THE ENLIGHTENMENTCHAPTER 17 PP. 542-569 FROM PRENTICE-HALL WORLD HISTORY (2007)
PHILOSOPHY IN THE AGE OF REASON• Enlightenment sparked by scientific revolution of 1500s and 1600s • Scientific discoveries of 1500s and 1600s changed the way people looked at the world • Natural law- rules that can be discovered through reason • People started to believe that reason could solve social problems as well as scientific problems= The Enlightenment Left: Rene Descartes, French scientist of the late Renaissance, stressed human reasoning in understanding the world Right: Immanuel Kant, German philosopher of late Renaissance/early Enlightenment era, first to speak of an “enlightenment”
OPPOSING VIEWS OF SOCIETY• Thomas Hobbes and John Locke: conflicting views • Hobbes: supported strong government (absolute monarchy), thinks people are basically terrible, developed idea of a social contract • Locke: people basically good, had natural rights (life, liberty, property), supported limited government Of Hobbes and Locke, John Locke, whose which do you think had ideas inspired more of an impact on revolution around the American Revolution? the world!
THE PHILOSOPHES• Montesquieu and the Separation of Powers• Freedom of Thought: Voltaire• Denis Diderot’s works• The Social Contract: Jean-Jacques Rousseau• What the women thought Left: Voltaire, French author of Candide Right: Rousseau, author of The Social Contract
NEW ECONOMIC THINKING• Mercantilism- government regulates prices and tariffs to gain favorable balance of trade• Laissez-faire economics= government should stay out of the economy, free trade• Adam Smith- argued for free market, said economy runs on a system of supply and demand• Smith also believed government should stay out of economy, but did have a responsibility to protect society
SOME THINGS TO THINK ABOUT:• How did the Scientific Revolution that took place during the Renaissance affect the Enlightenment?• How were the opinions of Hobbes and Locke different, as they relate to government’s role?• What kinds of ideas or topics did the Philosophes address in their writings?• How did Rousseau’s and Voltaire’s beliefs differ?
ENLIGHTENMENT IDEAS SPREAD• New ideas challenge society • People began to question “divine right” & class system • Church & government censored writers, banned books • Writers sometimes wrote fiction to expose corruption without getting in trouble (Jonathan Swift, Voltaire, Montesquieu) • Salons in women’s homes, Philosophes’ ideas spread • Started with noblewomen hosting poetry readings in homes • Middle class women began to do it as well Re-creation of a French Salon from the Museum of Decorative Arts in Lyon, France
NEW IDEAS REFLECTED IN LITERATURE AND THE ARTS • Movement of Baroque to Rococo • Heavy, bright, grandiose to light, charming, and elegant • Religious and military themed art to lighter topics • Popular in spite of Philosophes dislike Which of these paintings is baroque, and which is rococo? Jean-Frédéric Schall -Portrait of Carl Gustaf Wrangel Gardener in Straw Hatby David Klöcker Ehrenstrahl
Composers inspired by Enlightenment • Introduction of what we call classical music • Opera and ballet become popular all over Western Europe • Bach, Handel, Haydn, Mozart • Drawing of Mozart painting of • By Doris Stock, 1789 J.S. Bach• New literary form: the Novel • Growing middle class wanted stories in prose form • Daniel Defoe, Robinson Crusoe
ENLIGHTENED DESPOTS LIKE THE NEW IDEAS• Reform attempts by Frederick II • Prussian king from 1740 to 1786, absolute monarch • Allowed free press, religious toleration, reduced torture use• Catherine the Great’s response • She studied works of Philosophes & admired them • Religious toleration, reduction of torture, criticism of serfdom• More reforms by Joseph II • Traveled in disguise to get a feel for regular people • Like his mom(Maria Theresa), wanted to improve peasants’ lives • Religious equality for Protestants and Jews, abolition of serfdom • Many of his reforms were canceled after his death
LIVES OF THE MAJORITY• Slow to change• Early 1700’s • Most people lived in country, didn’t hear new ideas• Late 1700’s • Enlightenment ideas started to spread to even the lower classes • Some people didn’t want change, just wanted stable lives • Others started revolutions to try to bring about social change Three Peasants Engraving by Albrecht Dürer
QUESTIONS TO THINK ABOUT:• What did people opposed to the Enlightenment do to stop these new ideas from spreading?• Why did the philosophes want to share their ideas with the rulers of Europe?• Why was life so slow to change for many Europeans?
