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Chapter 4 Consumer Motivation

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Needs and Motivation
Model of the Motivation Process
Types of Needs
Goals
Goals Structure for Weight Control
The Selection of Goals,
The Dynamic Nature of Motivation,

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Chapter 4 Consumer Motivation

  1. 1. Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition Schiffman & Kanuk Consumer Motivation Prepared By: Prof. Nishant Agrawal
  2. 2. 4 - 2 Needs and Motivation • Needs are the heart of the marketing concept. Marketers do not create needs but can make consumers aware of needs. • Motivation is the driving force within individuals that impels them to action.
  3. 3. 4 - 3 Model of the Motivation Process
  4. 4. 4 - 4 Types of Needs • Innate Needs – Physiological (or biogenic) needs that are considered primary needs or motives. Ex. Food, water, cloth, shelter etc • Acquired Needs – Learned in response to our culture or environment. – It include need for self esteem, prestige, power and learning. – They are considered secondary needs
  5. 5. 4 - 5 Is a body spray an innate or acquired need?
  6. 6. 4 - 6 Goals • The sought / desire - after results of motivated behavior. • Generic goals are general categories of goals that consumers see as a way to fulfill their needs. • Product-specific goals are specifically branded products or services that consumers select as their goals.
  7. 7. 4 - 7 Figure 4-2a Goals Structure for Weight Control
  8. 8. 4 - 8 Figure 4-2b Goals Structure for Weight Control
  9. 9. 4 - 9 Figure 4-2c Goals Structure for Weight Control
  10. 10. 4 - 10 Weight Control Giants weblink weblink
  11. 11. 4 - 11 The Selection of Goals • The goals selected by an individual depend on their: – Personal experiences – Physical capacity – Current cultural norms and values
  12. 12. 4 - 12 Discussion Question • What are three goals you have set for yourself in the past year? • How were these goals selected? Was it personal experiences, physical capacity, or prevailing cultural norms and values?
  13. 13. 4 - 13 Motivations and Goals Positive • Motivation – A driving force toward some object or condition • Approach Goal – A positive goal toward which behavior is directed Negative • Motivation A driving force away from some object or condition • Avoidance Goal – A negative goal from which behavior is directed away
  14. 14. 4 - 14 Rational versus Emotional Motives • Rationality implies that consumers select goals based on totally objective criteria such as size, weight, price, or miles per gallon • Emotional motives imply the selection of goals according to personal or subjective criteria like pride, fear, status, affection etc.
  15. 15. 4 - 15 Discussion Question • What products might be purchased using rational and emotional motives? • What marketing strategies are effective when there are combined motives?
  16. 16. 4 - 16 The Dynamic Nature of Motivation • Needs are never fully satisfied • New needs emerge as old needs are satisfied • People who achieve their goals set new and higher goals for themselves • Success and failure Influence Goals
  17. 17. 4 - 17 Substitute Goals • When a consumer cannot attain a specific goal he/she anticipates will satisfy a need, behavior may be directed to substitute goal. • Substitute goals may actually replace the primary goal over time • Ex. Man who cannot afford a BMW may convince himself that a new sporty and less expensive car
  18. 18. 4 - 18 Frustration • Failure to achieve a goal may result in frustration. • Some adapt; others adopt defense mechanisms to protect their ego.
  19. 19. 4 - 19 Defense Mechanism • Methods by which people mentally redefine frustrating situations to protect their self-images and their self-esteem
  20. 20. 4 - 20 Defense Mechanism is using in this ad
  21. 21. 4 - 21 Defense Mechanisms • Aggression • Rationalization • Regression • Withdrawal • Projection • Repression
  22. 22. 4 - 22 Arousal / Action of Motives • Physiological arousal – Decrease in body temperature will induce shivering • Emotional arousal – People who are bored or who are frustrated in trying to achieve their goals • Cognitive arousal – People live in complex and highly varied environment, they experience many opportunity.
  23. 23. 4 - 23 Philosophies Concerned with Arousal of Motives • Behaviorist School – Motivation to be mechanical process – Elements of conscious thoughts are to be ignored – Consumer does not act , but reacts • Cognitive School – Behavior is directed at goal achievement – Needs and past experiences are reasoned, categorized, and transformed into attitudes and beliefs
  24. 24. 4 - 24 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  25. 25. 4 - 25 Discussion Question • What are three types of products related to more then one level of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. • For each type of product – consider two brands. How do marketers attempt to differentiate their product from the competition?
  26. 26. 4 - 26 Table 4.3 Murray’s List of Psychogenic Needs Needs Associated with Inanimate Objects: Acquisition, Conservancy, Order, Retention, Construction Needs Reflecting Ambition, Power, Accomplishment, and Prestige: Superiority, Achievement, Recognition, Exhibition, Infavoidance Needs Connected with Human Power: Dominance, Deferrence, Similance, Autonomy, Contrariance
  27. 27. 4 - 27 Table 4.3 (con’t) Murray’s List of Psychogenic Needs Sado-Masochistic Needs : Aggression, Abasement Needs Concerned with Affection between People: Affiliation, Rejection, Nurturance, Succorance, Play Needs Concerned with Social Intercourse: Cognizance, Exposition
  28. 28. 4 - 28 This ad reflects a need for accomplishment with a toothpaste.
  29. 29. 4 - 29 A Trio of Needs • Power • Power need related to Individual’s desire to control environment • Need to control other persons and various objects • Affiliation • need for friendship, acceptance, and belonging • Very much related to social need • Achievement • need for personal accomplishment • closely related to egoistic and self-actualization needs • People with high need for achievement to be more self confident
  30. 30. 4 - 30 Measurement of Motives • Researchers rely on a combination of techniques • Combination of behavioral, subjective, and qualitative data • Construction of a measurement scale can be complex • Technique: Page no 110
  31. 31. 4 - 31 Motivational Research • Qualitative research designed to uncover consumers’ subconscious or hidden motivations • Attempts to discover underlying feelings, attitudes, and emotions
  32. 32. 4 - 32 Qualitative Motivational Research • Metaphor analysis • Storytelling • Word association and sentence completion • Thematic apperception test • Drawing pictures and photo-sorts
  33. 33. 4 - 33 Many Companies Specialize in Motivational Research
  34. 34. 4 - 34 End of Session “Life is 10% what happens to us & 90% how we react to it.”

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