10.2 THE ENLIGHTENMENT <ul><li>Enlightenment – 18th C philosophical movement of intellectuals impressed by achievements of...
<ul><li>Philosophe – meaning philosopher </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chiefly from – nobility and the middle class </li></ul></ul...
<ul><li>ID’ed 3 kinds of govts </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Republics – work for small states </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Voltaire – middle class Parisian  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Known for – criticism of Christianity  </li></ul></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Diderot – French writer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most famous contribution –  Enchclopedia, or Classified Dictionary o...
<ul><li>Economics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Laissez-faire – gov’t should leave economy alone  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adam ...
THE LATER ENLIGHTENMENT <ul><li>1760s – a new generation of philosophes  </li></ul><ul><li>Jean Jacques Rousseau –  Discou...
Women’s Rights <ul><li>Mary Wollstonecraft – English writer wrote about women’s rights </li></ul><ul><li>Noted – that ppl ...
Social World of Enlightenment  <ul><li>Greatest appeal – w/ aristocrats & upper class (peasants were unaware of Enl.) </li...
<ul><li>Salons – elegant drawing rooms of the wealthy upper class </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversation – centered on new ide...
Religion in Enlightenment <ul><li>Although philosophes attacked Christian churches most Europeans were still Christian </l...
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Enlightenment

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10 2

  1. 1. 10.2 THE ENLIGHTENMENT <ul><li>Enlightenment – 18th C philosophical movement of intellectuals impressed by achievements of the Scientific Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Newtonian world-machine – world and everything in it works like a giant machine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>John Locke – Englishmen wrote Essay Concerning Human Understanding </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Argued ppl born – with a tabula rasa (blank mind) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suggested – ppl molded by their experiences </li></ul></ul></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Philosophe – meaning philosopher </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chiefly from – nobility and the middle class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most leaders – of Enlightenment were French </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role of philosophes – was to change the world </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Montesquieu – French </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From – nobility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1748 – published The Spirit of the Laws </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tried to use – scientific method to find natural laws that govern society & politics </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>ID’ed 3 kinds of govts </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Republics – work for small states </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Despotism – work for large states </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Monarchies – work for moderate-size states </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Govt functioned – separation of powers (executive, legislative & judicial) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control each other – in system of checks & balances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideas worked into – U.S. Constitution </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Voltaire – middle class Parisian </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Known for – criticism of Christianity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong belief – in religious toleration – Treatise on Toleration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Championed – deism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deist view – a mechanic (God) created the universe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universe like a – clock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>God – clockmaker </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ran – without his interference, according to its own natural laws </li></ul></ul></ul>*His writing had a great influence on the French Revolution of 1789 and the American Revolution of 1776. http://www.visitvoltaire.com
  5. 5. <ul><li>Diderot – French writer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most famous contribution – Enchclopedia, or Classified Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attacked – religious superstition and supported religious toleration </li></ul></ul></ul>The Encyclopédie …&quot;change the common way of thinking“…. It took 20 years to compile, with more than 70,000 illustrated articles on subjects ranging from asparagus to the zodiac. http://www.leeds.ac.uk/library/adopt-a-book/diderot.htm
  6. 6. <ul><li>Economics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Laissez-faire – gov’t should leave economy alone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adam Smith, wrote – The Wealth of Nations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Believed – state should not interfere in economic matters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Govts 3 roles </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. protect society from invasion (army) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. defend citizens from injustice (police) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. keep up roads & canals (public works) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. THE LATER ENLIGHTENMENT <ul><li>1760s – a new generation of philosophes </li></ul><ul><li>Jean Jacques Rousseau – Discourse on the Origins of the Inequality of Mankind </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Argued – that people had adopted laws & gov’t in order to preserve their private property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In process – became enslaved by government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Through social contract – entire society agrees to be governed by its general will </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed emotions – as well as reason were important to human development </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Women’s Rights <ul><li>Mary Wollstonecraft – English writer wrote about women’s rights </li></ul><ul><li>Noted – that ppl who argue that women should obey men also said that gov’t based on the arbitrary power of monarchs over their subjects was wrong </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pointed out – that the power of men over women was equally wrong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enlight based on – ideal of reason in all human beings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Women – should have equal rights in education as well as in economic and political life </li></ul>
  9. 9. Social World of Enlightenment <ul><li>Greatest appeal – w/ aristocrats & upper class (peasants were unaware of Enl.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth of reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FR published 1750 – 300 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1780s- 1,600 titles issued </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dev of – magazines for general public </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Daily – newspapers were cheap and sometimes free in coffeehouses </li></ul></ul>Published 1750
  10. 10. <ul><li>Salons – elegant drawing rooms of the wealthy upper class </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversation – centered on new ideas of the philosphes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brought – writers & artist together with aristocrats, gov’t officials, and wealthy middle-class people </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Religion in Enlightenment <ul><li>Although philosophes attacked Christian churches most Europeans were still Christian </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Methodism – new religious movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>John Wesley – Anglican minister </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appealed – to lower classes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stressed – importance of hard work </li></ul></ul></ul>

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