The Scientific Revolution  (16 th  and 17 th  century) <ul><li>Nicholas Copernicus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heliocentric mode...
Bacon’s Scientific Method
Isaac Newton <ul><li>Develops mathematical ideas that explain the physical universe </li></ul><ul><li>Laws of Motion  </li...
18 th  century Enlightenment – The Age of Reason <ul><li>Revolution in philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophers, inspired...
John Locke and Jean Jacque Rousseau <ul><li>Locke </li></ul><ul><ul><li>English philosopher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bel...
John Locke and Jean Jacques Rousseau
The “Social Contract” <ul><li>Men form governments. </li></ul><ul><li>Governments must respond to the needs of men. </li><...
Views on the Social Contract <ul><li>Who are the “men”?  Who determines whether or not the government is serving the needs...
Voltaire <ul><li>French philosopher who attacked the Church and the French government though his short novel,  Candide  an...
Adam Smith <ul><li>English economist and philosopher who attacked the idea of government intervention in the economy </li>...
David Hume <ul><li>English philosopher who questioned the existence of God </li></ul><ul><li>Used a logical and scientific...
Deism and the Watchmaker Theory <ul><li>Enlightenment age religion that advocated a belief in God (even if that belief was...
The American Revolution
The American Revolution <ul><li>Not really a classic “revolution” in the sense that a social class did not revolt against ...
Declaration of Independence <ul><li>Written by Thomas Jefferson </li></ul><ul><li>Restatement of the social contract </li>...
<ul><li>Enlightened Despotism in Central and Eastern Europe </li></ul>
Enlightened Despotism <ul><li>Idea found in Central and Eastern Europe whereby monarchs and emperors made changes to their...
Fredrick the Great of Prussia <ul><li>Emperor of Prussia in the Northern Germanic Lands </li></ul><ul><li>Modernized the m...
Catherine the Great of Russia <ul><li>Modernized the Russian army and government </li></ul><ul><li>Studied in France durin...
Maria Theresa and Joseph II of the Hapsburg Empire (Austria) Note – mother and brother to Marie Antoinette (Queen of Franc...
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World History Unit8 Scirev And Enlightenment

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  • World History Unit8 Scirev And Enlightenment

