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  1. 1. Personality Chapter 11
  2. 2. Ice Breaker! Extravert or Introvert? Go to Extraverts tend to be gregarious, assertive, and interested in seeking out excitement Introverts tend to be more reserved, less outgoing, and less sociable. They are not necessarily loners but they tend to have smaller circles of friends and are less likely to thrive on making new social contacts. Introverts are less likely to seek stimulation from others because their own thoughts and imagination are stimulating enough.
  3. 3. Interesting Trivia Extraverts •tend to wear more decorative clothing, whereas introverts prefer practical, comfortable clothes. •are likely to prefer more upbeat, conventional, and energetic music than introverts •extraverts decorate their offices more, keep their doors open, keep extra chairs nearby, and are more likely to put dishes of candy on their desks. Introverts •decorate less and tend to arrange their workspace to discourage social interaction •introverted states in the United States are Maryland, New Hampshire, Alaska, Washington, and Vermont. •often take pleasure in solitary activities such as reading, writing, drawing, and using computers
  4. 4. Personality Consistent patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving unique to each individual. Personality Theory an attempt to describe how people are different, how they are similar, and why every individual is unique. There are four basic theories: Psychoanalytic Trait Social Cognitive Humanistic
  5. 5. Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud is considered on e of the most influential figures of the twentieth century. •Born in 1856 in Czech Republic, but spent the majority of his life in Vienna •He was the first investigator of a new drug that had anesthetic & mood-altering properties —cocaine. Freud hoped to use this drug for medical purposes, however he discover this drug was addictive. •In 1886 he married and later had six children, one of which, Anna became an important psychoanalytic theorist. •Influenced by Joseph Breuer, a highly respected physician, he discovered that hypnotism can help patients to speak freely about forgotten memories of traumatic events emerged. •Together Breuer and Freud published Studies on Hysteria, this is considered the beginning of psychoanalysis (focused on the unconscious mental processes, the instincts of aggression and sexuality, and the affects of early childhood on personality.)
  6. 6. Sigmund Freud •Published several books, which where later banned by Hitler during World War II--during this war Freud moved his family to London for safety.. “Interpretation of Dreams” –after this book Freud started gaining international recognition and developed a following. Freud said that interpreting dreams ―is the royal road to a knowledge of the unconscious activates of the mind.‖ ―The Psychopathology of everyday life‖ –this book described how unconscious thoughts, feelings and wishes are often acts of forgetting. “Civilization and Its Discontent” –theme of this book is that human nature and civilization are in basic conflict, a conflict that cannot be resolved. •Freud also appeared on the cover of Time magazine four times. •Freud for years asserted that sexuality was the fundamental human motive, but later added aggression as a second powerful human instinct. •Asked the question ―What do women want?‖
  7. 7. Freud’s Theory of Personality Freud saw personality and behavior as the result of constant interplay between conflicting psychological forces. Freud compared personality to an iceberg, with the bulk of it made up by the unconscious. “Freudian slips” are inadvertent slips of the tongue that Freud thought were determined by unconscious motives. Psychological forces operate at 3 different levels of awareness: Unconscious: not directly aware of these submerged Conscious: all Preconscious: contains thoughts, feelings, wishes. info that you’re not currently thoughts, feelings and And drives but the sensations that you’re aware of but can easily unconscious exerts an aware of at this particular bring to conscious enormous influence on your moment. awareness. conscious thouhts and feelings.
  8. 8. Structure of Personality According to Freud, there are three basic structures of personality—the id, the ego, and the superego. Id The completely unconscious, irrational component of personality that seeks immediate satisfaction of instinctual urges and deices, ruled by the pleasure principle. Ego The partly conscious rational component of personality that regulates thoughts and behavior and is most in touch with the demands of the external world. Superego The partly conscious, self-evaluative, moralistic component of personality that is formed through the internalization of parental and societal rules.
