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  1. 1. The Enlightenment A New Way of Thinking
  2. 2. <ul><li>A time when the use of reason (logical thinking) and science were applied to political, social and economic problems. </li></ul>I. The Enlightenment
  3. 3. <ul><li>B. It was a direct result of absolutism. </li></ul><ul><li>DON’T WRITE </li></ul><ul><li>The people of Europe became tired of the abuses of power by absolute monarchs. </li></ul>
  4. 4. John Calvin Thomas Hobbes
  5. 5. II. Thinkers <ul><li>A. Philosophes : (“Lovers of Wisdom”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enlightenment thinkers who applied methods of science to improve society. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><ul><li>B. They wrote about natural laws , or laws that govern human behavior. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Thomas Hobbes </li></ul>Wrote Leviathan (1651)
  8. 9. <ul><li>The best government, according to Hobbes, was one that had the absolute power of a leviathan (sea monster). </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Views & Beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Man is naturally cruel and must be controlled. </li></ul><ul><li>Man gives up rights for order to enter into a social contract – an agreement to give up man’s natural state to live in organized society. </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Ideas on Gov’t </li></ul><ul><li>A powerful gov’t must ensure order and obedience </li></ul><ul><li>An absolute monarchy </li></ul>Ideas on Gov’t
  11. 12. <ul><li>Impact </li></ul><ul><li>Absolute monarchs used his ideas to justify their rule. </li></ul>Impact
  12. 13. John Locke Wrote Two Treatises of Government (1690)
  13. 14. <ul><li>Views & Beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Man is naturally good & born equal </li></ul><ul><li>Every man has natural rights- rights belonging to all humans (life, liberty and property) </li></ul><ul><li>If gov’t fails the people, they have the right to overthrow it </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Ideas on Gov’t </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas on Gov’t </li></ul><ul><li>Best gov’t is where leader is limited and is accepted by all citizens (democracy) </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Impact </li></ul><ul><li>Used as the basis for American, French and Latin Revolutions in the 1700’s and for modern democracy </li></ul>Impact
  16. 17. The Baron de Montesquieu wrote the Spirit of Laws (1748)
  17. 18. <ul><li>Views & Beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Gov’t should be separated into three branches: legislative, executive, and judicial . </li></ul><ul><li>This would prevent tyranny by each branch being able to “check” the other two. </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Ideas on Gov’t </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas on Gov’t </li></ul><ul><li>Favored limited monarchy (studied British, Chinese, & Native American gov’t) </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Impact </li></ul><ul><li>Used as the basis for the structure of the American gov’t (checks and balances) </li></ul>Impact
  20. 21. Voltaire wrote Candide (1759)
  21. 22. <ul><li>Views & Beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>published more than 70 books about the right to free speech . </li></ul><ul><li>Promoted civil rights & religious toleration </li></ul><ul><li>He targeted corrupted officials and offended the Catholic church. </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>Ideas on Gov’t </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas on Gov’t </li></ul><ul><li>Enlightened monarchs were best </li></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>Impact </li></ul><ul><li>He helped make liberalism (the philosophy that emphasizes change, freedom from tradition and individual rights) more popular </li></ul>Impact
  24. 26. Jean Jacques Rousseau wrote The Social Contact (1762)
  25. 27. <ul><li>Views & Beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>People are naturally good but are corrupted by the inequality of society. </li></ul><ul><li>People should give up some rights for the common good. </li></ul><ul><li>The “general will” of the people is for good. </li></ul><ul><li>He individual should be subordinate to the community. </li></ul>
  26. 28. <ul><li>Ideas on Gov’t </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas on Gov’t </li></ul><ul><li>Two Views </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy –authority given to people OR </li></ul><ul><li>Communism- good of the community over the individual </li></ul>
  27. 29. <ul><li>Impact </li></ul><ul><li>His ideas helped spark the French Revolution. </li></ul>Impact
  28. 30. Adam Smith wrote The Wealth of Nations (1776)
  29. 31. <ul><li>Views & Beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>The free market- the natural forces of supply and demand, should be allowed to operate and regulate business. (If there is a demand for goods, suppliers will meet it) </li></ul><ul><li>Believed in laissez-faire- allowing business to operate without gov’t interference. </li></ul>
  30. 32. <ul><li>Ideas on Gov’t </li></ul>Ideas on Gov’t Any gov’t that promotes laissez-faire economics
  31. 33. <ul><li>Impact </li></ul><ul><li>Gave rise to capitalism and the Industrial Revolution </li></ul>Impact
  32. 34. <ul><li>Wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Women </li></ul><ul><li>Supporter of women’s rights </li></ul><ul><li>Argued that girls needed education as well as boys </li></ul>C. Mary Wollstonecraft
  33. 35. <ul><li>Mary Wollstonecraft’s daughter, Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, would write the classic novel Frankenstein . </li></ul>DON’T WRITE
  34. 36. III. Spread of Ideas <ul><li>The printing press spread Enlightenment ideas throughout Europe. </li></ul>
  35. 37. B. Methods of Communication: <ul><li>1. Diderot’s Encyclopedia: Political thoughts, writings and ideas all in one place. </li></ul>
  36. 38. 2. Salons <ul><li>Informal social gatherings </li></ul><ul><li>writers, artists, philosophers exchanged ideas & points of view </li></ul><ul><li>Many women organized salons and used them to learn about the issues of the day. </li></ul>
  37. 39. IV. Enlightened Despots <ul><li>Absolute rulers who used their power to bring about political and social change. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frederick the Great (Prussia) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catherine the Great (Russia) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joseph II (Austria) </li></ul></ul>
  38. 40. V. Arts and Literature <ul><li>The middle class (merchants and town officials) influenced art and music. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Baroque: A grand, bright style of art </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rococo Style: Delicate Porcelain, portraits, tapestries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Music: Composers- Bach, Mozart, Handel </li></ul></ul>
  39. 41. <ul><li>VI. Effects </li></ul><ul><li>Enlightenment ideas inspired a belief of personal freedom and equality. </li></ul><ul><li>These concepts, along with challenges to authority, caused a growth of democracy. </li></ul><ul><li>The Enlightenment would contribute to an age of revolution! </li></ul>