Theories of personality


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  • {"11":"Sensing\nType Theory describes people who prefer sensing as practical and concrete\nA person who prefers sensing (s) notice and trust facts, details, and present realities.\nIntuition\nType theory describes people who prefer intuition as future oriented and conceptual\nA person who prefers intuition attend to and trust interrelationships, theories, and future possibilities.\n","12":"Thinking\nType theory describes people who prefer thinking and making decisions by using logical analysis\nA person who prefers thinking make decisions using logical, objective analysis.\nFeeling\nType theory describes people who prefer feeling as making decisions by considering personal and group values\nA person who prefers feeling make decisions by applying person-centered values.\n","13":"Judging\nType theory describes people who prefer judging as systematic and scheduled\nA person who prefers judging tend to be organized and orderly, and to make decisions quickly.\nPerceiving\nType theory describes people who prefer perceiving as flexible and open-ended \nA person who prefers perceiving tend to be flexible and adaptable, and to keep their options open as long as possible.\n","2":"The ‘Nature of Personality’ material relates to APA goal 1.2: Demonstrate knowledge and understanding representing appropriate breadth and depth in selected content areas in Psychology. \nIn particular, the ‘personality’ component of section A(2): Individual differences, psychometrics, personality, and social processes, including those related to sociocultural and international dimensions, is relevant here.\n","8":"Isabel Briggs Myers was the only child of Lyman Briggs and Katherine Cook\nLyman Briggs a renowned physicist and director of the National Bureau of standard during Franklin Roosevelt’s presidency\nIsabel was influenced by her mother Katherine Cook Briggs who was fascinated with children’s educational and social development theories.\nAt the beginning of WWII Isabel Myers wanted to help as she noticed people taking war-related jobs out of patriotism, but hating the tasks that went against their grain-instead of using their gifts and sought to develop a psychological instrument that had as it’s foundation the understanding and appreciation of human differences.\nIsabel influence by her mother-Katherine Briggs admiration of Jungian typology was determined to devise a method of making Jung’s theory into practical use and the idea for the “type indicator” was born.\nTo the instructor;\nSpeak briefly to the class that Isabel had no formal training in psychology and statistics which cause many renowned psychologists of her time to dismiss her and reject her ideas but her determination aka obsession and persistence until Henry Chauncey the head of the Educational Testing Service impressed with Isabel’s work approached her in 1962 with a proposal for ETS to distribute the test for research purposes.\nOn may 5, 1980 Isabel Briggs Myers died for a battle with cancer.\n","14":"References:\nPages 2-5 Understanding your type booklet\nPages 1-10 Intro to type booklet\n","9":"The MBTI assessment reports preferences on four dichotomies, each consist of two opposite poles\nConduct hand writing exercise on page 8 (introduction to type booklet)\nThe words the participants use to describe preference for one hand over the other illustrate the theory of preference in the MBTI assessment. Just as one has a preference for one hand everyone has a natural preference for one of the two opposites on each of the four MBTI dichotomies. When use our preferred methods, we are generally at our best and feel most competent, natural, and energetic. \nTo the Instructor;\nEmphasize that there is no right or wrong to these preferences….by using or preferences in each of these areas we develop what Jung and Myers define as psychological type.\nQuiz participants!\n","10":"The natural focus of extraversion is the external world\nExtroverts draw their energy from the external world\nA person who prefers extraversion focus on the outside world to get their energy though\ninteracting with people and/or doing things (understanding your MBTI Results booklet page 2) \nThe natural focus of introversion is the internal world\nIntroverts draw their energy from their internal world\nA person who prefers introversion focus on their inner world and get energy through reflecting on information, ideas, and/or concepts. (understanding your MBTI Results Booklet page 2)\n"}
  • Theories of personality

    1. 1. Theories Of Personality By: Harleen Kaur Kanika Seokhand Shobitash Jamwal
    2. 2. The Nature of Personality • • Personality is “an individual’s unique arrangements of consistent behavioral traits”. A personality trait is “a durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations”. – Common personality traits include: • Honest • Moody • Impulsive • Friendly
    3. 3. The Nature of Personality • Robert McCrae and Paul Costa (1987, 1997, 1999) state that there are five “higher-order” traits that are known as the “Big Five” : 1. Extroversion (or positive emotionality) 2. Neuroticism (or negative emotionality) 3. Openness to experience 4. Agreeableness 5. Conscientiousness • However, this is but one of many perspectives on human personality.
    4. 4. The Big Five
    5. 5. Psycho dynamic Perspectives • • • Psycho dynamic theories include a variety of theoretical models derived from the work of Sigmund Freud. All focus on unconscious mental forces that shape our personalities. Well known psycho dynamic theorists include: – Freud – Jung – Adler – Sheldon
    6. 6. Myers Briggs Type Indicator Identify basic types and preferences as used by Carl Jung in the type indicator  Recognize common behaviors related to each type to enhance team communication  Uncover hidden stereotypes regarding preferences as a means of building trust, understanding, and respect among team members  Analyze the strengths of the team and potential areas of growth to improve the team’s overall functioning. 
