Social and Emotional Development of Children and Adolescents
I. THEORIES OF SOCIOEMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT Erikson’sPsychological Theory of Human Development Bandura’s Social-Cognitive Theories Goleman’s Emotional Intelligence
A. Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory of Human Development Trust vs. Mistrust (Hope) Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (Will) Initiative vs. Guilt (Purpose) Industry vs. Inferiority (Competence) Identity vs. Role confusion (Fidelity) Intimacy vs. Isolation (Love) Generativity vs. Stagnation (Care) Integrity vs. Despair (Wisdom)
Trust vs. Mistrust Erikson acknowledged the major role the caregiver (mother) plays in the most critical stage and that is the first life crisis.
Identity vs. Role Confusion Central adolescent dilemma Every adolescent goes through examination, his/her identity and the roles he/she must occupy.
Intimacy vs. Isolation The fusion of identities can only be reached when young people have already formed a clear identity; contrary to what is usually perceived as finding identity in any relationship.
Generativity vs. Stagnation Establishingand guiding the next generation
Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory Learning may occur as a result of watching someone else perform an action and experience reinforcement or punishement. This kind of learning is called observational learning or modeling. Bandura also calls attention to a class of reinforcements called intrinsic reinforcements. These are reinforcements within an individual. Bandura has bridged the gap between learning theories and other approaches by emphasizing the role of cognitive (mental) elements in learning.
Cont. Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory Another important consideration is maturation. It needs maturity to be able to understand/perform a more complicated task. Bandura suggests that what an observer learns from a particular model is influenced by his own goals, expectations about what kinds of consequences are likely if he adopts the model’s behavior and judgment of his own performance (Bee and Boyd 2002).
Cont. Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory There are four sets of processes/phases to produce a behavior that matches that of a model: Attention: a child’s experience in a particular situation influences his ability to achieve a modeled behavior. Retention: whatever skills are retained from what a child has observed are a collection of cognitive skills Reproduction: the reproduced behavior is dependent on other cognitive skills, that includes feedback from others Motivation: produce the behavior is influenced by various incentives; his own standards, and his tendency to compare himself with others (Bandura, 1989 as cited by Hetherington, et al., 2006)
Emotional Intelligence a type of social intelligence that affords the individual ability to monitor his own and others’ emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use the information guide his thinking and actions. Three component of EQ: the awareness of one’s own emotions; the ability to express one’s emotions approximately; and the capacity to channel emotions into the pursuit of worthwhile objectives
Major qualities that make up emotionalintelligence and how they can be developed: Major qualities that make up emotional intelligence and how they can be developed: Self-Awareness. The ability to recognize a feeling as it happens is the keystone of emotional intelligence. Mood Management. The ability to change mood from good to bad and vice versa Self-Motivation. Trying to feel more enthusiastic and developing more zeal and confidence to arrive at concrete achievement. Impulse Control. The essence of emotional self-regulation is the ability to delay impulse in the service of a goal. People Skills. The ability to feel for another person, whether in job, in romance and friendship and in the family.
II. SOCIALIZATION AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF IDENTITY AND SOCIAL RELATIONS Socialization is the process by which parents and others set the child’s standards of behavior, attitude, skills, and motives to conform closely to what the society deems appropriate to his role in society.
A. Development of Identity James E. Marcia, has identified four identity or statuses and correlated them with other aspects of personality. These are the following: Anxiety Self-esteem Moral reasoning Patterns of social behavior Marcia defines crisis as a period of conscious decision-making while commitment as a personal investment in an occupation or a system of beliefs (ideology).
Cont. Dev’t of Identity Marcia identifies four categories of identity information: Identity Achievement (crisis leading to commitment). Characterized by flexible strength and tendency to be thoughtful, although not too introspective, under stress, have sense of humor. Foreclosure (commitment without crisis). Characterized by rigid strength; self-assurance, self-satisfied, and strong sense of family ties. Identity Diffusion (no commitment). Those who are shy away from commitment. Moratorium (in crisis). They may not necessarily be in good relationship but express preference for intimacy. They are characteristically talkative, competitive, lively, and anxious.
B. The Process of Identity Consolidation Childrentake on what they see on terms of behaviors and ways of fathers and mothers. Most likely, they develop the same patterns of doings things and acting out in the roles of the family. This process is called identity formation.
Gender Differences in Identity Formation The process by which children acquire the motives, values and behaviors viewed as appropriate for males and females within a culture is called gender typing. Gender-based beliefs are ideas and expectations about what is appropriate behavior for males and females. Gender stereotypes are beliefs and characteristics typified in the behavior of males and females and which are deemed appropriate and therefore acceptable. Gender roles are the composites of behaviors typical of the male of female in a given culture.
