Abhishek K. Venkitaraman
HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE
• SETTING (HISTORY OF SOCIETY)
• ARCHES, COLUMNS, PLANS
• BUILDING TYPES and EXAMPLES
MIGRATION AND INVASION OF TRIBES = DECLINE OF ROME
AND BEGINNING OF DARK AGES
SETTING – THE CRUSADES
• Were a series of
waged by western
• Objective: To restore
Christian Control over the
• Effect: Brought about
resulting in “roman-like”
decoration of buildings
ACROSS EUROPE, THE LATE 11TH AND
12TH CENTURIES SAW AN
UNPRECEDENTED GROWTH IN THE
NUMBER OF CHURCHES
RELIGION IN THE MIDDLE AGES
• Christianity was the chief source of education
• THE MONASTIC SYSTEM
– Religious became members of an order with
common ties and a common rule, living in a
mutually dependent community.
– Promoted new methods in agriculture.
– Exercised influence on architecture
• THE PILGRIMAGE
– Long trips to visit the relics of Saints
– Allowed for the exchange of ideas, including those
of architecture and construction.
– The Pilgrims’ way was filled with Romanesque
churches, monasteries, inns, and castles.
• Romanesque = “Roman- like”
• This style grew in those countries of Western
Europe which had been under the rule of
• With the church as the unifying force, this
period was devoted to the glorification of
Christianity and the church was the
predominant building type.
H I S T O RY
• Architectural style in vogue between 900 and 1200 AD.
• The period of medieval art referred to as Romanesque flourished
in the 11th century.
• The Christian Church was gaining tremendous power throughout
• The Crusades were initiated to take back the Holy Land in the
Middle East from the Muslims.
• This ongoing holy war required many people to travel across the
continent, which created an exchange of ideas and artistic styles.
• The art of this period was mainly religious in theme, employing an
emotional and expressive style intended to evoke powerful
responses in the viewer.
+ R o m a n e s q u e A r c h i t e c t u r e
Romanesque Architecture is the combination of Roman and
Byzantine Architecture basically roman in style. They grew in
the countries under the roman rule.
The most common material used for construction were stone,
brick marble or terra cotta, as well as ready-made columns
and features from the old Roman buildings.
a. Small windows to minimize sun shading.
d. Flat roof
Northern Portion -- Dull climate contributed to the use of:
a. Large windows to admit light.
b. high pitch roof to throw off rain and snow
Christianity resulted into erection of a church. Papacy
had great power and influence.
Establishment of “Feudal System”, Landlord built “castle”
to separate them and protect them from the peasants. This
castle was made with man-made canals.
The style emerging in Western Europe based on Roman
and Byzantine elements last until the Advent of Gothic
Architecture in the Mid-12th Century.
SOCIAL AND POLITICAL INFLUENCE
• The factors of the expansion of Romanesque arte
• Development of feudal system,
that demanded works (castles)
• The expansion of religious orders (Benedictines),
expanded the monasteries
• The pilgrimage routes
• The crusades
A R C H I T E C T U R E
• Consisting of semi-circular arches, relatively massive walls
supported by buttresses, and consequently smaller openings for
• Term coined around 1825.
• In architecture the Romanesque is typified by the use of the round
arch, tunnel vaults, other features of Roman architecture and
conspicuously heavy construction.
• In painting and sculpture forms are often expressively distorted to
convey religious emotion.
• Relief sculpture and a fantastic approach to human form.
• Note that Roman realism is not part of the Romanesque style.
Developed in Italy, France, Germany and
Uses “Rib & Panel Vaulting”
Two Types of Vaulting:
Quadripartite (four-part vaulting)
Sexpartite (six- part vaulting)
(both were supported by “tiers”)
Use of corbelled Arches found underneath the eaves of a
Use of Massive, Architectured wall structures, Round Arches
& Powerful Vaults.
In churches they used Latin Cross Plan
Use of Rose window or Wheel window.
• There are three main architectonical typologies:
The Romanesque style of the tenth to the twelfth centuries was remarkable for the tentative
use of a new construction principle; the deliberate articulation of structure in which each
construction part played a designed role in establishing equilibrium.
The general character of the Romanesque style is sober and dignified, while formal massing
depends on the grouping of towers and projection of transepts and choir.
The character depends on the employment of vaulting, based initially on Roman methods.
Roman cross-vaults were used throughout Europe till the beginning of the twelfth century, but
they were heavy and difficult to construct and were gradually superseded by rib and panel’
vaulting, in which a framework of ribs supported thin stone panels. The new method
considered in designing the profile of the transverse, longitudinal and diagonal ribs to which
the form of the panels was adapted.
• Type of covers:
Barrel vault: it was
used mainly to cover
the central nave
Groin vault was
common in aisles and
Dome: spherical were used
in apses. The central could
stand on pendentives or
Romanesque buttresses are generally of flat
square profile. In the case of aisled churches,
barrel vaults, or half-barrel vaults over the
aisles helped to buttress the nave, if it was
vaulted. In the cases where half-barrel vaults
were used, they effectively became like flying
Often aisles extended through two storeys, so
as to better support the weight of a vaulted