on it?
The Hare Psychopathy Checklist
Clearance for some forms of surgery
(bariatric, spina...
30
Exploring the Self
Think of the “self” as organizing your thinking,
feelings, and actions. It is a critical part of our...
What is Self-Esteem?
Most basically it is the feeling of self-worth.
Much to do about self esteem:
Is it really the “armor...
A related concept is self-serving bias.
The self-serving bias is defined as
our readiness to perceive ourselves favorably....
Now back to that question of high self esteem: Can you have too much?
Yes, yes you can have too much self-esteem.
• Those ...
A quick review of a few things we’ve covered...
And...
Can you tell anything about
my personality?
Or...
And...
Generally, yes. People who
listen to jazz, classical,
blue...
If I tell you I listen to...
And... Or...
People who listen to pop, religious,
or country music tend to be
outgoing, cheer...
That I have a Facebook account
and update my status every hour. OMG!!!!!
And I LOVE to tweet like every 10 minutes
about l...
Are you telling me that I can predict
someone’s personality and how they
will behave based on a CD
or their iTunes library...
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General psych trait lecture final version

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General psych trait lecture final version

  1. 1. 1 Personality Chapter 13
  2. 2. Write down some characteristics of your friends in one column. Write down some characteristics of your (fr)enemies next to those. There are literally thousands of these “characteristic” adjectives like the ones that you’ve listed. The vast number of terms=importance of labeling/describing Observing behavior  Label/describe traits
  3. 3. What is a trait? An individual’s unique constellation of durable dispositions and consistent ways of behaving (traits) constitutes his or her personality. • Habitual patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion. • Stable and enduring over time. • Qualities and characteristics that shape a person's unique character and identity.
  4. 4. 4 Exploring Traits Each personality is uniquely made up of multiple traits. The study of trait psychology really began with Gordon Allport. Allport’s main concern was how to describe personality traits rather than how to explain them. Allport & Odbert (1936), identified almost 18,000 words representing traits.
  5. 5. Through factor analysis, a statistical approach used to describe and relate personality traits, Hans and Sybil Eysenck suggested that personality could be reduced down to two polar dimensions, extraversion-introversion and emotional stability-instability.
  6. 6. Can personality traits be essentially reduced to two dimensions? What do you think? Current researchers say no. The Big 5 is a more accurate and comprehensive representation of trait dimensions. The Big 5 Personality Factors:
  7. 7. Consciousness Organized Careful Disciplined Disorganized Careless Impulsive Controlling Unreliable
  8. 8. Agreeableness Softhearted Trusting Helpful Ruthless Suspicious Uncooperative Compassionate Unkind
  9. 9. Neuroticism (Emotional stability vs. instability) Calm Secure Satisfied Anxious Insecure Nervous Able to handle stress Tense
  10. 10. Openness Imaginative Preference for Variety Independent Practical Preference for Routine Conforming Inventive Consistent
  11. 11. Extraversion (Introversion to Extraversion) Sociable Fun-loving Enjoy time alone Reserved Outgoing Feel drained after social activities Assertiveness
  12. 12. 12 Questions about the Big Five These traits are common across cultures.3. How about other cultures? Fifty percent or so for each trait.2. How heritable are they? Quite stable in adulthood. However, they change over development. 1. How stable are these traits?
  13. 13. 13 Evaluating the Trait Perspective The Person-Situation Controversy: How consistent are personality traits over time and across situations? What do you think? Is an extravert always talkative and socially outgoing? What about in a courtroom?
  14. 14. Traits themselves are enduring across time but are not good predictors of behavior. As Walter Mischel (1968, 1984, 2004) points out, traits may be enduring, but the resulting behavior in various situations is different. Traits are not good predictors of behavior! However, trait theorists argue that behaviors from a situation may be different, but average behavior remains the same. Traits are also socially significant, and influence our health, thinking, and performance (Gosling et al., 2000). Also, expressive styles in speaking and gestures demonstrate trait consistency. Therefore, traits matter.
  15. 15. 15 Biology and Personality Personality dimensions are influenced by genes. 1. Brain-imaging procedures show that extraverts seek stimulation because their normal brain arousal is relatively low. 2. Genes also influence our temperament and behavioral style. Differences in children’s shyness and inhibition may be attributed to autonomic nervous system reactivity.
  16. 16. Social-Cognitive Perspective This perspective was developed by Albert Bandura and emphasizes the interaction of our traits with our situations. So personality is the result of an interaction between a person and their social context. Albert Bandura
  17. 17. Social-Cognitive Perspective Social-how we learn our behaviors (modeling, conditioning) Cognitive-what we think about situations which affects our behavior There are two major components to this perspective: Reciprocal Determinism-the person-environment interaction. The is an interactive process in which personality influences and is influenced by the environment. Personal Control-whether we learn to see ourselves as controlling or controlled by our environment.
  18. 18. 18 Reciprocal Determinism How we view and treat people influences how they treat us. Our personalities shape situations. Anxious people react to situations differently than relaxed people. Our personalities shape how we react to events. The school you attend and the music you listen to are partly based on your dispositions. Different people choose different environments. These are specific ways in which individuals and environments interact Social-Cognitive Perspective
  19. 19. Reciprocal Determinism Examples Our personalities shape situations. Our personalities shape how we react to events. Different people choose different environments. Our personality may actually affect our environment. If you are low on agreeableness and assume everyone is an adversary, you might be hostile toward them which then leads them to be hostile toward you. Some people choose to attend sporting events, go to the opera, attend book readings, go to the movie theater, listen to techno, metal, or rock. Some people are more anxious and perceive the world as threatening. Some individuals are less agreeable and so perceive the world as antagonistic. Social-Cognitive Perspective
