– What is Personality.
– Personality & Traits.
– Instruments & Psychometrics to measure
– Personal effectiveness & Personality.
– Learning points.
– Origin of Personality?
– Henry Ford case
A person‟s general style of
interacting with the world &
People differ from one another in
ways that are relatively consistent
over time and place
Personality – Definition
Individuals have their own way of thinking and
acting, their own unique style and personality.
“The dynamic organization within the individual of those
psychophysical systems that determine his unique
adjustments to his environment” Allport, 1937
The sum total of the ways in which an individual reacts to
and interacts with others.
The individual‟s personality is made up of
heredity, environment and moderated by the environment
Your personality type is determined by preferred way of
relating to others and to the world – how you focus your
attention, acquire information, make decisions, and orient
yourself towards the outside world
Personality & Traits
How do you describe some body? By their qualities &
term the same as personality.
Instruments & Psychometrics measuring Personality
What do they measure & what qualities. How accurate
are they? What are some of these instruments?
Do they measure over all effectiveness of a person.
How can a student make use of these instruments?
Personal effectiveness & personality
Personal effectiveness model.
Personality is not a measure of some body‟s
All of us are different from each other in some respect.
Each of us are unique.
Accept differences to manage people better.
Each has his or her strengths & weaknesses in a given
Self awareness is important to be effective. It is about
leveraging own strengths, managing weaknesses,
leveraging other‟s strengths.
Thanks to a vast array of individual differences, modern
organizations have a rich and interesting human texture.
- Individual differences make the manager‟s job endlessly
Self Concept: The I & Me in OB
- Self is the core of one‟s conscious existence.
- Awareness of self is is referred to as one‟s self-concept
- It is the concept the individual has of him/herself as a
physical, social, spiritual or moral being
- Because you have a self-concept you recognize yourself
as a distinct human
- A self-concept will be impossible without the capacity to
Cognitions: Represent “any knowledge, opinion, or beliefs
of the environment, about oneself, or about one‟s
American culture: large public self: prides self as open,
honest, candid and to the point
Japanese culture: Culturally discourage self-disclosure,
typically view Americans as blunt, prying, and insensitive
Americans see Japanese as distant, cold and evasive
No culture are right or wrong, they are just different
Self-Esteem:A belief about one‟s own self-worth based on
overall self evaluation
Self-Efficacy: Those who are confident of their ability tend
to succeed, while those who are preoccupied with failing
“Characteristic pattern of thinking,
feeling and acting.”
Four major perspectives on Personality
Psychoanalytic - unconscious motivations
Trait - specific dimensions of personality
Humanistic - inner capacity for growth
Social-Cognitive - influence of environment
Developed by Sigmund Freud
Psychoanalysis is both an approach to
therapy and a theory of personality
Emphasizes unconscious motivation -
the main causes of behavior lie buried
in the unconscious mind
urges, and other
that is difficult
to bring to
- all things
aware of at
that can, with
Divisions of the Mind
Id - instinctual drives present at birth
– does not distinguish between reality and fantasy
– operates according to the pleasure principle
Ego - develops out of the id in infancy
– understands reality and logic
– mediator between id and superego
– Reality principle
– internalization of society‟s moral standards
– responsible for guilt
– Morality principle
Unconscious mental processes
employed by the ego to reduce
Repression - keeping anxiety-
producing thoughts out of the
Reaction formation - replacing an
unacceptable wish with its opposite
Displacement - when a drive directed
to one activity by the id is redirected
to a more acceptable activity by the
Sublimation - displacement to
activities that are valued by society
Projection - reducing anxiety by
attributing unacceptable impulses to
Rationalization - reasoning away
Regression - retreating to a mode of
behavior characteristic of an earlier
stage of development
Enduring characteristics that describe
an individual’s behavior.
The First Trait Theory
Two Factor Trait
Theory of Personality
Trait personality theories suggest that a person can be
described on the basis of some number of personality
– Allport identified some 4,500 traits
– Cattel used factor analysis to identify 30-35 basic traits
– Eysenck argued there are 3 distinct traits in personality
Evaluating Trait Theory
Trait theory, especially the Big 5 model, is able to
– Cross-cultural human studies find good agreement for
the Big 5 model in many cultures
– Appear to be highly correlated not only in
adulthood, but also in childhood and even late
– Three dimensions (extraversion, neuroticism and
agreeableness) have cross-species generality
Problems with trait theory include:
– Lack of explanation as to WHY traits develop
– Issue of explaining transient versus long-lasting traits
impatience, feelings of
being time pressured,
strong needs for
– Mellow or laid-back
Assessing the Unconscious--
Used to identify
of the blots
• people express
the stories they
make up about
Personality Attributes affecting OB
• Locus of control: Internals and Externals
• Machiavellianism: Pragmatism, emotional distance, believes ends
justify the means
• Self-esteem: Degree individual like or dislike themselves
• Self-monitoring: Individual‟s ability to adjust behaviour to external
• Risk taking: Willingness to take chances
• Type A and B personality:
- Type A: Impatient; hectic pace; can‟t cope with leisure; obsessed
with numbers; measuring
- Type B: No sense of urgency; play for fun and relaxation; relax
Locus of Control
Locus of Control
The degree to which people believe they are masters
of their own fate.
