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Industrial Revolution

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  2. 2. Industrial Revolution <ul><li>The IR is when people stopped making stuff at home and started making stuff in factories. </li></ul><ul><li>Began – 1780’s in GB </li></ul><ul><li>Took – decades to spread </li></ul>Why Great Britain? Circle the advantages on this map and explain your answer.
  3. 3. <ul><li>Why GB? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ag practices change (wealthy landowners experimented with new farming techniques in order to increase their harvest) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inc food supply b/c new tech., good weather, new crops, inc transportation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parl passed laws allowing large landowners to fence off common lands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>B/c enclosure mov’t – many ppl were forced to move to town in search of work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ready supply of $ capital to invest (wealthy class of ship owners and merchants that were able to further industrial growth with their extra profits) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural Resources plentiful in BR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rivers – provided water to power factories </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also – coal & iron ore </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supply of markets (colonial empire) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Cotton Production <ul><li>Pre-Indust Rev (2 step process) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. spinners make thread </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. weavers – wove </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Known as cottage industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tech adv made cottage industry inefficient </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Necessity, is the mother of invention. </li></ul><ul><li>-Plato </li></ul><ul><li>What does that mean to you? </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>1 st – Flying shuttle made weaving faster (John Kay) </li></ul><ul><li>1764 – J. Hargreaves invents spinning jenny </li></ul><ul><li>Edmund Cartwright – inv. Water powered loom became more efficient to build factories </li></ul><ul><li>Streams & rivers powered early machines </li></ul><ul><li>James Watt – improved steam engine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steam power spun & wove cotton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Did not need to be near a river </li></ul></ul>1760- 2.5 million lbs 1787- 22 million lbs 1840- 366 million lbs $$$$ GB most valuable export
  7. 7. Cotton gin - 1794 <ul><li>His cotton gin removed the seeds out of raw cotton. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Steam engine Do you know what this is?
  9. 10. Coal & Iron Industries
  10. 11. Steam Engine <ul><li>The steam engine was not just a transportation device. It ran entire factories the way rivers used to. </li></ul><ul><li>Success of steam engine crucial to BR’s IR, needed coal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Led to exp. in coal production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*remember the map? </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Henry Cort developed puddling process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produced better quality iron ore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coke used to burn away impurities in ore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produced high quality iron (stronger and cheaper than importing from Swedes) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. BR Iron Industry <ul><li>1740 – 17,000 tons </li></ul><ul><li>1780s – 70,000 tons </li></ul><ul><li>1852 – 3 million tons </li></ul><ul><li>Used to build new machines, esp transportation </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Railroads </li></ul><ul><li>1804 – 1 st steam powered train in BR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulled 10 tons of ore & 70 ppl </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At 5 mph </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rocket – 1 st public rail line </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sped 16 mph </li></ul></ul><ul><li>W/in 20 yrs – trains @ 50 mph </li></ul><ul><li>1840 BR – 2,000 miles of track </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1850 – 6000 miles of track </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Building RRs created – new jobs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower prices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meant owners reinvested profits & grow </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. New factories <ul><li>Workers forced – to work in shifts </li></ul><ul><li>Factory owners created system – work discipline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example fines for being late, fired for bad behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child workers often beaten </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Child labor <ul><li>Shoeshine boys </li></ul>
  16. 17. Child labor <ul><li>Bowling pin boys </li></ul>
  17. 18. Child labor <ul><li>Coal miner boys </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Girls were preferred over boys. They were paid less, had smaller hands. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Spread of Industrialization <ul><li>Mid 19 th C, GB- world’s 1 st & richest ind. nation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produced – ½ world’s coal & manuf. goods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gov’ts provided- $ to build RR, roads & canals </li></ul><ul><li>By 1850 – network of RR through EU </li></ul><ul><li>US pop 1800 – 5 mil </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Fulton – built 1 st paddle wheel steam boat </li></ul>
  20. 21. Transcontinental RR *train clips <ul><li>RR turned US into 1 huge market for goods made in the NE </li></ul><ul><li>The transcontinental railroad made travel across the country faster, cheaper and more efficient. </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>Women & girls – big part of work force </li></ul><ul><li>2 new social classes 1. IR Middle Class </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2. IR Working Class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EU pop 1750 – 140 mil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1850 – 266 mil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thomas Malthus argued – pop would out pace ability to feed ourselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pop up b/c – death rate is down, wars down, less disease/ppl ate better & more resilient to diseases </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Irish Potato Famine <ul><li>Irish depended on potato as staple food </li></ul><ul><li>Crop ruined by fungus </li></ul><ul><li>1 million died </li></ul><ul><li>1 million moved to US </li></ul><ul><li>Ppl moved from rural areas to cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid inc in cities led to – bad living conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promoted – reforms to ask gov’t to improve things </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Irish Potato Famine
  24. 25. <ul><li>Many lived in tenements. </li></ul>
  25. 26. tenement
  26. 27. Industrial capitalism <ul><li>New Indust Middle Class made up of ppl who built factories, bought machines, found markets, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Indust Working class faced bad working conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hours 12-16 hours/day, 6 days/week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No job security or minimum wage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Factory Act of 1833 – 9 min age for employment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women paid ½ what men got </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socialism – where society (gov’t) own factors of production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Idea of – intellectuals that believe in equality of all </li></ul></ul></ul>Some slides from worldofteaching.com