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Social and Emotional
    Development
  of Children and
    Adolescents
I. THEORIES OF
       SOCIOEMOTIONAL
        DEVELOPMENT
 Erikson’sPsychological Theory of
  Human Development
 Bandura’s Social-Cognitive
  Theories
 Goleman’s Emotional Intelligence
A. Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial
     Theory of Human Development
   Trust vs. Mistrust (Hope)
   Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (Will)
   Initiative vs. Guilt (Purpose)
   Industry vs. Inferiority (Competence)
   Identity vs. Role confusion (Fidelity)
   Intimacy vs. Isolation (Love)
   Generativity vs. Stagnation (Care)
   Integrity vs. Despair (Wisdom)
Trust vs. Mistrust

 Erikson  acknowledged the major
 role the caregiver (mother) plays in
 the most critical stage and that is
 the first life crisis.
Identity vs. Role Confusion

 Central adolescent dilemma
 Every adolescent goes through
  examination, his/her identity and
  the roles he/she must occupy.
Intimacy vs. Isolation
   The fusion of identities can only be
    reached when young people have already
    formed a clear identity; contrary to what is
    usually perceived as finding identity in any
    relationship.
Generativity vs. Stagnation

 Establishingand guiding the
 next generation
Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory
   Learning may occur as a result of watching someone
    else perform an action and experience reinforcement or
    punishement. This kind of learning is called
    observational learning or modeling.
   Bandura also calls attention to a class of
    reinforcements called intrinsic reinforcements. These
    are reinforcements within an individual.
   Bandura has bridged the gap between learning theories
    and other approaches by emphasizing the role of
    cognitive (mental) elements in learning.
Cont. Bandura’s Social Cognitive
               Theory
   Another important consideration is maturation.
    It needs maturity to be able to
    understand/perform a more complicated task.
   Bandura suggests that what an observer learns
    from a particular model is influenced by his own
    goals, expectations about what kinds of
    consequences are likely if he adopts the model’s
    behavior and judgment of his own performance
    (Bee and Boyd 2002).
Cont. Bandura’s Social Cognitive
               Theory
   There are four sets of processes/phases to produce a
    behavior that matches that of a model:
       Attention: a child’s experience in a particular situation
        influences his ability to achieve a modeled behavior.
       Retention: whatever skills are retained from what a child has
        observed are a collection of cognitive skills
       Reproduction: the reproduced behavior is dependent on
        other cognitive skills, that includes feedback from others
       Motivation: produce the behavior is influenced by various
        incentives; his own standards, and his tendency to compare
        himself with others (Bandura, 1989 as cited by Hetherington, et
        al., 2006)
Emotional Intelligence
   a type of social intelligence that affords the
    individual ability to monitor his own and others’
    emotions, to discriminate among them, and to
    use the information guide his thinking and
    actions.
       Three component of EQ:
          the awareness of one’s own emotions;
          the ability to express one’s emotions approximately; and
          the capacity to channel emotions into the pursuit of
           worthwhile objectives
Major qualities that make up emotional
intelligence and how they can be developed:
    Major qualities that make up emotional intelligence and
     how they can be developed:
       Self-Awareness. The ability to recognize a feeling as it
        happens is the keystone of emotional intelligence.
       Mood Management. The ability to change mood from
        good to bad and vice versa
       Self-Motivation. Trying to feel more enthusiastic and
        developing more zeal and confidence to arrive at
        concrete achievement.
       Impulse Control. The essence of emotional self-regulation
        is the ability to delay impulse in the service of a goal.
       People Skills. The ability to feel for another person,
        whether in job, in romance and friendship and in the
        family.
II. SOCIALIZATION AND THE
    DEVELOPMENT OF IDENTITY
       AND SOCIAL RELATIONS
   Socialization is the process by which parents
    and others set the child’s standards of
    behavior, attitude, skills, and motives to
    conform closely to what the society deems
    appropriate to his role in society.
A. Development of Identity
       James E. Marcia, has identified four identity or
        statuses and correlated them with other aspects of
        personality. These are the following:
             Anxiety
             Self-esteem

