8 1b 2

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Ottoman Safavids

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8 1b 2

  1. 1. Ottoman Rule <ul><li>Labeled- gunpowder empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formed by outside conquerors who unified after conquering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Success based on mastery of fire arms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sultan- head of Ottoman system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Position hereditary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not necessarily to eldest son </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Led to struggles for power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Harem- “sacred place” sultans private quarters </li></ul><ul><li>Sultan controlled- bureaucracy w/ imperial council </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grand Vizier- chief minister, led meetings </li></ul></ul>Topkapi Divan; center area for grand vizier; Sultan behind screen  
  2. 2. <ul><li>Ottomans were – Sunni Muslims </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sultans claimed title caliph </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resp- guiding flock & maintaining Islamic law </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ulema- sultan’s religious advisors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Administered legal system & school for education of Muslims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islamic law applied to all Muslims in empire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tolerant of non-Muslims </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-Muslims- paid a tax </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allowed to practice own religion </li></ul></ul>Religion in the Ottoman World
  3. 3. Ottoman Society <ul><li>Subjects divided by occupation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ruling class top of society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 occupation groups 1. merchants - just below ruling class in status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. artisans - org. by craft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. peasants -farmed land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. pastoral -sep. group w/ own laws </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Women somewhat better off than other Muslim societies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allowed to own/ inherit property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Couldn’t be forced to marry </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Problems in Ottoman Empire <ul><li>Began during Suleyman the Mag.’s rule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Succeeded by Selim II, his only surviving son </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1699 began to lose some territory </li></ul><ul><li>Local officials grew corrupt, taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Wars emptied the treasury </li></ul><ul><li>Western ideas spread through Empire </li></ul>
  5. 5. Ottoman Art <ul><li>Produced pottery, rugs, silk, textiles, jewelry, arms & armor </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Greatest contribution – architecture (especially mosques) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sinan greatest Ottoman architect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mosques topped dome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Framed with 4 towers (minarets) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flourishing textile & rug industry </li></ul></ul>Mosque of Suleyman the Magnificent
  7. 7. The Rule of Safavids <ul><li>Rise of Safavid Dynasty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early 15 th C- area from Persia into central Asia fell into anarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safavids- took control at beginning of 16 th C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ardent (devoted)- Shiites </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Founded by- Shah Ismail </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1501- Ismail seize Iran & Iraq </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Called self- Shah (King) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1508- killed Sunnis when he conquered Baghdad </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Shah Abbas- ruled from 1588-1629 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safavids- reached high point under his rule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early 17 th C- moved against Ottoman to regain territories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1629- Abbas dies (rulers that followed weak) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shiites began to Inc their influence in gov’t and society at large </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure to conform to Shiite beliefs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women lost many freedoms </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Shah Gov’t workers (bureaucracy) & Landed Elite Common People
  10. 10. <ul><li>Pol & Soc Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shah direct successor of Muhammad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled power of aristocracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gov’t positions merit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Safavid Culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1588-1629 rule of Shah Abbas (golden age in arts) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital Isfahan was grand city </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silk weaving new technique brilliant colors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Carpet weaving encouraged by demand by West </li></ul>
  11. 11. Sister weaving carpets in Iran Modern Weaving Machine

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