The Enlightenment
 A New Way of Thinking
I.   The Enlightenment
A.   A time when the
     use of reason
     (logical thinking)
     and science were
     applied ...
B. It was a direct
  result of absolutism.

   DON’T WRITE
The people of Europe
 became tired of the
 abuses of power by
 ...
John Calvin   Thomas Hobbes
II. Thinkers
A. Philosophes: (“Lovers of Wisdom”)
   Enlightenment thinkers who applied
    methods of science to improve...
B. They
  wrote
  about
  natural
  laws, or
  laws that
  govern
  human
  behavior.
Thomas Hobbes
    Wrote Leviathan (1651)
C. The best government, according to Hobbes, was one that had
   the absolute power of a leviathan (sea monster).
Views & Beliefs
• Man is naturally cruel and must be
  controlled.
• Man gives up rights for order to enter into a
  socia...
Ideas on Gov’t




               Ideas on Gov’t
► A powerful gov’t must ensure order and
  obedience
► An absolute monarc...
Impact




                  Impact
► Absolute monarchs used his ideas to justify
  their rule.
Wrote Two Treatises of   John Locke
Government (1690)
Views & Beliefs
•Man is naturally good & born equal
•Every man has natural rights-rights
belonging to all humans (life, li...
Ideas on Gov’t




                 Ideas on Gov’t
► Best gov’t is where leader is limited and is
  accepted by all citize...
Impact




                    Impact
► Used as the basis for American, French and
  Latin Revolutions in the 1700’s and f...
The Baron de Montesquieu
          wrote the Spirit of Laws
          (1748)
Views & Beliefs
►Gov’t should be separated into three
branches: legislative, executive, and
judicial.
►This would prevent ...
Ideas on Gov’t




                Ideas on Gov’t
► Favored limited monarchy (studied British,
  Chinese, & Native America...
Impact




                    Impact
► Used as the basis for the structure of the
  American gov’t (checks and balances)
Voltaire
wrote Candide (1759)
Views & Beliefs
published more than 70 books about the
     right to   free speech.
Promoted civil rights & religious to...
Ideas on Gov’t




               Ideas on Gov’t
► Enlightened monarchs were best
Impact




                    Impact
► He helped make liberalism (the philosophy
  that emphasizes change, freedom from
 ...
Jean Jacques Rousseau
wrote The Social Contact
(1762)
Views & Beliefs
People are naturally good but are corrupted
by the inequality of society.
People should give up some rig...
Ideas on Gov’t




                 Ideas on Gov’t
                   Two Views
► Democracy –authority given to people OR
...
Impact




                    Impact
► His ideas helped spark the French
  Revolution.
Adam Smith
wrote The Wealth of
 Nations (1776)
Views & Beliefs
The   free market- the natural forces
of supply and demand, should be
allowed to operate and regulate
bus...
Ideas on Gov’t




           Ideas on Gov’t
Any gov’t that promotes laissez-faire
              economics
Impact




                    Impact
► Gave rise to capitalism and the Industrial
  Revolution
C. Mary Wollstonecraft
          • Wrote A
            Vindication of the
            Rights of Women
          • Supporte...
DON’T WRITE
► Mary    Wollstonecraft’s   daughter,     Mary
 Wollstonecraft Shelley, would write the classic
 novel Franke...
III. Spread of Ideas
A.   The printing
     press spread
     Enlightenment
     ideas
     throughout
     Europe.
B. Methods of Communication:

1. Diderot’s Encyclopedia:
   Political thoughts,
   writings and ideas all in
   one place.
2. Salons
► Informal  social gatherings
► writers, artists, philosophers exchanged ideas &
  points of view
► Many women o...
IV. Enlightened Despots
►       Absolute rulers who used their power to bring
        about political and social change.
 ...
V. Arts and Literature
► The middle class (merchants and town officials)
 influenced art and music.
   Baroque: A grand, ...
VI. Effects
 Enlightenment ideas
  inspired a belief of
  personal freedom
  and equality.
 These concepts,
  along with...
Enlightenment
Enlightenment
Enlightenment
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Enlightenment

