Those inner psychological characteristics that both determine & reflect how a person responds to his or her environment. In other words Thus Personality is the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others.
Heredity is the transmission of the qualities from the parents to the children through biological mechanism lying in the chromosomes of the germ cells. Environment relates to one’s early conditioning, the family norms, friends and social groups exerts pressure on one’s personality formation. Situation influences the effect of heredity and environment on personality. The individual personality changes depending on the varying demands of the different situations call forth different aspects of one’s personality.
1. Reserved vs. Outgoing2. Less Intelligent vs. More Intelligent3. Affected by feeling vs. Emotionally stable4. Submissive vs. Dominant5. Serious vs. Happy-Go- Lucky6. Expedient vs. Conscientious7. Timid vs. Venturesome8. Tough-minded vs. Sensitive
9. Trusting vs. Suspicious10.Practical vs. Imaginative11.Forthright vs. Shrewd12.Self assured vs. Apprehensive13.Conservative vs. Experimenting14.Group Dependent vs. Self sufficient15.Uncontrolled vs. Controlled16.Relaxed vs. Tensed
• Extraversion – A personality dimension describing someone who is socialable, gregarious and assertive.• Agreeableness – A personality dimension that describes someone who is good natured, cooperative and trusting.• Conscientiousness – A personality dimension that describes someone who is responsible, dependent, persistent and organized.• Emotional Stability - A personality dimension that characterizes someone as clam, self confident, secure (positive) versus nervous, depressed and insecure (negative).• Openness to experience - A personality dimension that characterizes someone in terms of imaginative, sensitive and curious.
Locus of control – The degree to which people believe that they are masters of their own fate. It is two types i.e. Internal Locus control External Locus of control. Machiavellianism (Mach) –The degree to which an individual is pragmatic maintains emotional distance and believes that ends can justify means. Self esteem – The degree of liking or disliking themselves. High SE believes that they possess the ability they need to succeed at work place. Self monitoring – A personality trait that measures an individual’s ability to adjust his/her behavior to external and situational factors. Risk taking – The willingness to take chance, risk i.e. ‘gut feel’.
Type A Personality Type B Personality Can’t cope with leisure time No time urgency Excessively competitive Do not discuss their Time urgency Always want more success Impatient at the rate of work Play for fun rather to Do more than one thing at a exhibit superiority time Obsessed with numbers and Can relax without any guilt measuring success
Type Theory- Personality is classified an two bases (1) Body Build (2) Psychological Factor Trait Theory-Personality is based on individual traits. Traits are the unique characteristics that differs one individual from other. Psychoanalytical Theory -Developed by Sigmund Fraud. It deals with three factor-:a) Id Source-Psychic energy, immediate pleasure for natural or instinctual needs, Such as hunger, thirst etc.b) Ego- Logical, takes the support of superego. It is a check on id through logic and intellect.c) Super Ego- Represent social and personal norms and serves as ethical constraint on behavior. It determines what is right and wrong.
Social learning Theory- Learning is defined as any change in one’s behavior that occurs as a result of experience. Learning occurs through two ways- (1) Reinforcement (2) Observing others Self Theory –Developed by Carl Roger. He studied individual subjective experience, feelings and his concept of world and self. It is based on ‘I’ or ‘Me’. The Personality Job Fit Theory-The theory proposes that which fit between personality type and occupational environment to determine satisfaction and turnover. The Person–Organization Fit Theory- Person’s personality should fit the organization culture than to specific job to cope with changing environment.