  9. 9. Structure of Personality The Id is derived from two conflicting instinctual drives: the life instinct and the death instinct. Eros Thanatos The life instinct The death instinct It consists of biological urges that perpetuate It is destructive energy that is the existence of the individual and the reflected in species—hunger, thirst, physical aggressive, reckless, and life- comfort, and most important, sexuality(called threatening behaviors, including the libido). self-destructive actions. The pleasure principle is the motive to obtain pleasure and avoid tension or discomfort; the most fundamental human motive and guiding principle of the id. The ego operates on the reality principle, the capacity to accommodate external demands by postponing gratification until the appropriate time or circumstances exist.
  10. 10. Ego Defense Mechanism In psychoanalytic theory, largely unconscious distortions of thoughts or perceptions that act to reduce anxiety. Freud believed everyone experiences an ongoing daily battle among id, the moral authority of the superego, and the external restrictions.  When the id or superego threaten to overwhelm the ego, anxiety results. If instinctual id impulses overpower the ego, a person may act impulsively and perhaps destructively. If superego demands overwhelm the ego, an individual may suffer from guild, self-reproach, or even suicide impulses for failing to live up to the superegos moral standards.
  11. 11. Major Ego Defense Mechanisms Types Definitions arguing against an anxiety provoking stimuli by stating it Denial doesn't exist Reaction Thinking or behaving in a way that is the extreme opposite of formation unacceptable urges or impulses. Projection placing unacceptable impulses in yourself onto someone else Rationalization supplying a logical or rational reason as opposed to the real reason Regression returning to a previous stage of development Form of unconscious repentance that involves neutralizing or Undoing atoning for an unacceptable action or thought with a second action or thought pushing into the unconscious Suppression By resorting to these unconscious self-deceptions, the ego can maintain an integrated sense of self while at the same time, searching for a more acceptable and realistic solution to a conflict between the id and superego.
  12. 12. Ego Defense Mechanisms Repression: provoking thoughts, feelings, and memories from conscious awareness. Anxiety-producing thoughts, feelings, or impulses are pushed out of conscious awareness into the unconscious. Examples: traumatic events, past failures, embarrassments, disappointments, the names of disliked people, episodes of physical pain or illness, and unacceptable urges. If you encountered a situation that is very similar to one you’ve repressed, bits and pieces of memories of the previous situation may begin to resurface. Displacement: is an ego defense mechanism that involves unconsciously shifting the target of an emotional urge to a substitute target that is less threatening or dangerous. Displacement occurs when emotional impulses are redirected to a substitute object or person. It is usually something less threatening or dangerous than the original source of the conflict Sublimation: involves displacing sexual urges toward ―an aim other than, and remote from, that of sexual gratification.‖ Sublimation channels sexual urges into productive, socially acceptable, nonsexual activities.
  13. 13. Psychosexual Stages Freud says that there are five psychosexual stages of development. The foundations for personality are established during: The first five years of life oral, anal, phallic Late childhood latency Adolescents genital Each stage represents a different focus of the id’s sexual energies. Psychosexual stages are age-related, developmental periods in which sexual impulses are focused on different bodily zones and are expressed through activities associated with these areas. During the Oral stage the focus is the mouth experienced by eating and exploring objects with his mouth, the Anal stage involves pleasurable sensations by elimination via toilet. In Phallic the genitals are the primary focus of sexual curiosity. During Latency, sexual impulse become repressed and the child develops relationships with same-sex peers, while in the Genital stage the adolescent seeks to create sexual heterosexual relationships At each psychosexual stage, infants or young children are faced with a developmental conflict that must be successfully resolved in order to move to next stage. Parental attitudes and timing of specific child rearing events, such as weaning or toilet training leave a lasting impression on personality. Either because of unmet needs or overindulgences, the child may remain within a stage – fixation.
