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Budhhist Architecture

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Budhhist Architecture

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Budhhist Architecture

  1. 1.  Introduction  Beginning of Buddhist Architecture in India  Early Budhhist Architecture Edicts of Ashoka  Types of Edicts  Features if Pillars of Ashoka  Why a Pillar?  What is a Chaitya?  Chaitya Architecture  Vihara Architecture  Stupas :  Tibetan Buddhist Achitecture  Sri Lankan Budhhist Architecture  Pagodas  Sanchi Stupa Amratvati Stupa Bharut Stupa
  2. 2. Buddhist religious architecture developed in the Indian Subcontinent in the 3rd century BCE. Three types of structures are associated with the religious architecture of early Buddhism: monasteries (Viharas), places to venerate relics (stupas), and shrines or prayer halls (chaityas also called chaitya grihas), which later came to be called temples in some places. Viharas initially were only temporary shelters used by wandering monks during the rainy season, but later were developed to accommodate the growing and increasingly formalised Buddhist monasticism. An existing example is at Nalanda (Bihar). A distinctive type of fortress architecture found in the former and present Buddhist kingdoms of the Himalayas are dzongs. The initial function of a stupa was the veneration and safe-guarding of the relics of the Buddha. The earliest surviving example of a stupa is in Sanchi (Madhya Pradesh). In accordance with changes in religious practice, stupas were gradually incorporated into chaitya-grihas (prayer halls). These reached their high point in the 1st century BC, exemplified by the cave complexes of Ajanta and Ellora (Maharashtra). The Mahabodhi Temple at Bodh Gaya in Bihar is another well known example. The Pagoda is an evolution of the Indian stupa. Beginning of Budhhist architecture in India
  3. 3. Buddhist architecture emerged slowly in the period following the Buddha’s life, along with the Hindu temple architecture. Brahmanist temples at this time followed a simple plan – a square inner space, the sacrificial arena, often with a surrounding ambulatory route separated by lines of columns, with a conical or rectangular sloping roof, behind a porch or entrance area, generally framed by freestanding columns or a colonnade. The external profile represents Mount Meru, the abode of the gods and centre of the universe. The dimensions and proportions were dictated by sacred mathematical formulae. This simple plan was adopted by Early Buddhists, sometimes adapted with additional cells for monks at the periphery (especially in the early cave temples such as at Ajanta, India). In essence the basic plan survives to this day in Buddhist temples throughout the world. The profile became elaborated and the characteristic mountain shape seen today in many Hindu temples was used in early Buddhist sites and continued in similar fashion in some cultures(such as the Khmer). In others, such as Japan and Thailand, local influences and differing religious practices led to different architecture. Gupta period temple at Sanchi besides the Apsidal hall with Maurya foundation Evolution of Budhhist Architecture Early Buddhist Architecture
  4. 4. Early temples were often timber, and little trace remains, although stone was increasingly used. Cave temples such as those at Ajanta have survived better and preserve the plan form, porch and interior arrangements from this early period. As the functions of the monastery-temple expanded, the plan form started to diverge from the Brahmanist tradition and became more elaborate, providing sleeping, eating and study accommodation. A characteristic new development at religious sites was the stupa. Stupas were originally more sculpture than building, essentially markers of some holy site or commemorating a holy man who lived there. Later forms are more elaborate and also in many cases refer back to the Mount Meru model. One of the earliest Buddhist sites still in existence is at Sanchi, India, and this is centred on a stupa said to have been built by King Ashoka (273-236 BCE). The original simple structure is encased in a later, more decorative one, and over two centuries the whole site was elaborated upon. The four cardinal points are marked by elaborate stone gateways. As with Buddhist art, architecture followed the spread of Buddhism throughout south and east Asia and it was the early Indian models that served as a first reference point, even though Buddhism virtually disappeared from India itself in the 10th century. The Borobudur Temple, Indonesia Buddist Temple during Gupta Period.
  5. 5. Temples became Backdrop for Budhha images As Buddhism spread, Buddhist architecture diverged in style, reflecting the similar trends in Buddhist art. Building form was also influenced to some extent by the different forms of Buddhism in the northern countries, practicing Mahayana Buddhism in the main and in the south where Theravada Buddhism prevailed. Budhhist architecture diverged in style Decoration of Buddhist sites became steadily more elaborate through the last two centuries BCE, with the introduction of tablets and friezes, including human figures, particularly on stupas. However, the Buddha was not represented in human form until the 1st century CE. Instead, aniconic symbols were used. This is treated in more detail in Buddhist art, Aniconic phase. It influenced the development of temples, which eventually became a backdrop for Buddha images in most cases.