             Moral reasoning

             Patterns of social behavior

   Marcia defines crisis as a period of conscious
    decision-making while commitment as a personal
    investment in an occupation or a system of
    beliefs (ideology).
Cont. Dev’t of Identity
   Marcia identifies four categories of identity information:
       Identity Achievement (crisis leading to commitment).
        Characterized by flexible strength and tendency to be
        thoughtful, although not too introspective, under
        stress, have sense of humor.
       Foreclosure (commitment without crisis). Characterized by rigid
        strength; self-assurance, self-satisfied, and strong sense
        of family ties.
       Identity Diffusion (no commitment). Those who are shy away
        from commitment.
       Moratorium (in crisis). They may not necessarily be in good
        relationship but express preference for intimacy. They
        are characteristically talkative, competitive, lively, and
        anxious.
B. The Process of Identity
             Consolidation

 Childrentake on what they see on
 terms of behaviors and ways of fathers
 and mothers. Most likely, they develop
 the same patterns of doings things and
 acting out in the roles of the family.
 This process is called identity formation.
Gender Differences in Identity
            Formation
   The process by which children acquire the
    motives, values and behaviors viewed as appropriate
    for males and females within a culture is called gender
    typing.
   Gender-based beliefs are ideas and expectations about
    what is appropriate behavior for males and females.
   Gender stereotypes are beliefs and characteristics typified
    in the behavior of males and females and which are
    deemed appropriate and therefore acceptable.
   Gender roles are the composites of behaviors typical of
    the male of female in a given culture.
Cont. Gender Differences in Identity
           Formation
    Gender identity is the perception of oneself as either
     masculine or feminine.
    Androgynous persons are those with both masculine and
     feminine psychological characteristics.
    The developmental theory of Kohlberg states that
     gender-typed behavior is not seen until a child is able
     to achieve gender constancy.
    Gender-schema theory suggests that children need
     only basic information about gender in order to
     develop naïve mental schemas that help them organize
     their experiences and form rules concerning gender.
III. THEORIES OF THE
      DEVELOPMENT OF MORAL
     REASONING, ATTITUDES AND
               BELIEFS:
     KOHLBERG, TURIEL, GILLIGAN
   3 Basic Components of Morality
      Cognitive – involves knowledge of ethical rules and
       judgments what is good and what is bad.
      Behavioral – the person’s actual behavior, his response
       to situations involving ethical considerations
      Emotional – involves the person’s feelings and conduct
       in reaction to situations that need moral and ethical
       decisions.
Lawrence Kohlberg’s Cognitive
  Theory of Moral Development

Level 1 – Preconventional Morality
 Stage 1 – Obedience and
  Punishment Orientation
 Stage 2 – Naïve Hedonistic and
  Instrumental Orientation
Level 2 – Conventional Morality:
Conventional Rules and Conformity

 Stage 3 – Good boy Morality
 Stage 4 – Authority and Morality
  that maintain the Social Order
Level III – Postconventional
    Morality: Self-accepted Moral
              Principles
 Stage  5 – Morality of Contract:
  Individual Rights, and Democratically
  Accepted Law
 Stage 6 – Morality of Individual
  Principles and Conscience
 According to Elliot Turiel that even
 very young children can distinguish
 moral values from what are dedicated
 by conventions and are accepted ways
 of doing things
Carol Gilligan’s Theory of Moral
                Development
 Most females think of morality more
  personally than males do
 Females tend to see themselves in terms of
  their relationships with others. On the
  contrary, males have the tendency to view
  themselves as distinct and separate from
  others.
Cont. Carol Gilligan’s Theory of
           Moral Development
   The moral development in females is
    traced through three levels:
     The primary concern is with oneself
     Females equate morality with
      goodness, self, sacrifice, and caring for others
     Morality is equated with care for both
      themselves and others
IV. FACTORS AFFECTING
          DEVELOPMENT:
        PARENTING, ROLE
    MODELS, PEER GROUPS AND
          INTERACTIONS
   Parenting
   Role Models
   Peer Group and Interactions
Parenting
 ParentingStyle
    Authoritative -is a style of parenting that stresses self-
     reliance and independence

    Authoritarian                - is a style of parenting that stresses
     obedience respect for authority, and traditional values

    Indulgent            - is a style of parenting characterized by show
     of affection, love, warmth, and nurturance but with little supervision