BIRTH OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLIC• Britain as a global power • Location- island, large navy= good position to control trade • Few restrictions on trade= good for business • Won wars against France • gained control of Spanish slave trade (later abolished slavery in their territories) • 1707= union of England, Scotland, & Wales (Ireland added later) • King George III • 60 year reign started 1760 • Placed his friends in important positions to strengthen his power • Got them to Parliament to gain support for his policies • Many of his policies did not work out well for him
MID-1700S IN AMERICAN COLONIES• String of colonies on east coast of what would become US, not united or connected• Britain applied mercantilist policies to force colonists to buy from them and sell to them• Navigation Acts were supposed to regulate trade and production, (were not enforced)• Smuggling was so common that the colonists didn’t see anything wrong with it• Colonists were more diverse than in Great Britain, social lines were blurred• Colonists set up their own assemblies and practiced open and free discussion
COLONISTS UNHAPPY WITH THE SITUATION• Various actions by Parliament and King George III were making colonists mad (taxes)• Colonists rebel • March 1770= Boston Massacre • 1773- Boston Tea Party • First Continental Congress met in Philadelphia to discuss options• Colonists declare their independence • April 1775= Revolutionary War started in Massachusetts • 1776= 2nd Continental Congress set up the Continental Army with George Washington in charge • Thomas Jefferson wrote Declaration of Independence, full of Enlightenment ideas • Life, liberty, pursuit of happiness Popular sovereignty= government by consent of the governed Adopted by Continental Congress on July 4, 1776
AMERICAN REVOLUTION• Advantages: • Britain: better trained soldiers, huge navy, natural resources, support of about 1/3 of colonists and some Native tribes • Colonists: home court advantage, strong leadership, dedicated to winning their independence• France supports the colonies • 1777- Colonists won the Battle of Saratoga, France decided to join (so did other nations) • Washington held his troops together in dire circumstances• Treaty of Paris ends the war • 1781- French blockade of Chesapeake Bay forced British to surrender (Yorktown) • 1783- Treaty of Paris ended the war, forced Britain to recognize the United States of America
A NEW CONSTITUTION• Articles of Confederation • Too weak, focused on states’ rights, not central gov’t • 1787- framers met to write new constitution (Washington, Madison, Franklin, etc.)• Huge impact of Enlightenment ideas • Took Montesquieu’s idea of separation of powers & checks and balances • Federal Republic- states within a nation, each with rights • Government as social contract (Locke, Rousseau) • elected president and legislature (could be replaced) • Bill of Rights guaranteeing certain freedoms • Became supreme law of the land in 1789 (over 220 years old!)
SYMBOL OF FREEDOM• Our struggle for independence inspired revolutions in Latin America and France• Many other nations have constitutions that are based on ours!
QUESTIONS TO THINK ABOUT:• What Enlightenment ideas are found in the Declaration of Independence?• What advantages did the British have in the American Revolution? What advantages did the colonists have?• What Enlightenment ideas are found in the Constitution?
HOMEWORK:• Create a word document with the “Questions to think about” questions typed in order.• Answer the questions in complete sentences with proper grammar and spelling.• Submit the assignment to me via Moodle• When we meet next we will discuss the Enlightenment group project that you will do.
WORKS CITED:• Ellis, E. G., & Esler, A. (2007).Prentice Hall world history. Boston, Mass.: Pearson Prentice Hall.• All photographs are from Wikimedia Commons and are in public domain due to one of the following reasons: • Copyright expired due to age of the work • Reproduction of a work already in public domain • No copyright exists