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Module 1 - Social Change and Social Development


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How does social change and social development happen? Learn how to apply the principles of social change from the civil rights, feminist, and environmental movements to make positive improvements to animal welfare in this deck from WAN's Strategic Advocacy Course. You can visit the course at our website at:

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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Module 1 - Social Change and Social Development

  1. 1. Social Development & Social Change Module 1
  2. 2. Social Development: Background Module 1.1
  3. 3. Development The upward directional evolution of society towards greater levels of: Energy Efficiency Quality Productivity Complexity Comprehension Creativity Choice Mastery Enjoyment Accomplishment
  4. 4. Growth vs. Development Different phenomena, subject to different laws Growth = expansion of existing types and forms of activities Development = a qualitative enhancement
  5. 5. Social Development Social development is driven by the subconscious aspirations of society Society – and individuals – seek progressive fulfilment of a prioritized hierarchy of needs
  6. 6. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  7. 7. Energy and Breakthrough 1. Potential human energy restrained Through cultural values, social beliefs, political structures and physical security 2. Stage of readiness of society 3. New opportunity or challenge 4. Expression of surplus energy 5. Organized activity 6. Potential to achieve change 7. Collective will (critical mass) 8. Social Change
  8. 8. Institutionalizing Change Official structures Legislation Enforcement Transmission by education Cultural transmission by family
  9. 9. Learning & Application Two related aspects to social development: Learning/Discovery – expands consciousness Application – provides understanding and recognition of ability to make change
  10. 10. Sources of Cultural Change Invention – creating new ideas, products, social patterns Discovery – finding something new Diffusion – spreading ideas to other societies
  11. 11. Civil Society Reflect the gap between aspirations and present reality Large gap develops many organizations Pivotal role in promoting change Disenfranchisement leads to mobilization Public policy discussion and education Alliance building
  12. 12. Pioneers Subconscious preparedness of society Surplus energy Give voice to society’s subconscious aspirations
  13. 13. Pioneers cont. Levers/spearheads for collective advancement New ideas, new skills, new activities Breaks out of existing mold Are agents for social change If society is ready
  14. 14. Multiplier Effect If society is ready, the pioneer gains followers Public awareness grows Issue climbs up ‘hierarchy of needs’ Mass media interest Other groups adopt issue Critical mass
  15. 15. Be the Change!
  16. 16. Social Change Movements Module 1.2
  17. 17. Definition ‘A social movement is a conscious, collective, organized attempt to bring about or resist large-scale change in the social order by non- institutionalized means.’
  18. 18. Types of Social Movement Reform Revolutionary Resistance Expressive Seeks to change individuals through self-expression
  19. 19. Range of Change •Alterative •Redemptive •Reformative •Revolutionary
  20. 20. Dynamic of Social Movements Initiating event Spreading knowledge Spreading activism Mobilizing Organizing
  21. 21. Stages of Social Movement Social movements have a lifecycle, and move through various stages e.g. Incipiency/birth Coalescence Institutionalization or Fragmentation
  22. 22. Social Movement Stages
  23. 23. Social Movement Tactics Social movement tactics include: Negotiation Direct action Events/media stunts Demonstrations Propaganda Strikes, boycotts, non-cooperation Civil disobedience Parallel structures
  24. 24. Inspiring Social Change Movements Until justice rolls down like water… and righteousness like a mighty stream. -Martin Luther King
  25. 25. Gandhi and Non-Violence Gandhi developed philosophy of non-violent action, which spread worldwide Inspirations: Tolstoy, Thoreau, Bhagavad-Gita etc. Moral opposition to immorality Passive resistance Civil disobedience Satyagraha (truth and firmness or ‘soul force’)
  26. 26. Non-Violence Six strategic steps: Investigate Negotiate Educate Demonstrate Resist Be patient
  27. 27. U.S. Civil Rights Movement Movement for racial equality, which had two clear strands: Reform Southern Christian Leadership Council; Martin Luther King Jr. Revolutionary The Black Panthers, Malcolm X Martin Luther King’s non-violent protest was the dominant force in the movement He spent a month in India, studying Gandhi’s techniques
  28. 28. Martin Luther King The major principles of King’s non- violence movement were: Non-violence is a way of life for courageous people Non-violence seeks to win friendship and understanding Non-violence seeks to defeat injustices, not people Non-violence holds that suffering for a cause can educate and transform Non-violence chooses love instead of hate The universe is on the side of justice and right will prevail