    7. 7. Katherine Cook Briggs Lyman Briggs Isabel Briggs Myers “I dream that long after I am gone my work will go on helping people.” Isabel Briggs Myers, 1979
    8. 8. Four MBTI Dichotomies • Where we get our energy? Extroversion E • How we take in information? Sensing S • How we make decisions? Thinking T • How we organize our world? Judging J Introversion I Intuition N Feeling F Perceiving P
    9. 9. E-I Extroversion Draws energy from the external world Introversion Draws energy from the internal world F O U R D I C H O T O M I E S
    10. 10. S-N Sensing 1 2 Intuition 3 Taking in and presenting information in a sequential way F O U R D I Taking in and C presenting information H in a snap shot big O picture way T O M I E S
    11. 11. T-F Thinking Making decisions by stepping back from the situation, taking an objective view Feeling Making decisions by stepping into the situation, taking an empathetic view F O U R D I C H O T O M I E S
    12. 12. J-P Judging Perceiving Timeline Just in Time! Deadline A planned approach to meeting the deadline in a scheduled way Deadline A Spontaneous approach to meeting the deadline with a rush of activity F O U R D I C H O T O M I E S
    14. 14. Sigmund Freud Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist who became known as the founding father of psychoanalysis.
    15. 15. Psycho dynamic Perspectives Freud’s Psychoanalytic theory of personality is somewhat controversial and is based on three main assumptions: 1. Personality is governed by unconscious forces that we cannot control. 2. Childhood experiences play a significant role in determining adult personality. 3. Personality is shaped by the manner in which children cope with sexual urges.
    16. 16. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory Freud argued that personality is divided into three structures: 1. The id is “ the primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle”.The two major drives under Id are- Eros and Thanatos. 2. The ego is “the decision-making component of personality that operates according to the reality principle”. 3. The superego is “the moral component of personality that incorporates social standards about what represents right and wrong”.
    17. 17. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory The id, ego and superego are arranged into different layers of awareness including: 1. The conscious layer – this includes thoughts or feelings we are fully aware of. 2. The preconscious layer – this includes information just beneath the surface of our awareness. 3. The unconscious layer – this includes thoughts, memories, feelings and desires that we are not aware of, but that greatly influence our behavior.
    18. 18. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory • • • Freud believed that behavior is the result of ongoing internal conflict among the id, ego and superego. Conflicts stemming from sexual and aggressive urges are especially significant. Such conflicts arouse anxiety and we use defense mechanisms – “largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from painful emotions such as anxiety and guilt”.
    19. 19. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory Personality development: – Freud believed that the basic elements of adult personality are in place by age five and result from the outcome of five psycho sexual stages. – In each stage, children must cope with distinct immature sexual urges that influence adult personality. – Fixation results if the child fails to move forward from one stage to another, and is usually caused by excessive gratification, or frustration of needs at a particular stage.
    20. 20. Sheldon Theory    In the 1950’s, William Sheldon (b. 1899) became interested in the variety of human bodies. He built upon earlier work done by Ernst Kretschmer in the 1930's. Kretschmer believed that there was a relationship between three different physical types and certain psychological disorders. His research, although involving thousands of institutionalized patients, was suspect because he failed to control for age and the schizophrenics were considerably younger than the bipolar patients, and so more likely to be thinner.
    21. 21. Classification According to Sheldon Theory Few of the classifications given by Sheldon Theory are as follows:  Endomorph.  Mesomorph.  Ectomorph.
    22. 22. Endomorph Chubby people, tending to “pear-shaped.” Viscerotonic:  Sociable types, lovers of food and physical comforts.
    23. 23. Mesomorph Stockier people, with broad shoulders and good musculature. Somatotonic:  Active types, physically fit and energetic.
    24. 24. Ectomorph Slender, often tall, people, with long arms and legs and fine features. Cerebrotonic:  Nervous types, relatively shy, often intellectual.
    25. 25. Carl Jung Carl Gustav Jung 26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961), often referred to as just C. G. Jung, was a Swiss psychiatrist & psychotherapist who founded analytical psychology.[2] Jung proposed and developed the concepts of extraversion and introversion; archetypes, and the collective unconscious.
    26. 26. Psycho dynamic Perspectives Jung’s Analytical Psychology. • Jung also focused on the role of the unconscious in shaping personality. • However, he argued that the unconscious is comprised of two layers: 1. The personal unconscious (this contains the same material as Freud’s unconscious layer), and 2. The collective unconscious – this contains traces of memories, shared by the entire human race, inherited from our ancestors.
    27. 27. Jung’s Analytical Psychology • • The collective unconscious does not contain memories of distinct, personal experiences. Rather, it contains archetypes – “emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning”.
    28. 28. Jung was also the first to describe the: – Introverted (inner-directed), and the – Extroverted (outer-directed) personality types.
    29. 29. Alfred Adler Alfred W. Adler (February 7, 1870 – May 28, 1937) was an Austrian medical doctor, psychotherapist, and founder of the school of individual psychology.His emphasis on the importance of feelings of inferiority—the inferiority complex—is recognized as isolating an element which plays a key role in personality development.
    30. 30. Psycho dynamic Perspectives Adler’s Individual Psychology. • Adler believed that the most important human drive is not sexuality, but our drive for superiority. • Adler stated that we use compensation - “efforts to overcome imagined or real inferiorities by developing one’s abilities”. • If we are unsuccessful, we may develop an inferiority complex – “exaggerated feelings of weakness and inadequacy”. • Adler also believed that birth order may contribute to personality.
    31. 31. Evaluating Psycho dynamic Perspectives Psycho dynamic theory contributed the following important ideas: 1. Unconscious forces may contribute to personality. 2. Internal conflict may play a key role in psychological distress. 3. Early childhood experiences can influence adult personality. 4. People may rely on defense mechanisms to reduce unpleasant emotions.
    32. 32. Evaluating Psycho dynamic Psycho dynamic theory has also been criticized on the following grounds: 1. Poor testability – it is too vague to subject to scientific tests. 2. Inadequate evidence – the theories depend too much on case studies of clients whose recollections may have been distorted to fit the theory. 3. Sexism – the theories have a male-oriented bias and do not adequately address women’s issues.
    33. 33. Thank You Any Queries?