  20. 20. 20 Behavior Behavior emerges from an interplay of external and internal influences.
  21. 21. 21 Personal Control External locus of control refers to the perception that outside forces beyond your control determine your future (luck, fate, or chance). Internal locus of control refers to the perception that we can control our own future (the responsibility for success is internal). Personal Control-whether we control the environment or the environment controls us. Social-Cognitive Perspective
  22. 22. Why does locus of control matter? Social-Cognitive Perspective External Locus-survivors of catastrophic events may be able to process and move beyond the event Internal Locus-timely completion of degree, reduced risk of obesity at age 30, better credit scores, better able to delay gratification
  23. 23. What can we learn from marshmallows? http://www.ted.com/talks/joachim_de_posada_says_don_t_eat_the_marshmallow_yet.html
  24. 24. 24 Learned Helplessness When unable to avoid repeated adverse events an animal or human learns helplessness.
  25. 25. 25 Evaluating the Social-Cognitive Perspective Cons: It pays a lot of attention to the situation and less attention to the individual, his unconscious mind, his emotions, and his genetics. Pros: It sensitizes researchers to the effects of situations on and by individuals, it builds on learning and cognition research, and it puts the person in the context of their environment.
  26. 26. 26 Assessing Behavior in Situations Social-cognitive psychologists observe people in realistic and simulated situations because they find that the best way to predict behavior in a given situation is to observe that person’s behavior in similar situations. This is also time consuming and costly. Often traits will be assessed with written instruments, or personality inventories.
  27. 27. 27 Assessing Traits Personality inventories are questionnaires (often with true- false or agree-disagree items) designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors assessing several traits at once. One example of a personality is the MMPI. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. It was originally developed to identify emotional disorders. It is an objective test but does that mean it’s valid? No. What if an individual is trying to look good for a job opening? Or, what if they are trying to “fake bad” to get some kind of compensation for emotional damages?
  28. 28. And why should I care about a personality inventory? Want a job? Often places of business will ask employees to take a personality inventory for job placement. One example is the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator which was once the most common personality inventory given in the business sector. Some basics: Feeling Depressed or Anxious? The MMPI can be used to help the determine the presence of depression, anxiety, or other psychopathology.
  29. 29. But what if your life depended on it? The Hare Psychopathy Checklist Clearance for some forms of surgery (bariatric, spinal, sexual reassignment surgery) will require a psychological evaluation which includes the MMPI to determine your mental stability. So why should you care? Because it could potentially impact the rest of your lif
  30. 30. 30 Exploring the Self Think of the “self” as organizing your thinking, feelings, and actions. It is a critical part of our personality. 1. Research focuses on the different selves we possess. Some we dream and others we dread which can serve to motivate us. 2. Research studies how we overestimate our concern that others evaluate our appearance, performance, and blunders. This is called the spotlight effect, or the world revolves around me affect.
  31. 31. What is Self-Esteem? Most basically it is the feeling of self-worth. Much to do about self esteem: Is it really the “armor” that protects kids from the hardships in life? Can you have too much self-esteem?
  32. 32. A related concept is self-serving bias. The self-serving bias is defined as our readiness to perceive ourselves favorably. (Think of it as a mechanism used to protect and enhance self-esteem.) • People accept more responsibility for good deeds than bad, and more credit for successes than failures. • Most people see themselves as better than average. (And their pets are too!) • We are quick to believe flattering descriptions of ourselves and reject unflattering descriptions. • We see ourselves as making better than average contributions to our groups • A tendency to blame others (including your significant other) in arguments.
  33. 33. Now back to that question of high self esteem: Can you have too much? Yes, yes you can have too much self-esteem. • Those with high self-esteem can become potentially dangerous if their esteem is threatened or criticized, especially those with unrealistically high self-esteem. • Today’s generation, Generation Me (Twenge, 2006) expresses more narcissism than past generations. • Consider that what appears to be a put-down, “Nobody likes me,” may be a covert attempt at reassurance, “That’s silly, everybody likes you.”
  34. 34. A quick review of a few things we’ve covered...
  35. 35. And... Can you tell anything about my personality? Or... And... Generally, yes. People who listen to jazz, classical, blues, and folk music tend to be open to experience and verbally intelligent. If I tell you I listen to...
  36. 36. If I tell you I listen to... And... Or... People who listen to pop, religious, or country music tend to be outgoing, cheerful, and conscientious. And...
  37. 37. That I have a Facebook account and update my status every hour. OMG!!!!! And I LOVE to tweet like every 10 minutes about like everything hilarious that happens to me. And I have a really super amazing cool blog :D and I write all about my long day at school :-( and my boring job o(>< )o o( ><)o and the amazing party ^_^ I’m going to later... Visitors to personal websites quickly pick up on one’s extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to experience. And what if I tell you....
  38. 38. Are you telling me that I can predict someone’s personality and how they will behave based on a CD or their iTunes library? No. Remember the social-cognitive perspective that tells us that personality, and in turn behavior, is the result of an interaction between a person and their social context. Also, when we talk about correlations and personality traits, we’re talking about general trends in the population and not specific individuals. (Think about the discussion on intelligence.)

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