  29. 29. King’s Tactics Sit-Ins E.g. at ‘whites-only’ lunch counters Freedom Riders Riding segregated buses across the South Demonstrations and Marches Police tactics (dogs, horses, cattle prods) added weight to the cause
  30. 30. Feminist Movement Two main waves: 1st wave Right to vote, own property, divorce (to 1920) 2nd wave Extension of civil rights – owning credit card, equal rights, equal pay, education, reproductive and health rights, women in politics
  31. 31. Suffragettes Movement started peacefully Frustration led to direct action and radical tactics: Abuse shouted from boats to Parliament Politicians’ homes fire-bombed Vandalizing Oxford Street in London Burning churches Golf courses vandalized Famous chaining to railings - Buckingham Palace Suicide – under King’s horse
  32. 32. Environmental Movement From late 19th century – ‘wilderness’ issues 1963 Rachel Carson’s ‘Silent Spring’ Crises: Toxic smogs (1950s and 60s) 1960s radical movement emerging Youth from anti-war movement Late 1970s new grassroots movement Rise in range and number of groups Rise in issues covered
  33. 33. Frameworks for Social Change Movements Module 1.3
  34. 34. Advantages of Frameworks They help us to: Conceptualize our day-to-day work Understand how campaigns and movements change over time Understand stages of development, so we do not become disheartened or demotivated
  35. 35. Three Movement Stages “Every great movement has to experience three stages: Ridicule Discussion Adoption” -John Stuart Mill
  36. 36. Five Movement Stages Five major stages in the growth of the movement: Acceptance building (broad/softer education) Awareness/consensus building Legislation Action to embed legislation Functioning system of protection Based on comments from Kim Stallwood, Director of the US- based Animals and Society Institute
  37. 37. Five Stage Revolutionary Movement Framework Cultural preparation Organization-building Confrontation Mass non-cooperation Parallel institutions and new models develop *Assumes polarization increasing as movement develops From George Lakey (Globalise Liberation)
  38. 38. Six Stage Campaign Planning Framework  Gather information  Do education and leadership development  Negotiate with target  Increase motivation and commitment for the struggle ahead  Direct action  Create new relationship with opponent, which reflects the new power reality Martin Luther King Jr.
  39. 39. Eight Stage Reform Social Movement Framework 1. Business as usual 2. Failure of established channels 3. Ripening conditions: educating/organizing 4. Takeoff! 5. Perception of failure 6. Winning over the majority 7. Achieving alternatives 8. Consolidation and moving on Bill Moyer’s Movement Action Plan (MAP)
  40. 40. Module 1.4 The Animal Welfare Movement
  41. 41. History The history of the movement cannot be isolated from: Social change Culture Religion Politics Economics
  42. 42. Ethical Foundations Different ethical foundations affect the movement’s development, e.g. Native American Indians/Aborigines: Ancient tradition of respect for life Indian Gandhian values Buddhist & Hindu: compassion, nature and animals Western human-based morality, especially the Catholic church
  43. 43. The Movement’s Progress Any assessment of the movement’s progress depends on the perception of its role: Compassionate welfare activity or Movement for social change Social change is only being achieved if underlying injustices towards animals are being integrated and tackled institutionally by society
  44. 44. Advocacy vs. Service Delivery
  45. 45. Animal Welfare Organizations The organized movement started early in the 1800s (UK RSPCA in 1824) The number and scope of organizations has increased enormously (UK: 1,300+ USA: 13,000+). But how many social change agents? Compare and contrast the younger environmental movement (really ‘took off’ in 1960s)
  46. 46. International Awareness Evolving as an international issue: Advanced nations European Union Council of Europe World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Development (World Bank, FAO etc.) But: massive materialism and consumerism have increased exploitation
  47. 47. Challenges & Opportunities The policy environment is becoming increasingly ready for fundamental change The need to feel full pressure in favour of change and/or To be given the challenges and threats needed as catalysts for change The animal welfare movement is in dire need of a strong and powerful force for social change & advocacy is the engine for social change
  48. 48. Current Threats to the Movement Globalization Capitalism and consumerism Deregulation Reliance on science without precautionary principle Cooption (service delivery/fake consultation)
  49. 49. What is Needed for Success Grasping social change role! Increased professionalism and strategic ability Tackle problems at root Stop being coopted Updated and dynamic campaigning Tap into other vital social concerns Develop new paradigms/alternatives Collaborate and cooperate Really use new international focus of OIE
  50. 50. Social Development & Social Change