    1. 2. The Scientific Revolution (16 th and 17 th century) <ul><li>Nicholas Copernicus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heliocentric model challenges both established science and the Church </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opens the door to the questioning of other realms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Francis Bacon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific Method – man can now use reason to explain the world around him – no need for God in science </li></ul></ul>
    2. 3. Bacon’s Scientific Method
    3. 4. Isaac Newton <ul><li>Develops mathematical ideas that explain the physical universe </li></ul><ul><li>Laws of Motion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An object in motion will remain in motion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Force = mass X acceleration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction </li></ul></ul>
    4. 5. 18 th century Enlightenment – The Age of Reason <ul><li>Revolution in philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophers, inspired by scientists, started questioning God and God’s role in society </li></ul><ul><li>Particular emphasis was placed on criticizing government and the church </li></ul><ul><li>Paris, France was the hotbed of reason – rather ironically, it was also the center of Absolutism and Divine Right </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophers wrote the words that inspired revolutionaries, both in America and in France </li></ul>
    5. 6. John Locke and Jean Jacque Rousseau <ul><li>Locke </li></ul><ul><ul><li>English philosopher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed that men are entitled to life, liberty and PROPERTY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspiration for the American founding fathers (all were rich, white, educated men) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government should protect us from us – first priority was to provide security and order </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rousseau </li></ul><ul><ul><li>French Philosopher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed that all men are entitiled to life, liberty and EQUALITY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspiration for the French revolutionaries (many women and poor commoners) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government should promote equality among all men </li></ul></ul>
    6. 7. John Locke and Jean Jacques Rousseau
    7. 8. The “Social Contract” <ul><li>Men form governments. </li></ul><ul><li>Governments must respond to the needs of men. </li></ul><ul><li>If a government does not respond to the needs of men, men have the right to change the government. </li></ul>
    8. 9. Views on the Social Contract <ul><li>Who are the “men”? Who determines whether or not the government is serving the needs of men? </li></ul><ul><li>What does it mean to “change” the government? </li></ul><ul><li>There have been different answers to these questions from throughout history…………….. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Locke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rousseau </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American Founding Fathers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French Revolutionaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Karl Marx </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern leaders in the US in 1861 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vladimir Lenin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chairman Mao </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What about today? </li></ul></ul>
    9. 10. Voltaire <ul><li>French philosopher who attacked the Church and the French government though his short novel, Candide and other works </li></ul><ul><li>Advocated freedom of religion and separation of church and state </li></ul><ul><li>Advocated the right of citizens to a fair and impartial trial </li></ul>
    10. 11. Adam Smith <ul><li>English economist and philosopher who attacked the idea of government intervention in the economy </li></ul><ul><li>Advocated “laissez-faire” economics (hands off) </li></ul><ul><li>Believed in a pure capitalist system where the “law of supply and demand” would determine prices </li></ul>
    11. 12. David Hume <ul><li>English philosopher who questioned the existence of God </li></ul><ul><li>Used a logical and scientific argument to question faith </li></ul><ul><li>Since faith itself is irrational, what makes one faith right for everyone? </li></ul><ul><li>Heavily criticized by the Anglican Church, of which he was a member, but never wavered in his views </li></ul>
    12. 13. Deism and the Watchmaker Theory <ul><li>Enlightenment age religion that advocated a belief in God (even if that belief was irrational) </li></ul><ul><li>God was there in the beginning, and will be there in the end, but in between we’re on our own </li></ul><ul><li>Imagine an old style windup watch……God made the watch and wound it up, but then left it alone. He’ll be back when the watch needs to be rewound </li></ul><ul><li>No need for prayer or worship – it’s counterproductive – God’s not listening anyway </li></ul><ul><li>Humans have ultimate free choice and free will </li></ul><ul><li>Many of the American founding fathers believed in Deism – Thomas Jefferson was probably the most famous </li></ul><ul><li>Voltaire also advocated Deism and the right to freedom of religion </li></ul>
    13. 14. The American Revolution
    14. 15. The American Revolution <ul><li>Not really a classic “revolution” in the sense that a social class did not revolt against the one above it </li></ul><ul><li>Really more of a war for independence, but it did incorporate rhetoric from the Age of Reason </li></ul><ul><li>American revolutionary LEADERS studied Locke and others – they certainly believed in the rhetoric, but the average “patriot” in the street paid little in the way of taxes, so “no taxation without representation” was little more than a slogan. </li></ul><ul><li>The new government formed after the revolution was at least outwardly based on enlightenment principles, although it would be decades before most of those principles were actually put into practice – think of how long it took women to receive the vote. </li></ul>
    15. 16. Declaration of Independence <ul><li>Written by Thomas Jefferson </li></ul><ul><li>Restatement of the social contract </li></ul><ul><li>List of grievances – what King George III did to break the contract </li></ul><ul><li>Considered the first true government document containing enlightenment principles </li></ul><ul><li>Used as a pattern for revolutions around the world </li></ul>
    16. 17. <ul><li>Enlightened Despotism in Central and Eastern Europe </li></ul>
    17. 18. Enlightened Despotism <ul><li>Idea found in Central and Eastern Europe whereby monarchs and emperors made changes to their societies in which modernized the states while the people earned some political and social rights </li></ul><ul><li>Monarchs still maintained absolute control, but instead of justifying their rule by divine right (God), they instead saw themselves at the head of the people </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the ideas were really designed to PREVENT revolution (governments must serve the needs of men) </li></ul><ul><li>Many of the reforms were eventually rescinded after the people tried to get even more rights (revolutions were often brutally repressed </li></ul>
    18. 19. Fredrick the Great of Prussia <ul><li>Emperor of Prussia in the Northern Germanic Lands </li></ul><ul><li>Modernized the military and opened officer positions to middle and lower classes </li></ul><ul><li>Modernized the Prussian government and opened positions to people of merit instead of cronies </li></ul>
    19. 20. Catherine the Great of Russia <ul><li>Modernized the Russian army and government </li></ul><ul><li>Studied in France during the Enlightenment </li></ul><ul><li>Tried to link Russia to the West through trade and diplomatic relations </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Russia’s territory, especially against the Ottomans (Turks) – sought to link Russia to its Slavic neighbors to the south </li></ul>
    20. 21. Maria Theresa and Joseph II of the Hapsburg Empire (Austria) Note – mother and brother to Marie Antoinette (Queen of France) <ul><li>Serfdom abolished in the Hapsburg Lands </li></ul><ul><li>Granted freedom of religion (very radical idea, especially in a Catholic empire) </li></ul><ul><li>Established a national education system </li></ul><ul><li>Developed equality before the law, even for the nobility </li></ul><ul><li>Many of the reforms were rolled back after revolutions broke out among the minority populations of the Hapsburg Empire </li></ul>

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