  6. 6. More sophisticated rock-cut chaityas developed later. The final form of rock-cut architecture that developed from these early forms can be seen all over India in Andhra Pradesh, Kathiawar in Gujarat and in Ajanta & Ellora. The rock formation in all these areas were most suited for these rock cut structures. Alternating layers of hard and soft rock prevents moisture from seeping inside. They began the work from the top & continued downward. The Buddhists were the main contributors to these rock-cut monuments and best monuments are those found in Ajanta & Ellora. Fine sculptures adorn the walls. Figures of Buddha in various poses were cut out. What is a Chaitya ? Chaitya is like a prayer hall. It has pillars on side of a passage or a pathway leading to a Stupa. Of course since it is a prayer hall, it may contain stupas as Stupas generally contain relics of Buddha and are venerated and worshipped. There are two types based on religious belief - mahayana and hinayana. Ashoka constructed eight rock- cut halls in the Barabar & Nagarjuni hills and the one near Rajgir dedicated to Jaina monks. The Lomas Rishi, the Sudama (both in the Barabar hills) and the Sita Marhi (Nagarjuni hills) caves are fine examples of the Chaityas which resembled the wooden buildings of the period. Chaityas of Ajanta caves Section in perspective of rock cut Chaitya Hall at Karli
  7. 7. Chaitya Architecture They were rectangular halls, with finely polished interior walls. There were a number of well proportioned pillars, generally around 35, and a semi-circular roof. Opposite one entrance stood a stupa. All the pillars have capitals on them, with carvings of a kneeling elephant mounted on bell-shaped bases. The pillars had three parts: prop, which is the base which is buried into the ground; the shaft, the main body of the pillar which is polished and chiseled; and capital, the head of the pillar where figures of animals are carved. The Stupa at the end of the Chaitya Hall has an umbrella at the top. This Umbrella suggests association with Buddhism. There is a wooden facade, made out of teak wood. The facade makes it look as if the entire structure was resting on the back of an elephant with ivory tusks and metal ornaments. The chaityas were almost 40 meters long, 15 meters wide and 15 meters high. Architecturally, chaityas show similarities to ancient Roman architectural concepts of column and arch. The monks built many structures which were carved out of a single massive rock, done with hammer and chisel, bare hands. These were known as cave temples. About 1200 such cave temples were built throughout India. The most important of these are the Karla Caves, Ajanta Caves, Ellora Caves, Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves, Aurangabad Caves and the Pandavleni Caves. Plan and section of a Chaitya Hall
  8. 8. Architecture of Vihara Vihars are the rest houses of the Buddhist monks constructed in circular shape. example- Nagarjunakona Buddhist Vihara. The earlier structures were made of wood & soon developed from the primitive thatched huts into large sangharamas. These monasteries were generally designed in the old traditional Kushana pattern, a square block formed by four rows of cells along the four sides of an inner courtyard. They were usually built of stone or brick.As the monastic organization developed, they became elaborate brick structures with many adjuncts. Often they consisted of several stories and along the inner courtyard there usually ran a veranda supported on pillars. In some of them a stupa or shrine with a dais appeared. Within the shrine stood the icon of Buddha, Bodhisattva or Buddhist female deities. More or less the same plan was followed in building monastic establishments in Bengal and Bihar during the Gupta and Pala Empire period. In course of time monasteries became important centres of learning.At the age of Mauryan emperor Ashoka the great the Mahabodhi Temple was built in the form of vihara Plan of a Chaitya Hall and Vihara Vihara in Candy, Sri Lanka
  9. 9. A short video clip on Vihara Architecture
  10. 10. Buddhist Architecture- Stupa STUPA IS MOUND OF THE EARTH ENCLOSING A RELICCAN BE COMPARED WITH THE MASSIVE FORM OF THEGREAT PYRAMIDS OF EGYPT THEY ALSO CALLED AS THUPPA IN PALI, DAGABA INSIMBALI, TOPE IN ENGLISH & DHATUGRABH IN SANSKRIT.(DHATUGRABH=RELICS PRESERVED IN VESSEL CLASSIFIED INTO THREE TYPES. •SARIKA STUPA-raised over body relics. •PARIBHOJIKA STUPA - erected over the articles, like the bowl, the sanghati •UDDESHIKA ST UPA- Stupas built as commemorative monuments.
  11. 11. Saanchi Stupa • Sanchi Stupa is located 40 km north east of Bhopal, and 10 km from Besnagar and Vidisha in the central part of the state of Madhya Pradesh. • Sanchi Stupa was built by Ashoka (273-236 B.C.) • Sanchi Stupas is located on the top of the Sanchi hill, which raise about 100M high above the plain. • The 'Great Stupa' at Sanchi is the oldest stone structure in India
  12. 12. Structural Features Elevation Plan • The spherical dome symbolized the infinite space of the sky. The dome is called as anda or egg. • The dome is a solid brick work is 36.60M in dia, and 16.46M high. • a large hemispherical dome which is flat at the top, and crowned by a triple umbrella or Chattra on a pedestal surrounded by a square railing or Harmika. • a railing enclosed called Vedica which is about 3.35 M high leaving an ambulatory passage or pradikshina path with the gateways. • The upper ambulatory passage (midhi) 4.87M high from the ground and 1.8M wide. • There are four gateways known as Toronas at the cardinal points of the campus. Toronas built by ivory or metal worker.