  1. 1. The Enlightenment A New Way of Thinking
  2. 2. I. The Enlightenment A. A time when the use of reason (logical thinking) and science were applied to political, social and economic problems.
  3. 3. B. It was a direct result of absolutism. DON’T WRITE The people of Europe became tired of the abuses of power by absolute monarchs.
  4. 4. John Calvin Thomas Hobbes
  5. 5. II. Thinkers A. Philosophes: (“Lovers of Wisdom”)  Enlightenment thinkers who applied methods of science to improve society.
  6. 6. B. They wrote about natural laws, or laws that govern human behavior.
  7. 7. Thomas Hobbes Wrote Leviathan (1651)
  8. 8. C. The best government, according to Hobbes, was one that had the absolute power of a leviathan (sea monster).
  9. 9. Views & Beliefs • Man is naturally cruel and must be controlled. • Man gives up rights for order to enter into a social contract – an agreement to give up man’s natural state to live in organized society.
  10. 10. Ideas on Gov’t Ideas on Gov’t ► A powerful gov’t must ensure order and obedience ► An absolute monarchy
  11. 11. Impact Impact ► Absolute monarchs used his ideas to justify their rule.
  12. 12. Wrote Two Treatises of John Locke Government (1690)
  13. 13. Views & Beliefs •Man is naturally good & born equal •Every man has natural rights-rights belonging to all humans (life, liberty and property) •If gov’t fails the people, they have the right to overthrow it
  14. 14. Ideas on Gov’t Ideas on Gov’t ► Best gov’t is where leader is limited and is accepted by all citizens (democracy)
  15. 15. Impact Impact ► Used as the basis for American, French and Latin Revolutions in the 1700’s and for modern democracy
  16. 16. The Baron de Montesquieu wrote the Spirit of Laws (1748)
  17. 17. Views & Beliefs ►Gov’t should be separated into three branches: legislative, executive, and judicial. ►This would prevent tyranny by each branch being able to “check” the other two.
  18. 18. Ideas on Gov’t Ideas on Gov’t ► Favored limited monarchy (studied British, Chinese, & Native American gov’t)
  19. 19. Impact Impact ► Used as the basis for the structure of the American gov’t (checks and balances)
  20. 20. Voltaire wrote Candide (1759)
  21. 21. Views & Beliefs published more than 70 books about the right to free speech. Promoted civil rights & religious toleration He targeted corrupted officials and offended the Catholic church.
  22. 22. Ideas on Gov’t Ideas on Gov’t ► Enlightened monarchs were best
  23. 23. Impact Impact ► He helped make liberalism (the philosophy that emphasizes change, freedom from tradition and individual rights) more popular
  24. 24. Jean Jacques Rousseau wrote The Social Contact (1762)
  25. 25. Views & Beliefs People are naturally good but are corrupted by the inequality of society. People should give up some rights for the common good. The “general will” of the people is for good. He individual should be subordinate to the community.
  26. 26. Ideas on Gov’t Ideas on Gov’t Two Views ► Democracy –authority given to people OR ► Communism- good of the community over the individual
  27. 27. Impact Impact ► His ideas helped spark the French Revolution.
  28. 28. Adam Smith wrote The Wealth of Nations (1776)
  29. 29. Views & Beliefs The free market- the natural forces of supply and demand, should be allowed to operate and regulate business. (If there is a demand for goods, suppliers will meet it) Believed in laissez-faire-allowing business to operate without gov’t interference.
  30. 30. Ideas on Gov’t Ideas on Gov’t Any gov’t that promotes laissez-faire economics
  31. 31. Impact Impact ► Gave rise to capitalism and the Industrial Revolution
  32. 32. C. Mary Wollstonecraft • Wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Women • Supporter of women’s rights • Argued that girls needed education as well as boys
  33. 33. DON’T WRITE ► Mary Wollstonecraft’s daughter, Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, would write the classic novel Frankenstein.
  34. 34. III. Spread of Ideas A. The printing press spread Enlightenment ideas throughout Europe.
  35. 35. B. Methods of Communication: 1. Diderot’s Encyclopedia: Political thoughts, writings and ideas all in one place.
  36. 36. 2. Salons ► Informal social gatherings ► writers, artists, philosophers exchanged ideas & points of view ► Many women organized salons and used them to learn about the issues of the day.
  37. 37. IV. Enlightened Despots ► Absolute rulers who used their power to bring about political and social change.  Frederick the Great (Prussia)  Catherine the Great (Russia)  Joseph II (Austria)
  38. 38. V. Arts and Literature ► The middle class (merchants and town officials) influenced art and music.  Baroque: A grand, bright style of art  Rococo Style: Delicate Porcelain, portraits, tapestries  Music: Composers- Bach, Mozart, Handel
  39. 39. VI. Effects  Enlightenment ideas inspired a belief of personal freedom and equality.  These concepts, along with challenges to authority, caused a growth of democracy.  The Enlightenment would contribute to

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