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Media &
Communications
Module 6
Mass Communication
The media is the only effective method of
mass communication
Which is vital when you need to achieve
‘critical mass’ for your issue
Media Importance
The media – press, radio and television (TV) – shapes
public opinion
It is probably the single most effective vehicle for
spreading social change messages
It is the most effective way of reaching mass
audiences
Which enables the animal protection movement to
reach new supporters (and move towards critical
mass)
It should be a leading priority for a campaigning
organization
Media Strategy
It is important to establish a media strategy to
enable the organization to work the media
proactively, as well as reactively
Effective forward planning can ensure that
you use the media for your own mission, rather
than be used by media to fit their own agenda
Proactive Media - Examples
Using research and investigations for in-depth
investigative programs
Lobby for program covering own work
Planning press conferences, demos, events,
campaign actions, photo-calls, celebrity
occasions etc.
Write/place feature articles (draft key points
for target media)
Reactive Media
Reactive media work can also be useful
But approach and extent still need to be
planned
Priorities need to be established and
resource constraints considered
Media Aims
Set an agenda
Put decision makers 'on notice'
Get people thinking
Soften the ground
Stimulate debate & awareness
of your issues
Turn concern into desire to ACT
Media Planning
Carefully plan the time and place of press
conferences and media events
Include visual impacts in planning
Decide the extent and limits of your search for
media
(e.g. What is appropriate to your organization’s
image and your message?)
Develop and use a celebrity strategy
Include media in research and investigations
planning
Media Planning cont.
Analyze audiences and target relevant media
Prepare and maintain a media contacts list, including
details of interests and past coverage
N.B. Commercial databases exist in some countries
Rank media and lobby the most important
systematically
Plan so the media has regular, but not too persistent,
approaches - with variety
Link to major world events, where possible
If seeking a high level of reactive coverage, decide
which subjects will be covered and establish a system
Use supporters as part of your media strategy –
particularly for local media
Methods of
Obtaining Coverage
Press releases
Press conferences/Media packs
Letters to editors
Writing articles
Making footage and photographs available
Media worthy demonstrations, events and photo-calls
Use of celebrities
Advertising
Helping documentaries/investigative programs
Agreeing to be featured on topical issues
Persuading ‘soaps’ to take up your cause/campaign
Media Hits
Type of stories that make it into the media:
'We name the guilty'
'We reveal the startling facts'
'The powerless will fight'
'Underdogs win'
'Shock statement'
'Incredible facts'
'Cuddly pets' (the aw factor)
13 Steps to Successful
Coverage
1. Keep it short
2. Think headlines
3. Use consistent slogans/’sound
bites’
4. Do it regularly
5. Be positive
6. Set the agenda
13 Steps cont.
7. Be visual
8. Appeal to emotions in news
stories
9. Entertain
10. Match the medium
11. Limit the campaign segment
12. Use events to boost your release
13. Develop your theme over time
Media Contacts
Only put forward ‘newsworthy’ items
Always remember the visual
In all contacts, give essentials before background
Always be factual and accurate
Think carefully about media opportunities/requests
Respond immediately to media inquiries - deadlines
Never lie to a reporter
You can protect sources
Never use ‘off the record’ briefings!
Always be helpful and polite
Local media may be easier targets (especially if local
angle)
Targeting
Target the right:
Publication/TV station: Your
target groups
Column/article
Journalist: Position and
individual
Message: to target groups and
media
Timing/schedule
Letters to Editors
Keep letter tightly composed
Use specific examples
One point per letter
Accurate, up-to-date information
Don’t make personal attacks on
those opposing your viewpoint
Always sign your name
Include contact details
Press Releases
Consider: the message, the audience, and the desired
result
Most important information in first paragraph
Rest in descending order of importance
Heading: short, eye catching, includes main points
First paragraph should answer 5W’s:
Who
What
When
Where
Why
Press Releases cont.
Body: Give essentials, then ‘background notes’.
Include:
One issue only
Background on organization
One page only – short and to the point
Quotes – from credible figure, include ‘sound
bites’ that are readily quoted and
remembered
Photo opportunities
Facts only – don’t exaggerate
Statistics
Press Releases cont.
Background notes include:
Contact details
Any explanations for clarity but not publication
An ‘all hours’ contact and phone number and
spokesperson details
(If you are doing a national release, try to find
local people to be available to speak to local
media)
Send press releases to named journalist, where
possible
Follow up with a call afterwards, ostensibly to
offer them something further
TV and Radio
Don’t forget news directors of radio and TV
stations when circulating press releases
You will need a visual angle for TV
 A picture tells a thousand stories!
(Videos should be broadcast quality (Betacam
or Mini DV) with separate sound tracks)
TV and Radio Interviews
Prepare well for radio and TV interviews
Find out the aim and angle of the interview
Why you, and who else will be interviewed?
Ask for type of questions to be asked, and the
first question
Live or recorded?
Who will be interviewer?
Length of interview?
Audience?