  13. 13. Stone vedicaUpper Ambulatory 1.8m wide3.35m high Harmika or triple umbrella Suchi 60 cm dia Urdhava patas 45cm dia 60-90 cmc/c Ushnisha Steps leading to upper ambulatoryLower Ambulatory 3.35 m. high
  14. 14. Amravati Stupa• The Amravati Stupa is a famous specimen of the Buddhist art and architecture of ancient India. • It is located at Amravati in Andhra Pradesh, which is around 65 kms from the city of Vijayawada. Amravati Stupa is visited by hundreds of tourists and pilgrims. • The Great Stupa at Amravati was a large Buddhist monument built in south- eastern India between the second century B.C. And the third century A.D. It was a centre for religious activity and worship for hundred of years. Amravati Stupa
  15. 15. • The Stupa was a part of a complex of religious building built and paid for by local people. Over time, the stupa was added to and changed many times
  16. 16. SARNATH STUPA -Dharmaksha stupa•Built in 7th century. • A commemorative stupa. • situated 6.5KM to the north east of Banaras. •built by Ashoka and later rebuilt in the Gupta period. •The Stupa consist of large tower built in stone masonry at the basement for a height of 13M and in brick masonry above for a height 34M. •The facing of stone basement has 8 niches, •A line of sculptured ornaments run below it. • These niches were mostly provided to erect Buddha’s statue. Delicately carved with beautiful floral and geometrical patterns.
  17. 17. • its current shape, the stupa is a solid cylinder of bricks and stone reaching a height of 43.6 meters and having a diameter of 28 meters. • It is the most massive structure in Sarnath. The basement seems to have survived from Ashoka's structure: the stone facing is chiselled and displays delicate floral carvings of Gupta origin. • The wall is covered with exquisitely carved figures of humans and birds, as well as inscriptions in the Brāhmī script. • These stupas contain the relics of Buddha and are therefore important places of Buddhist pilgrimage. • Buddha gave his First Sermon in Sarnath and also founded the Sangha or Order of Monks here. The original Dhamekh Stupa built with mud
  18. 18. Bharhut stupa • The Bharhut stupa may have been first built by the Mauryan king Ashoka in the 3rd century BCE, but many works of art were apparently added during the Shunga period, with many friezes from the 2nd century BCE. • An epigraph on the gateway of the stupa mentions its erection "during the supremacy of the Shungas by Vatsiputra Dhanabhuti. • The complex in Bharhut included a medieval temple (plate II), which contained a colossal figure of the Buddha, along with fragments of sculptures showing the Buddha with images of Brahma, Indra etc. • The ruined stupa—nothing but foundations of the main structure (see Gallery)—is still in Bharhut; however, the gateways and railings have been dismantled and reassembled at the Indian Museum, Kolkata Madhya Pradesh, District Satna • Railings from bharhut stupa
  19. 19. A short video clip on Buddhist Stupas
  20. 20. Tibetan Buddhist architecture, in the cultural regions of the Tibetan people, has been highly influenced by Nepal, China and India. For example, the Buddhist prayer wheel, along with two dragons, can be seen on nearly every temple in Tibet. Many of the houses and monasteries are typically built on elevated, sunny sites facing the south. Rocks, wood, cement and earth are the primary building materials. Flat roofs are built to conserve heat and multiple windows are constructed to let in the sunlight. Due to frequent earthquakes, walls are usually sloped inward at 10 degrees. Buddhism had a significant influence on Sri Lankan architecture after it was introduced to the island in the 3rd century BC, and ancient Sri Lankan architecture was mainly religious, with more than 25 styles of Buddhist monasteries. Monasteries were designed using the Manjusri Vasthu Vidya Sastra, a manuscript which outlines the layout of the structure. The text is in Sanskrit but written in Sinhala script. The script is believed to be from the 5th century, It is exclusively about Buddhist monasteries and is clearly from the Mahayana school. Tibetan Buddhist Architecture Buddhist Architecture of Sri Lanka Tibetan Buddhist Monastery
  21. 21. Pagodas are the principle form of Buddhist architecture, which are used as religious multistory Buddhist towers, erected as a memorial or shrine. They are symbols of five elements of the universe - earth, water, fire, air and ether, and along with them, the most important factor - Consciousness, which is the ultimate reality. The early Buddhists had started using the royal symbol of 'Pagoda', by applying an umbrella-like structure to symbolise the Buddha, which soon took over the functions of the Stupas. In the 3rd century BCE, an Indian emperor Ashoka, who had converted to Buddhism, promoted the Pagodas by building 84,000 of them throughout India, and since then, Pagodas have been an inseparable parts of all those countries, which practice Buddhism : China, Japan, Korea, India and Southeast Asia. Myanmar houses the Mahamuni Pagoda, one of the most important pagodas in Mandalay, which has an ancient statue of the Buddha, brought there by king Bodawpaya in 1784 CE. The Indian Pagodas, full of carvings and sculptures, are mainly pyramidical in shape and taper to apex, whereas those of China and other Asian regions are Pagodas

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