    Neglectful            - is a style of parenting characterized by little
     warmth, nurturing, and supervision
Resulting Social Behavior in Child
   Authoritative – Social competence and
    responsibility
   Authoritarian – Ineffective social interaction;
    inactive
   Indulgent – Social competence, well-adjusted;
    peer oriented; misconduct
   Neglectful – poor orientation to work and
    school; behavior problems
Role Models
   Working mothers normally serve as role models for their
    children
   The children of both mothers who were full-time
    homemakers and mothers who worked outside the home
    were similar in
    cognitive, socioemotional, academic, motivational, and
    behavioral domains from infancy through adolescence.
   For as long as there is alternative child care, maternal
    employment does not usually have bad effects on children.
   Peers also influence acquisition of knowledge behaviors.
   Children also imitate older, more powerful and more
    prestigious peer models
    As children age, they learn to reinforce peers’ behaviors
Peer Group and Interactions
 As the young are experiencing rapid
  physical changes, they take comfort with
  other people who are undergoing the same
  changes.
 Peer group has always been a source of
  affection, sympathy and understanding.
V. EXCEPTIONAL
            DEVELOPMENT
 Gifted  children are those who score
  130 or above in an intelligence test and
  have creative, artistic, leadership.
 There are average and above average
  intelligence and manifest a discrepancy
  between expected and actual
  performance
Juvenile Delinquents
it
  is anti-social, different from
 what is normal action
2    Classifications:
      StatusOffender
      considered crime regardless
       of who commits
Causes of Juvenile Delinquency
   Industrialization and urbanization which take
    the adults away from home and leave the young
    by themselves
   The fast life and varied activity of cities prove
    tempting to the young who may not have money
    to finance said activities. They may resort to
    illegal ways of getting the necessary funds
   Frustrations wherein the resulting
    disappointment is vented against society
Causes of Juvenile Delinquency
   Emotional deprivation that makes the youth feel
    that if nobody cares for him, he does not care
    for society in turn
   Deep seated conflicts and problems which
    makes the young hostile toward the world
   Gangs or “barkada” of the wrong kind
   Poverty which cannot satisfy certain desires
   Broken homes where children are torn in their
    loyalties and their sense of security
Causes of Juvenile Delinquency
   Irregular discipline
   Rejection – if youth is rejected, he also rejects
    society and turns anti-social
   Lack of affection and sense of belonging
   Idleness which leads to mischief
Psychological Disorders that
      Affect Children
    Conduct Disorder – manifests in repetitive and
     persistent pattern of behavior where a young person
     transgresses on the basic rights of others or violates
     societal norms or rules
    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
     (ADHD) – is a persistent pattern of inattention and
     hyperactivity or impulsivity that is far in excess of
     such behaviors observed in children in various stages
     of development
    Anxiety Disorder – characterized by the feeling of
     apprehension and low self-confidence that may be felt
     through the adult years

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Understanding Child & Adolescent Development: Theories of Social, Emotional & Moral Growth

