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  1. 1. 10.4 A COLONIAL EMPIRES & THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION <ul><li>Col Emp in Latin Am </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Port – dominated Brazil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SP – colonies in North America, Central America & South America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mestizos – EU & Native Americans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mullatoes – EU & Africans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 source of wealth – supplies of gold & silver </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Farming – source of prosperity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large landowners – created immense estates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Native Am – worked on large estates or on marginal (small) farms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trade – another source of profit </li></ul><ul><ul><li># of – natural products were shipped to EU (sugar, tobacco, diamonds, animal hides) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mother countries – supplied colonists with manufactured goods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SP & Port – closely regulated the trade of American colonies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BR & FR – wanted in Latin American markets </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>SP & Port determined to – Christianize the native peoples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gave – Catholic Church an important role in the Americas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Missionaries – brought Native Americans together into villages, converted them, taught them a trade, and encouraged them to grow crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cath Church built – cathedrals, hospitals, orphanages & schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allowed women – enter convents and become nuns </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. BRITAIN & NORTH AMERICA <ul><li>1707 – England & Scotland were united </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BR – refer to both the English & Scots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BR monarch – shared power with Parliament </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parl – gradually gained more power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Had power – to make laws, levy taxes, pass the budget, influence ministers of the monarch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1714 – new dynasty - Hanoverians </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Robert Walpole – head of cabinet (PM) 1721-1742 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pursued – peaceful foreign policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wm Pitt the Elder – head of cabinet 1757 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expanded – British Empire by acquiring Canada & India </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Col supposedly run by – British Board of Trade, the Royal Council, & Parliament </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Actually – ran by local legislatures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Col merchants did not – want British to run their affairs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. 10-4B American Revolution <ul><li>After 7 Years War – British leaders wanted new $ from colonies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to – cover war cost, army to defend the colonies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1765 – Parliament imposed the Stamp Act on colonies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Required – printed materials carry a stamp showing tax had been paid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Opposition – was widespread and often violent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1766 – act was repealed </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>1770s – crisis after crisis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Col org – First Continental Congress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Met – Philadelphia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urged col 1. take up arms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>2. organize militias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>April 1775 – colonist vs British army – Lexington & Concord </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2nd Cont Congress – met </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formed – army – Continental Army </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With – George Washington as commander in chief </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>July 4, 1776 – 2nd Cont Congress approved declaration of independence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Written by – Thomas Jefferson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on – John Locke’s ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Am Rev – has begun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War – with Great Britain was a huge gamble </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FR – supplied arms & money to rebels – also FR soldiers served in Wash. army </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1778 – following a BR defeat FR recognize American state </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>SP & Dutch – also enter war against Great Britain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BR faced – war against much of EU and America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yorktown – General Cornwallis surrender to American & French forces under Washington </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BR – decided to end the war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treaty of Paris 1783 – recognized independence of the American colonies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Granted Am – control of western territory from Appalachians to Mississippi River </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Birth of a New Nation <ul><li>Former col – were now states </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feared – concentrated power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Little enthusiasm – for creating a united nation with a strong central gov’t </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Articles of Confederation – nation’s first constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lacked – power to deal with new nation’s problems </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Summer of 1787 – delegates met to revise the Articles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Known as – Constitutional Convention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decided to – write a plan for an entirely new national gov’t </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Created – a federal system (share of power between national and state governments) </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Nat’l powers 1. levy taxes </li></ul><ul><li>2. raise army </li></ul><ul><li>3. regulate trade & national currency </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into – 3 branches </li></ul><ul><li>1st – executive branch </li></ul><ul><li>Pres – chief executive </li></ul><ul><li>Power to 1. execute laws </li></ul><ul><li> 2. veto legislature’s act </li></ul><ul><li> 3. supervise foreign affairs </li></ul><ul><li> 4. direct military forces </li></ul><ul><li>2nd – legislative branch </li></ul><ul><li>Consisted of – 2 houses (Senate & House of Representatives) </li></ul><ul><li>3rd – judicial branch </li></ul><ul><li>Courts would – enforce the Constitution (supreme law of the land) </li></ul><ul><li>Must be ratified – approved by 9 of 13 states </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Bill of Rights – 1789 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guarantee:- freedom of religion, speech, press, petition, assembly - right to bear arms - protection against unreasonable searches & arrest- guaranteed trail by jury & due process of law- protection of property rights </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many derived – rights came from natural rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eur intellectuals – saw the American Revolution as the picture of the Enlightenment’s political dreams </li></ul></ul>