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Chapter 11 Psych 1 Online Stud 119991148026063 4[1]


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Chapter 11 Psych 1 Online Stud 119991148026063 4[1]

  1. 1. Personality Chapter 11
  2. 2. Analyzing Personality <ul><li>Personality: a stable pattern of thinking, feeling, and behaving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>distinguishes one person from another. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two important components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>distinctiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>relative consistency. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Analyzing Personality (p. 462) <ul><li>Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) </li></ul><ul><li>California Psychological Inventory (CPI). </li></ul>
  4. 5. Trait Approaches <ul><li>Gordon Allport </li></ul><ul><li>Cattell (next) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface traits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source traits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eysenck (next) </li></ul>
  5. 6. Trait Approaches <ul><li>Raymond Cattell proposed 16 source traits to describe personality and make predictions of future behaviors. </li></ul>16PF5 – Personality Factors
  6. 7. Trait Approaches <ul><li>Extraversion has been associated with a number of differences in everyday behavior. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Biological Factors in Personality <ul><li>The study of identical twins reared apart allows us to identify the effects of heredity independently of the influence of environmental factors. </li></ul>Heredity plays a role in a wide range of personality characteristics
  8. 9. The Psychodynamic Perspective <ul><li>Freud </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easily the most influential theorist of modern psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggested that behaviors, feelings, and thoughts result from past events. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because this psychic determinism occurs at an unconscious level, we are often unaware of the true reasons for our behavior. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. The Psychodynamic Perspective <ul><li>Freud review </li></ul><ul><ul><li>early childhood experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stage theory of development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>potential importance of unconscious experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>influence of sexuality on human behavior </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Freud’s view of the human mind: The mental iceberg
  11. 12. The Psychodynamic Perspective <ul><li>Conflicts among the structures of the mind occur beneath the level of conscious awareness. </li></ul>
  12. 13. The Psychodynamic Perspective <ul><li>Unconscious conflict produces anxiety or guilt that warns the ego. </li></ul><ul><li>The ego uses defense mechanisms to protect itself from the anxiety or guilt. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Defense Mechanisms <ul><li>Displacement </li></ul><ul><li>Sublimation </li></ul><ul><li>Projection </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction formation </li></ul><ul><li>Repression </li></ul><ul><li>Denial </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectualization </li></ul><ul><li>Rationalization </li></ul>
  14. 15. The Psychodynamic Perspective <ul><li>Neo-Freudians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jung </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horney </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adler </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>disagreed with a number of Freud's views (for example, those emphasizing the sexual and unconscious roots of behavior). </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. The Behavioral Perspective <ul><li>Behavioral and learning psychologists avoid commonly used terms such as traits. </li></ul><ul><li>Distinctiveness of a person's behavior results from unique learning history. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggressiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shyness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kindness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conscientiousness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Openness </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. The Social-Cognitive Perspective <ul><li>Julian Rotter and Albert Bandura incorporated cognitive factors. </li></ul>
  17. 18. The Social-Cognitive Perspective <ul><li>Albert Bandura: reciprocal determinism </li></ul>
  18. 19. The Social-Cognitive Perspective <ul><li>Self-efficacy: a person's judgment about his or her ability to succeed in a given situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike a trait, self-efficacy is specific to the situation and can change over time. </li></ul>
  19. 20. The Humanistic Perspective <ul><li>People are not governed by their past </li></ul><ul><li>Human beings are basically good </li></ul><ul><li>We are directed toward development and growth. </li></ul>Basic needs have a powerful pull on behavior .
  20. 21. <ul><li>Begins with deficiency needs and leads to self-actualization at the top . </li></ul><ul><li>Power of deficiency needs keeps most people from reaching the level of self-actualization; </li></ul><ul><li>Maslow: doing the best that an individual is capable of doing. </li></ul><ul><li>Self Actualization: “The full use and exploitation of talents, capacities, potentialites.” </li></ul>Hierarchy of Needs
  21. 22. The Humanistic Perspective <ul><li>On the basis of his work with disturbed people, Carl Rogers concluded that efforts to achieve personal fulfillment were being stifled. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-concepts become distorted by conditions of worth imposed from the outside. </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy: real self-concept is consistent with ideal self-concept </li></ul>