  • 1. Social and Emotional Development of Children and Adolescents
  • 2. I. THEORIES OF SOCIOEMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT  Erikson’sPsychological Theory of Human Development  Bandura’s Social-Cognitive Theories  Goleman’s Emotional Intelligence
  • 3. A. Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory of Human Development  Trust vs. Mistrust (Hope)  Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (Will)  Initiative vs. Guilt (Purpose)  Industry vs. Inferiority (Competence)  Identity vs. Role confusion (Fidelity)  Intimacy vs. Isolation (Love)  Generativity vs. Stagnation (Care)  Integrity vs. Despair (Wisdom)
  • 4. Trust vs. Mistrust  Erikson acknowledged the major role the caregiver (mother) plays in the most critical stage and that is the first life crisis.
  • 5. Identity vs. Role Confusion  Central adolescent dilemma  Every adolescent goes through examination, his/her identity and the roles he/she must occupy.
  • 6. Intimacy vs. Isolation  The fusion of identities can only be reached when young people have already formed a clear identity; contrary to what is usually perceived as finding identity in any relationship.
  • 7. Generativity vs. Stagnation  Establishingand guiding the next generation
  • 8. Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory  Learning may occur as a result of watching someone else perform an action and experience reinforcement or punishement. This kind of learning is called observational learning or modeling.  Bandura also calls attention to a class of reinforcements called intrinsic reinforcements. These are reinforcements within an individual.  Bandura has bridged the gap between learning theories and other approaches by emphasizing the role of cognitive (mental) elements in learning.
  • 9. Cont. Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory  Another important consideration is maturation. It needs maturity to be able to understand/perform a more complicated task.  Bandura suggests that what an observer learns from a particular model is influenced by his own goals, expectations about what kinds of consequences are likely if he adopts the model’s behavior and judgment of his own performance (Bee and Boyd 2002).
  • 10. Cont. Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory  There are four sets of processes/phases to produce a behavior that matches that of a model:  Attention: a child’s experience in a particular situation influences his ability to achieve a modeled behavior.  Retention: whatever skills are retained from what a child has observed are a collection of cognitive skills  Reproduction: the reproduced behavior is dependent on other cognitive skills, that includes feedback from others  Motivation: produce the behavior is influenced by various incentives; his own standards, and his tendency to compare himself with others (Bandura, 1989 as cited by Hetherington, et al., 2006)
  • 11. Emotional Intelligence  a type of social intelligence that affords the individual ability to monitor his own and others’ emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use the information guide his thinking and actions.  Three component of EQ:  the awareness of one’s own emotions;  the ability to express one’s emotions approximately; and  the capacity to channel emotions into the pursuit of worthwhile objectives
  • 12. Major qualities that make up emotional intelligence and how they can be developed:  Major qualities that make up emotional intelligence and how they can be developed:  Self-Awareness. The ability to recognize a feeling as it happens is the keystone of emotional intelligence.  Mood Management. The ability to change mood from good to bad and vice versa  Self-Motivation. Trying to feel more enthusiastic and developing more zeal and confidence to arrive at concrete achievement.  Impulse Control. The essence of emotional self-regulation is the ability to delay impulse in the service of a goal.  People Skills. The ability to feel for another person, whether in job, in romance and friendship and in the family.
  • 13. II. SOCIALIZATION AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF IDENTITY AND SOCIAL RELATIONS  Socialization is the process by which parents and others set the child’s standards of behavior, attitude, skills, and motives to conform closely to what the society deems appropriate to his role in society.
  • 14. A. Development of Identity  James E. Marcia, has identified four identity or statuses and correlated them with other aspects of personality. These are the following:  Anxiety  Self-esteem  Moral reasoning  Patterns of social behavior  Marcia defines crisis as a period of conscious decision-making while commitment as a personal investment in an occupation or a system of beliefs (ideology).
  • 15. Cont. Dev’t of Identity  Marcia identifies four categories of identity information:  Identity Achievement (crisis leading to commitment). Characterized by flexible strength and tendency to be thoughtful, although not too introspective, under stress, have sense of humor.  Foreclosure (commitment without crisis). Characterized by rigid strength; self-assurance, self-satisfied, and strong sense of family ties.  Identity Diffusion (no commitment). Those who are shy away from commitment.  Moratorium (in crisis). They may not necessarily be in good relationship but express preference for intimacy. They are characteristically talkative, competitive, lively, and anxious.
  • 16. B. The Process of Identity Consolidation  Childrentake on what they see on terms of behaviors and ways of fathers and mothers. Most likely, they develop the same patterns of doings things and acting out in the roles of the family. This process is called identity formation.
  • 17. Gender Differences in Identity Formation  The process by which children acquire the motives, values and behaviors viewed as appropriate for males and females within a culture is called gender typing.  Gender-based beliefs are ideas and expectations about what is appropriate behavior for males and females.  Gender stereotypes are beliefs and characteristics typified in the behavior of males and females and which are deemed appropriate and therefore acceptable.  Gender roles are the composites of behaviors typical of the male of female in a given culture.
