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10 2

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Enlightenment

Enlightenment

Published in: Spiritual, Economy & Finance

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  • 1. 10.2 THE ENLIGHTENMENT
    • Enlightenment – 18th C philosophical movement of intellectuals impressed by achievements of the Scientific Revolution
        • Newtonian world-machine – world and everything in it works like a giant machine
    • John Locke – Englishmen wrote Essay Concerning Human Understanding
        • Argued ppl born – with a tabula rasa (blank mind)
        • Suggested – ppl molded by their experiences
  • 2.
    • Philosophe – meaning philosopher
      • Chiefly from – nobility and the middle class
      • Most leaders – of Enlightenment were French
      • Role of philosophes – was to change the world
    • Montesquieu – French
      • From – nobility
      • 1748 – published The Spirit of the Laws
    • Tried to use – scientific method to find natural laws that govern society & politics
  • 3.
    • ID’ed 3 kinds of govts
        • 1. Republics – work for small states
        • 2. Despotism – work for large states
        • 3. Monarchies – work for moderate-size states
      • Govt functioned – separation of powers (executive, legislative & judicial)
      • Control each other – in system of checks & balances
      • Ideas worked into – U.S. Constitution
  • 4.
    • Voltaire – middle class Parisian
      • Known for – criticism of Christianity
      • Strong belief – in religious toleration – Treatise on Toleration
      • Championed – deism
        • Deist view – a mechanic (God) created the universe
      • Universe like a – clock
        • God – clockmaker
        • Ran – without his interference, according to its own natural laws
    *His writing had a great influence on the French Revolution of 1789 and the American Revolution of 1776. http://www.visitvoltaire.com
  • 5.
    • Diderot – French writer
      • Most famous contribution – Enchclopedia, or Classified Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Trade
        • Attacked – religious superstition and supported religious toleration
    The Encyclopédie …"change the common way of thinking“…. It took 20 years to compile, with more than 70,000 illustrated articles on subjects ranging from asparagus to the zodiac. http://www.leeds.ac.uk/library/adopt-a-book/diderot.htm
  • 6.
    • Economics
      • Laissez-faire – gov’t should leave economy alone
      • Adam Smith, wrote – The Wealth of Nations
        • Believed – state should not interfere in economic matters
    • Govts 3 roles
        • 1. protect society from invasion (army)
        • 2. defend citizens from injustice (police)
        • 3. keep up roads & canals (public works)
  • 7. THE LATER ENLIGHTENMENT
    • 1760s – a new generation of philosophes
    • Jean Jacques Rousseau – Discourse on the Origins of the Inequality of Mankind
      • Argued – that people had adopted laws & gov’t in order to preserve their private property
      • In process – became enslaved by government
      • Through social contract – entire society agrees to be governed by its general will
      • Believed emotions – as well as reason were important to human development
  • 8. Women’s Rights
    • Mary Wollstonecraft – English writer wrote about women’s rights
    • Noted – that ppl who argue that women should obey men also said that gov’t based on the arbitrary power of monarchs over their subjects was wrong
      • Pointed out – that the power of men over women was equally wrong
      • Enlight based on – ideal of reason in all human beings
    • Women – should have equal rights in education as well as in economic and political life
  • 9. Social World of Enlightenment
    • Greatest appeal – w/ aristocrats & upper class (peasants were unaware of Enl.)
      • Growth of reading
      • FR published 1750 – 300
      • 1780s- 1,600 titles issued
      • Dev of – magazines for general public
      • Daily – newspapers were cheap and sometimes free in coffeehouses
    Published 1750
  • 10.
    • Salons – elegant drawing rooms of the wealthy upper class
      • Conversation – centered on new ideas of the philosphes
      • Brought – writers & artist together with aristocrats, gov’t officials, and wealthy middle-class people
  • 11. Religion in Enlightenment
    • Although philosophes attacked Christian churches most Europeans were still Christian
      • Methodism – new religious movement
        • John Wesley – Anglican minister
        • Appealed – to lower classes
        • Stressed – importance of hard work