  14. 14. Freud’s Flaws Freud's ideas were criticized because of : Inadequacy of Evidence Lack of Testability Sexism
  15. 15. Oedipus Complex This occurs during the phallic stage It is a child’s unconscious sexual desire for the opposite sex parent, usually accompanied by hostile feelings towards the same sex parent. Girls Boys Boys have confrontation with their Girls come to a similar conclusion father for the affections of the except they experience penis envy. mother, he feels hostile towards the Due to this effect, some girls may father, but is aware the father is sense feelings of deprivation and loss. physically more powerful. In essence, girls then blame their mothers for ―sending them into the Therefore, boys experience castration anxiety – fear his father world so insufficiently equipped.‖ This was one of Freud’s most criticized will punish him by castration. theories. Solution = Identification. The girl/boy Imitates and internalizes his or her mother’s/father’s values, attitudes, and mannerisms. Identifying with the father creates the limitation that only the father can enjoy the sexual affections of the mother/father – making incest taboo. Because of the intense anxiety associated with Oedipus Complex, sexual urges of boys and girls become repressed – want to associate with same sex peers.
  16. 16. Neo-Freudians Frauds ideas were always controversial. But by the early 1900s, he had attracted a number of followers, many of whom went to Vienna to study with him. Although these early followers developed their own personality theories, they still recognized the importance of many of Freud's basic notions, such as the influence of unconscious processes and early childhood experiences. Carl Jung Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious Karen Horney Basic Anxiety and ―Womb Envy‖ Alfred Adler Feelings of Inferiority and Striving for Superiority
  17. 17. Carl Jung Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious Intrigued by Freud’s ideas, they began corresponding with him. Freud liked Jung so much he called him his ―adopted son‖ and ―crown prince.‖ Jung rejected Freud’s belief that human behavior is fueled by the instinctual drives of sex and aggression—instead he believed people are motivated by a general psychological energy which pushes them to psychological growth, self-realization, and psychic wholeness and harmony. Collective Unconscious Archetypes •The hypothesized part of the •The inherited mental images of unconscious mind that is inherited universal human from previous generations and that instincts, themes, and contains universally shared preoccupations that are the main ancestral experiences and ideas. components of collective •Considered the deepest part of the unconscious. •Common archetypes: the hero, the individual psyche powerful father, the nurturing mother, the witch, the wise old man, ext.
  18. 18. Carl Jung Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious Two important archetypes anima—the representation of every man’s ―feminine‖ side. animus—the representation of every woman's ―masculine‖ side. To achieve psychological harmony, it is important for men to recognize and accept their feminine aspects and for women to recognize and accept the masculine side of their nature. Today Jung’s concepts have been criticized as being unscientific or mystical. Although Jung’s theory never became as influential as Freud’s, some of his ideas have gained wide acceptance. Two types of personality: introverts—focuses their attention inward extroverts—turn their attention and energy towards the outside world Jung’s emphasis on the drive toward psychological growth and self-realization anticipated some of the basic ideas of the humanistic perspective on personality.
  19. 19. Karen Horney Basic Anxiety and ―Womb Envy‖ Trained as a Freudian psychologist Noticed distinct differences between American and German patients. Stressed : •Importance of cultural and social factors in personality development— matters that Freud had largely ignored. •Importance of social relationships, especially parent—child relationships Problems arise from the attempts to deal wit Basic Anxiety. Horney descried this as ―the feeling a child has of being isolated and helpless in a potentially hostile world.‖ 3 defenses against basic anxiety: Those who move toward other people have an excessive need for approval Those who move against others have an excessive need for power over people Those who move away from other people have an excessive need for independence Healthy personalities are flexible and balance all three. Horney disagreed with Freud’s penis envy theory—she believed that men often suffer from womb envy (envying women's capacity to bear children).
  20. 20. Alfred Adler Feelings of Inferiority and Striving for Superiority Adler was an Austrian physician who broke with Freud and developed his own psychoanalytic theory of personality, which emphasized social factors and self- realization. Key Ideas- inferiority complex: is developed when people are unable to compensate for specific weaknesses or when their feelings of inferiority are excessive. People with an inferiority complex are often unable to strive for mastery and self improvement. superiority complex: is developed when a person overcompensates for his or her feelings of inferiority. Behaviors might include exaggerating one’s accomplishments and importance in an effort to cover up weaknesses and denying the reality of one’s limitations.
  21. 21. View this PowerPoint at: anewto26