  • 18. Cont. Gender Differences in Identity Formation  Gender identity is the perception of oneself as either masculine or feminine.  Androgynous persons are those with both masculine and feminine psychological characteristics.  The developmental theory of Kohlberg states that gender-typed behavior is not seen until a child is able to achieve gender constancy.  Gender-schema theory suggests that children need only basic information about gender in order to develop naïve mental schemas that help them organize their experiences and form rules concerning gender.
  • 19. III. THEORIES OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF MORAL REASONING, ATTITUDES AND BELIEFS: KOHLBERG, TURIEL, GILLIGAN  3 Basic Components of Morality  Cognitive – involves knowledge of ethical rules and judgments what is good and what is bad.  Behavioral – the person’s actual behavior, his response to situations involving ethical considerations  Emotional – involves the person’s feelings and conduct in reaction to situations that need moral and ethical decisions.
  • 20. Lawrence Kohlberg’s Cognitive Theory of Moral Development Level 1 – Preconventional Morality  Stage 1 – Obedience and Punishment Orientation  Stage 2 – Naïve Hedonistic and Instrumental Orientation
  • 21. Level 2 – Conventional Morality: Conventional Rules and Conformity  Stage 3 – Good boy Morality  Stage 4 – Authority and Morality that maintain the Social Order
  • 22. Level III – Postconventional Morality: Self-accepted Moral Principles  Stage 5 – Morality of Contract: Individual Rights, and Democratically Accepted Law  Stage 6 – Morality of Individual Principles and Conscience
  • 23.  According to Elliot Turiel that even very young children can distinguish moral values from what are dedicated by conventions and are accepted ways of doing things
  • 24. Carol Gilligan’s Theory of Moral Development  Most females think of morality more personally than males do  Females tend to see themselves in terms of their relationships with others. On the contrary, males have the tendency to view themselves as distinct and separate from others.
  • 25. Cont. Carol Gilligan’s Theory of Moral Development  The moral development in females is traced through three levels:  The primary concern is with oneself  Females equate morality with goodness, self, sacrifice, and caring for others  Morality is equated with care for both themselves and others
  • 26. IV. FACTORS AFFECTING DEVELOPMENT: PARENTING, ROLE MODELS, PEER GROUPS AND INTERACTIONS  Parenting  Role Models  Peer Group and Interactions
  • 27. Parenting  ParentingStyle Authoritative -is a style of parenting that stresses self- reliance and independence Authoritarian - is a style of parenting that stresses obedience respect for authority, and traditional values Indulgent - is a style of parenting characterized by show of affection, love, warmth, and nurturance but with little supervision Neglectful - is a style of parenting characterized by little warmth, nurturing, and supervision
  • 28. Resulting Social Behavior in Child  Authoritative – Social competence and responsibility  Authoritarian – Ineffective social interaction; inactive  Indulgent – Social competence, well-adjusted; peer oriented; misconduct  Neglectful – poor orientation to work and school; behavior problems
  • 29. Role Models  Working mothers normally serve as role models for their children  The children of both mothers who were full-time homemakers and mothers who worked outside the home were similar in cognitive, socioemotional, academic, motivational, and behavioral domains from infancy through adolescence.  For as long as there is alternative child care, maternal employment does not usually have bad effects on children.  Peers also influence acquisition of knowledge behaviors.  Children also imitate older, more powerful and more prestigious peer models  As children age, they learn to reinforce peers’ behaviors
  • 30. Peer Group and Interactions  As the young are experiencing rapid physical changes, they take comfort with other people who are undergoing the same changes.  Peer group has always been a source of affection, sympathy and understanding.
  • 31. V. EXCEPTIONAL DEVELOPMENT  Gifted children are those who score 130 or above in an intelligence test and have creative, artistic, leadership.  There are average and above average intelligence and manifest a discrepancy between expected and actual performance
  • 32. Juvenile Delinquents it is anti-social, different from what is normal action 2 Classifications: StatusOffender considered crime regardless of who commits
  • 33. Causes of Juvenile Delinquency  Industrialization and urbanization which take the adults away from home and leave the young by themselves  The fast life and varied activity of cities prove tempting to the young who may not have money to finance said activities. They may resort to illegal ways of getting the necessary funds  Frustrations wherein the resulting disappointment is vented against society
  • 34. Causes of Juvenile Delinquency  Emotional deprivation that makes the youth feel that if nobody cares for him, he does not care for society in turn  Deep seated conflicts and problems which makes the young hostile toward the world  Gangs or “barkada” of the wrong kind  Poverty which cannot satisfy certain desires  Broken homes where children are torn in their loyalties and their sense of security
  • 35. Causes of Juvenile Delinquency  Irregular discipline  Rejection – if youth is rejected, he also rejects society and turns anti-social  Lack of affection and sense of belonging  Idleness which leads to mischief
  • 36. Psychological Disorders that Affect Children  Conduct Disorder – manifests in repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior where a young person transgresses on the basic rights of others or violates societal norms or rules  Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) – is a persistent pattern of inattention and hyperactivity or impulsivity that is far in excess of such behaviors observed in children in various stages of development  Anxiety Disorder – characterized by the feeling of apprehension and low self-confidence that may be felt through the adult years