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Romanesque Architecture


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My report in History of Architecture during my second year.

Published in: Design
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Romanesque Architecture

  1. 1. + R o m a n e s q u e A r c h i t e c t u r e GEOGRAPHICAL INFUENCE Romanesque Architecture is the combination of Roman and Byzantine Architecture basically roman in style. They grew in the countries under the roman rule. The most common material used for construction were stone, brick marble or terra cotta, as well as ready-made columns and features from the old Roman buildings. INFLUENCING FACTORS GEOLOGICAL INFLUENCE
  2. 2. Southern Portion: a. Small windows to minimize sun shading. d. Flat roof CLIMACTIC INFLUENCE Northern Portion -- Dull climate contributed to the use of: a. Large windows to admit light. b. high pitch roof to throw off rain and snow RELIGIOUS INFLUENCE Christianity resulted into erection of a church. Papacy had great power and influence.
  3. 3. Establishment of “Feudal System”, Landlord built “castle” to separate them and protect them from the peasants. This castle was made with man-made canals. The style emerging in Western Europe based on Roman and Byzantine elements last until the Advent of Gothic Architecture in the Mid-12th Century. SOCIAL AND POLITICAL INFLUENCE HISTORICAL INFLUENCE
  4. 4. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER SOBER & DIGNIFIED Opposite of Roman character
  5. 5. CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES Developed in Italy, France, Germany and England Uses “Rib & Panel Vaulting” Two Types of Vaulting: Quadripartite (four-part vaulting) Sexpartite (six- part vaulting) (both were supported by “tiers”)
  6. 6. Use of corbelled Arches found underneath the eaves of a church. Use of Massive, Architectured wall structures, Round Arches & Powerful Vaults. In churches they used Latin Cross Plan Use of Rose window or Wheel window.
  7. 7. EXAMPLE OF BUILDINGS 1. Churches- for every church there is a “Monastery” at the side. 2. Monastic church situated in a court open to public. 3. Cloister Court 4. Inner Court 5. Common Court
  8. 8. DIFFERENT SHAPES OF CROSS Crux immissa or Latin cross
  9. 9. Cross of Lorraine The papal cross or ferula is the pastoral staff used by the Pope.
  10. 10. Stepped Cross A cross resting on a base with three steps, also called a graded or a Calvary cross.
  11. 11. ARCHITECTURAL EXAMPLES PISA CATHEDRAL I. With Baptistery, Campanile & Campo Santo II. One of the Finest Romanesque Cathedral III. Design by Architect Dioti Alvi
  12. 12. CAMPANILLE, PISA I. Circular Tower II. Worlds famous “Leaning Tower” III. 8 storeys of encircling archades
  13. 13. BAPTISTERIES, PISA I. Circular in plan
  14. 14. CAMPO SANTO, PISA I. Cemetery
  15. 15. FRENCH ROMANESQUE A R C H I T E C T U R A L E X A M P L E S NOTRE DAME du PORT • Light stone vaults • inlaid décor
  17. 17. S. MADELEINE, Vezelay
  19. 19. NOTRE DAME LA GRANDE, France
  20. 20. AIX-LA-CHAPELLE CATHEDRAL • Built by Emperor Charlemagne as his “royal tomb-house”. • Prototype of similar churches in Germany • Place of coronation of the Holy Roman Emperors GERMAN ROMANESQUE
  22. 22. ORMS CATHEDRAL • Typical German Romanesque church • Remained the seat of Bishops, Archibishops & electors for 1,500 yrs.
  23. 23. ROMANESQUE TERMS AND ILLUSTRATIONS DORMER WINDOW- a window placed vertically in a sloping roof with a roof on its own.
  24. 24. GROIN- the curved arris formed by intersecting vaulting surfaces.
  25. 25. VAULTS- ceiling designs
  26. 26. HELM ROOF- a roof in which 4 faces rests diagonally between the gables and converge at the roof.