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Romanesque Architecture

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Romanesque Architecture

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Romanesque Architecture

  1. 1. Abhishek K. Venkitaraman Assistant Professor HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE LECTURE 7 Romanasque Architecture
  2. 2. OUTLINE • SETTING (HISTORY OF SOCIETY) • RELIGION • “ROMANESQUE” • MATERIALS • CHARACTERISTICS • ARCHES, COLUMNS, PLANS • BUILDING TYPES and EXAMPLES • CRUSADES
  3. 3. SETTING MIGRATION AND INVASION OF TRIBES = DECLINE OF ROME AND BEGINNING OF DARK AGES
  4. 4. SETTING – THE CRUSADES • Were a series of religiously sanctioned military campaigns waged by western Christian Europe • Objective: To restore Christian Control over the Holy Land • Effect: Brought about different movements resulting in “roman-like” decoration of buildings
  5. 5. RELIGION ACROSS EUROPE, THE LATE 11TH AND 12TH CENTURIES SAW AN UNPRECEDENTED GROWTH IN THE NUMBER OF CHURCHES
  6. 6. RELIGION IN THE MIDDLE AGES • Christianity was the chief source of education and culture. • THE MONASTIC SYSTEM – Religious became members of an order with common ties and a common rule, living in a mutually dependent community. – Promoted new methods in agriculture. – Exercised influence on architecture
  7. 7. • THE PILGRIMAGE – Long trips to visit the relics of Saints – Allowed for the exchange of ideas, including those of architecture and construction. – The Pilgrims’ way was filled with Romanesque churches, monasteries, inns, and castles.
  8. 8. ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE WHY “ROMANESQUE”?
  9. 9. • Romanesque = “Roman- like” • This style grew in those countries of Western Europe which had been under the rule of Rome. • With the church as the unifying force, this period was devoted to the glorification of Christianity and the church was the predominant building type.
  10. 10. H I S T O RY • Architectural style in vogue between 900 and 1200 AD. • The period of medieval art referred to as Romanesque flourished in the 11th century. • The Christian Church was gaining tremendous power throughout Europe. • The Crusades were initiated to take back the Holy Land in the Middle East from the Muslims. • This ongoing holy war required many people to travel across the continent, which created an exchange of ideas and artistic styles. • The art of this period was mainly religious in theme, employing an emotional and expressive style intended to evoke powerful responses in the viewer.
  11. 11. + R o m a n e s q u e A r c h i t e c t u r e GEOGRAPHICAL INFUENCE Romanesque Architecture is the combination of Roman and Byzantine Architecture basically roman in style. They grew in the countries under the roman rule. The most common material used for construction were stone, brick marble or terra cotta, as well as ready-made columns and features from the old Roman buildings. INFLUENCING FACTORS GEOLOGICAL INFLUENCE
  12. 12. Southern Portion: a. Small windows to minimize sun shading. d. Flat roof CLIMACTIC INFLUENCE Northern Portion -- Dull climate contributed to the use of: a. Large windows to admit light. b. high pitch roof to throw off rain and snow RELIGIOUS INFLUENCE Christianity resulted into erection of a church. Papacy had great power and influence.
  13. 13. Establishment of “Feudal System”, Landlord built “castle” to separate them and protect them from the peasants. This castle was made with man-made canals. The style emerging in Western Europe based on Roman and Byzantine elements last until the Advent of Gothic Architecture in the Mid-12th Century. SOCIAL AND POLITICAL INFLUENCE HISTORICAL INFLUENCE
  14. 14. Expansion • The factors of the expansion of Romanesque arte were: • Development of feudal system, that demanded works (castles) • The expansion of religious orders (Benedictines), expanded the monasteries • The pilgrimage routes • The crusades
  15. 15. A R C H I T E C T U R E • Consisting of semi-circular arches, relatively massive walls supported by buttresses, and consequently smaller openings for natural light. • Term coined around 1825. • In architecture the Romanesque is typified by the use of the round arch, tunnel vaults, other features of Roman architecture and conspicuously heavy construction. • In painting and sculpture forms are often expressively distorted to convey religious emotion. • Relief sculpture and a fantastic approach to human form. • Note that Roman realism is not part of the Romanesque style.
  16. 16. CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES Developed in Italy, France, Germany and England Uses “Rib & Panel Vaulting” Two Types of Vaulting: Quadripartite (four-part vaulting) Sexpartite (six- part vaulting) (both were supported by “tiers”)
  17. 17. Use of corbelled Arches found underneath the eaves of a church. Use of Massive, Architectured wall structures, Round Arches & Powerful Vaults. In churches they used Latin Cross Plan Use of Rose window or Wheel window.
  18. 18. Typologies • There are three main architectonical typologies: Churches Monasteries Castles
  19. 19. Construction Techniques The Romanesque style of the tenth to the twelfth centuries was remarkable for the tentative use of a new construction principle; the deliberate articulation of structure in which each construction part played a designed role in establishing equilibrium. The general character of the Romanesque style is sober and dignified, while formal massing depends on the grouping of towers and projection of transepts and choir. The character depends on the employment of vaulting, based initially on Roman methods.
  20. 20. Roman cross-vaults were used throughout Europe till the beginning of the twelfth century, but they were heavy and difficult to construct and were gradually superseded by rib and panel’ vaulting, in which a framework of ribs supported thin stone panels. The new method considered in designing the profile of the transverse, longitudinal and diagonal ribs to which the form of the panels was adapted.
  21. 21. Church • Type of covers: Barrel vault: it was used mainly to cover the central nave Groin vault was common in aisles and ambulatory Dome: spherical were used in apses. The central could stand on pendentives or squinches
  22. 22. BUTTRESSES Romanesque buttresses are generally of flat square profile. In the case of aisled churches, barrel vaults, or half-barrel vaults over the aisles helped to buttress the nave, if it was vaulted. In the cases where half-barrel vaults were used, they effectively became like flying buttresses.. Often aisles extended through two storeys, so as to better support the weight of a vaulted nave.
  23. 23. ARCHES, COLUMNS, PLANS
  24. 24. BUILDING TYPES AND OTHER EXAMPLES
  25. 25. Hogwarts Castle
  26. 26. Suggested reading: http://list25.com/25-inspiring-works-romanesque-architecture/
  27. 27. Thank you

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