Individuals who believe that they control what happens to
Individuals who believe that what happens to them is
controlled by outside forces such as luck or chance.
Degree to which an individual is pragmatic,
maintains emotional distance & believes
that ends justifies the means
High Machs manipulate more, win more,
are persuaded less & persuade others more
– Interact face-to-face rather than indirect
– When situation has minimum rules &
regulations, thus allowing latitude for
– Emotional involvement with detials irrelevant
to winning distracts low Machs
Self-Esteem and Self-Monitoring
Individuals’ degree of liking or disliking themselves.
A personality trait that measures an individuals ability
to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational
High Risk-taking Managers
– Make quicker decisions
– Use less information to make decisions
– Operate in smaller and more entrepreneurial
Low Risk-taking Managers
– Are slower to make decisions
– Require more information before making
– Exist in larger organizations with stable
1. are always moving, walking, and eating rapidly;
2. feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place;
3. strive to think or do two or more things at once;
4. cannot cope with leisure time;
5. are obsessed with numbers, measuring their success in terms of how
many or how much of everything they acquire.
1. never suffer from a sense of time urgency with its accompanying
2. feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or
3. play for fun and relaxation, rather than to exhibit their superiority
at any cost;
4. can relax without guilt.
The Big Five Model
Extraversion: outgoing, talkative, sociable, assertive
Agreeableness: Trusting, good natured, cooperative, soft
Dependable, responsible, achievement oriented, persistent
Emotional stability: Relaxed, secure, unworried
Openness to experience:
Intellectual, imaginative, curious, broadminded
Myers – Briggs Typologies (MBTI)
• Measures personality types and preferences
• Helps identify differences in ways in which individuals
perceive and judge the world around them:
- Perceive: Obtain awareness of a situation and factors
involved in it
- Judging: Deciding what to do about it
- The instrument does not measure intelligence and abilities
Ways of Perceiving: Sensing
• Form perception through senses
• Perception based on perceived realities, facts
• Realistic and practical
• May not perceive creative solutions
• Prefer standardized approach, dislike change
• Precise, methodical, steady, check facts
Ways of Perceiving: Intuition
• Use feelings, possibilities, and haunches – as primary
means to form opinions about what exists and what might
be done about it.
• Value imagination and inspiration
• Generate new problem – solving approaches; envision
new possibilities, new ideas and ways of doing things
• May like idea without checking for practicality
• Routines are disliked; concerned with possibilities in a
situation than details of practical application
• Don‟t mind complication as long as it is new and
We use both ways of perceiving but tend to favour one or
• Think about issues; predict logical effect.
• Objective and analytical, weigh positive and negative
• May ignore human considerations; not comfortable in
• Have sense of justice and fairness.
• Able to censure and punish others.
• Trust feelings; more concerned with personal values than
• Sympathetic and good at working with people.
• High value on harmonious relationships
• Too influenced by own or other‟s preferences
• Directed outwards to external people
• Like work involving interaction with people
• Result oriented; likes quick results
• Impatient with things that slow them down
• Enjoy communicating with people
• Focused inwards on personal phenomena
• Prefer work for individualized thinking
• Like to concentrate on ideas and detail
• Ideas more important than results
• Not people oriented; difficult to communicate with others
• Merely perceive
• Spontaneous, adaptable attitude to life
• Not committed to one way of doing things:
- Difficult to make decisions & prioritize
- Postpone, not finish
• Like to learn new things about people
• Need all facts before deciding
• Evaluate and judge information about life
• They are planners, organizers and regulators
• Like to plan ahead and make decisions
• Like to see results without delay
• Forge ahead in a project
• For quick decisions may not collect data
Perceiving & Deciding
• Four combinations each resulting in a different „type‟ of
• These differences affect:
- The ways in which people interact
- The type of work suited for
- How well they function in certain situations
• One goal of MBTI is to find out what type of work are
best suited to one‟s preferred ways of perceiving and
Perceiving & Deciding
a) Sensing & Thinking (ST):
- Trusts facts – whatever can be perceived by the sense
- Make impersonal, thinking decisions based on analysis
of the facts, logically reasoning in terms of cause and
b) Sensing & Feeling (SF):
- Interested in facts but base their final judgments on their
feelings and on how much something matters to them or
Perceiving & Deciding
c) Intuition & feeling (NF):
- Make decisions on personal feelings
- Not interested in facts but possibilities, new concepts and new plans
- Interested in potential of people
d) Intuition & Thinking (NT):
- Interested in possibilities but make judgments based on logical
- Interested in exploring theoretical or technical ideas
- Not interested in the feelings of others
Perceiving & Deciding
• People tend to use two of the four functions, favoring one
and using the second as a complementary process.