Cont. Gender Differences in Identity Formation Gender identity is the perception of oneself as either masculine or feminine. Androgynous persons are those with both masculine and feminine psychological characteristics. The developmental theory of Kohlberg states that gender-typed behavior is not seen until a child is able to achieve gender constancy. Gender-schema theory suggests that children need only basic information about gender in order to develop naïve mental schemas that help them organize their experiences and form rules concerning gender.
III. THEORIES OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF MORAL REASONING, ATTITUDES AND BELIEFS: KOHLBERG, TURIEL, GILLIGAN 3 Basic Components of Morality Cognitive – involves knowledge of ethical rules and judgments what is good and what is bad. Behavioral – the person’s actual behavior, his response to situations involving ethical considerations Emotional – involves the person’s feelings and conduct in reaction to situations that need moral and ethical decisions.
Lawrence Kohlberg’s Cognitive Theory of Moral DevelopmentLevel 1 – Preconventional Morality Stage 1 – Obedience and Punishment Orientation Stage 2 – Naïve Hedonistic and Instrumental Orientation
Level 2 – Conventional Morality:Conventional Rules and Conformity Stage 3 – Good boy Morality Stage 4 – Authority and Morality that maintain the Social Order
Level III – Postconventional Morality: Self-accepted Moral Principles Stage 5 – Morality of Contract: Individual Rights, and Democratically Accepted Law Stage 6 – Morality of Individual Principles and Conscience
According to Elliot Turiel that even very young children can distinguish moral values from what are dedicated by conventions and are accepted ways of doing things
Carol Gilligan’s Theory of Moral Development Most females think of morality more personally than males do Females tend to see themselves in terms of their relationships with others. On the contrary, males have the tendency to view themselves as distinct and separate from others.
Cont. Carol Gilligan’s Theory of Moral Development The moral development in females is traced through three levels: The primary concern is with oneself Females equate morality with goodness, self, sacrifice, and caring for others Morality is equated with care for both themselves and others
IV. FACTORS AFFECTING DEVELOPMENT: PARENTING, ROLE MODELS, PEER GROUPS AND INTERACTIONS Parenting Role Models Peer Group and Interactions
Parenting ParentingStyle Authoritative -is a style of parenting that stresses self- reliance and independence Authoritarian - is a style of parenting that stresses obedience respect for authority, and traditional values Indulgent - is a style of parenting characterized by show of affection, love, warmth, and nurturance but with little supervision Neglectful - is a style of parenting characterized by little warmth, nurturing, and supervision
Resulting Social Behavior in Child Authoritative – Social competence and responsibility Authoritarian – Ineffective social interaction; inactive Indulgent – Social competence, well-adjusted; peer oriented; misconduct Neglectful – poor orientation to work and school; behavior problems
Role Models Working mothers normally serve as role models for their children The children of both mothers who were full-time homemakers and mothers who worked outside the home were similar in cognitive, socioemotional, academic, motivational, and behavioral domains from infancy through adolescence. For as long as there is alternative child care, maternal employment does not usually have bad effects on children. Peers also influence acquisition of knowledge behaviors. Children also imitate older, more powerful and more prestigious peer models As children age, they learn to reinforce peers’ behaviors
Peer Group and Interactions As the young are experiencing rapid physical changes, they take comfort with other people who are undergoing the same changes. Peer group has always been a source of affection, sympathy and understanding.
V. EXCEPTIONAL DEVELOPMENT Gifted children are those who score 130 or above in an intelligence test and have creative, artistic, leadership. There are average and above average intelligence and manifest a discrepancy between expected and actual performance
Juvenile Delinquentsit is anti-social, different from what is normal action2 Classifications: StatusOffender considered crime regardless of who commits
Causes of Juvenile Delinquency Industrialization and urbanization which take the adults away from home and leave the young by themselves The fast life and varied activity of cities prove tempting to the young who may not have money to finance said activities. They may resort to illegal ways of getting the necessary funds Frustrations wherein the resulting disappointment is vented against society
Causes of Juvenile Delinquency Emotional deprivation that makes the youth feel that if nobody cares for him, he does not care for society in turn Deep seated conflicts and problems which makes the young hostile toward the world Gangs or “barkada” of the wrong kind Poverty which cannot satisfy certain desires Broken homes where children are torn in their loyalties and their sense of security
Causes of Juvenile Delinquency Irregular discipline Rejection – if youth is rejected, he also rejects society and turns anti-social Lack of affection and sense of belonging Idleness which leads to mischief
Psychological Disorders that Affect Children Conduct Disorder – manifests in repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior where a young person transgresses on the basic rights of others or violates societal norms or rules Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) – is a persistent pattern of inattention and hyperactivity or impulsivity that is far in excess of such behaviors observed in children in various stages of development Anxiety Disorder – characterized by the feeling of apprehension and low self-confidence that may be felt through the adult years