• Need to use both ways of perceiving and deciding. The
skill can be developed
• Once people know their preferred style they can
consciously practice the other styles, to expand
capabilities and possibilities.
• For example:
- Sensing: best for obtaining an impartial, accurate impression of a
- Intuition: best way to unearth the possibilities in a situation
- Thinking: preferred when an impersonal, objective, logical analysis is
reqd. Includes assessing probabilities & outcomes
- Feeling: useful in deciding what something really means to oneself
and others, or what the emotional cost will be.
Person – Job Fit
• Fit between an individual‟s personality characteristics and
his/her occupational environment.
• Holland’s six personality types:
- Realistic: Physical activities requiring skill, strength and
- Investigative: Activities involving thinking, organizing
- Social: involving helping and developing others
- Conventional: Rule related, orderly and unambiguous
- Enterprising: Verbal activities with opportunities to
influence others and attain power
- Artistic: Prefers ambiguous and unsystematic activities
that allow creative expressions
• We are constantly playing different roles, in different
situations and with different people
• Sometimes situations shape our role – we step into
different costumes to take on different roles
• Occasions when there is an uncertain fit between who we
are or expect to be and the role required
• Changes mean we need to act in a new way, perhaps
change your image and bring out a hidden side of you.
• You need to make a personality change to alter the way
you act or are, to fit better or get along with others
• We are quite plastic and can adapt ourselves to behave
• Possible to make a 180 degree change in our personality:
- Need to determine personality traits that no longer work and
figure out what qualities we need to adopt to become successful
- Practice the new traits
• Another way to create change in your personality:
Be aware of the trait you are using, control it and use a more
• 4 steps to changing your personality:
- Determine how you want to change --- what or who you want to
- Create a mental script --- imagine yourself in the new role
- Practice your mental script to reinforce your new image of
- Play out your mental script in life.
• Check out what aspect of your personality you do not like
and imaging the opposite
• In mental scripting you create a detailed scenario in
which you mentally play out a desired role again and
again until you create a habit or a pattern of action
- As you repeatedly experience the action mentally, you
reinforce the pattern in your mind
- This, in turn, makes you feel more and more certain you
can play the role, and the confidence carries over into
playing the scene in every day life
• Once you have created a mental script, practice applying
it in the real world
- Practice it a few minutes every day, until you feel really
that new trait becomes part of you.
Innovation & Creativity
• Is innovation & creativity important for organizations?
How important is this?
What really works for organizations – primary &
Creativity & Innovation
• Traits of a creative person.
• Problem sensitivity.
• Idea fluency.
• How do I become more creative?
• Is the ability to recognize the inconveniences. It also
leads to realization that a problem exist, an outlook that
there is scope for improvement in any thing and every
thing, an attitude to look up on the problem as
Polaroid & Waterman
• Exercise -Make a list of all inconveniences you are facing
in your life.
• Is the ability to conceive quantity of ideas for a given
• Exercise – what are different ways you can convey
„Thanks‟ to some one who has helped you.
• Is the ability to find different and unusual ways of doing
things. Some time it calls for courage to throw away all
the „accepted‟ concepts.
• Exercise – Think of some unusual gifts you will present
to your friends/spouse on their birth days
• Is the willingness to consider different approaches and
variety of view points to a problem with an open mind.
• Exercise – Think of six distinct uses of an white paper
• Is the ability to hold on to problems inspite of
disappointments & frustrations. How important is drive in
life & also innovation?
„ Nothing in the world can take the place of persistence.
Talent will not; nothing is more common than
unsuccessful men with talent.
Genius will not; unrewarded genius is almost a proverb.
Education will not; the world is full of educated derelicts.
Persistence and determination are omnipotent‟.
• Exercise – make a list things in your opinions are very
difficult to do by yourself.
• How our brain works.
• What percentage of our brain get utilised?
• How to activate your right brain