Interview Preparation
Research the issues
Research the program
Formulate and learn 3 Main ‘points to
make’
Consider all possible questions and
practice answers
Be sure of your facts
‘Off the cuff’ quotes should be well
rehearsed
Interview Tips: Dos
Dress smartly
Be punctual
Be relaxed, be yourself
Answer crisply and directly, speak slowly and
clearly
Give ‘sound bites’ of around 20 seconds
Get your main points in
Always sound reasonable and thoughtful
Paint pictures, use examples
Be positive and upbeat
Mention your organization
Interview Tips: Don’ts
Exaggerate
Lose your cool
Be aggressive, even if challenged
Be tricked by leading questions
Waffle or ramble on
Get side-tracked from your message
Press Conferences
Planning should include:
Choose chairperson
Key ‘points to make’
Good quotes/examples
Considering all possible questions beforehand
and prepare
Ensuring everybody is well briefed
Giving media reminder call on day before
conference
Making certain audio systems are flawless
Name plates on the ‘top table’
Press Conferences cont.
You will need to know:
Location that will attract reporters
Hour press most likely to attend
How far in advance press to be notified, and
best method for notifying
Press conference presentations should be
brief, with more time for questions
Visual evidence presented at the conference
should be brief and full of impact
Media Packs
Copy Press Release
Background information on the
organization
Background information on the issue
Photo CD (or thumbnails of available
photos)
Details of further information available
(e.g. reports, footage/Betacams)
NB. Keep list of Press Conference
attendees for follow-up
Criticism
Get an independent expert speaker to answer
the criticism
Reclaim the agenda - redefine the issue in a
more appropriate light
This is hard because once you are responding to
criticism you no longer have control over the
agenda
Divert attention away from the issue by having
an event or a press release on a different but
related topic
You will need a credible and firm spokesperson
for each of these options
Mobilizing
Media is not just about getting
messages or issues across…
It is about reaching people
emotionally, in order to translate
knowledge into action
Media Evaluation
Evaluate against objectives
Celebrate successes
Replicate successful formulas
Don’t apportion blame
Use as opportunity for improvement
Communicate and learn through
failures
No ‘One Size Fits All’
The media in each country works differently
What makes absolutely no impact in one country may
be novel and hit the headlines in another!
Factors:
The level of press freedom
Extent of private media
Links to advertisers
Most popular media (TV, radio, papers)
Relevant magazines, programs etc.
The stage of development of animal protection issues
Each organization needs to ‘try and test’ approaches,
evaluate these, and build successful formulas into
media planning.
Communicating Your
Message
Communications
The 3 W’s
Define your purpose WHY?
Know your audience WHO?
Select content and structure WHAT?
Target Audiences
It is vital to identify your
target audiences and
speak directly to them
Make your message a
simple campaign against
the unacceptable
Always give ways to help!
Communications Impact
Grab attention
Make an impact
Compel action
Powerful conclusion - memorable
33%60%
Approximately
7% depends of words used
33% on voice and intonation
60% on body language
7%
Internet Campaigning
The Internet is fast-becoming a major
campaigning tool
It provides a fast and cheap way to relay
information, including pictures and video
Can provide instant lobby facility
Social media is vital in any media strategy.
Communicating with
Supporters
Valuing Supporters
Your supporters are vital to your work
To gain maximum benefit from them you
need to:
Communicate with them appropriately
Don’t send them inappropriate requests
Make them feel special and valued
Targeting
Supporters need to be categorized in order to
be addressed appropriately e.g.
 Activists
Letter-writers
Media contacters
Office volunteers
Fundraisers
Donors
Legacy prospects
And also interests noted e.g. which
campaigns/projects they support
Supporter Development
Just as with fundraising, the aim with supporters
should be to move them up the pyramid of
involvement e.g.
Activists
Enquirers
Responders
Occasional campaigners
Occasional protest writers
Regular
campaigners
Regular writers
Engagement
To take supporters beyond
awareness to engagement you
need to:
Move the problem up their list of
priorities
By indicating: seriousness and/or
urgency
Show them that they can make a
difference
Make their job easy!
Making Activists
The seven-stage model for engagement is:
Ignorance
Knowledge
Motivation
Skills/Resources
Optimism
Facilitation
Reinforcement
There’s More!
Don’t forget the Module
notes which refer to the
many advocacy tools
on media and various
communications!
Public Action/Pressure
"Public opinion is everything.
With public sentiment
nothing can fail. Without it,
nothing can succeed."
— Abraham Lincoln

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Module 6 - Media and Communications

  • 2. Mass Communication The media is the only effective method of mass communication Which is vital when you need to achieve ‘critical mass’ for your issue
  • 3. Media Importance The media – press, radio and television (TV) – shapes public opinion It is probably the single most effective vehicle for spreading social change messages It is the most effective way of reaching mass audiences Which enables the animal protection movement to reach new supporters (and move towards critical mass) It should be a leading priority for a campaigning organization
  • 4. Media Strategy It is important to establish a media strategy to enable the organization to work the media proactively, as well as reactively Effective forward planning can ensure that you use the media for your own mission, rather than be used by media to fit their own agenda
  • 5. Proactive Media - Examples Using research and investigations for in-depth investigative programs Lobby for program covering own work Planning press conferences, demos, events, campaign actions, photo-calls, celebrity occasions etc. Write/place feature articles (draft key points for target media)
  • 6. Reactive Media Reactive media work can also be useful But approach and extent still need to be planned Priorities need to be established and resource constraints considered
  • 7. Media Aims Set an agenda Put decision makers 'on notice' Get people thinking Soften the ground Stimulate debate & awareness of your issues Turn concern into desire to ACT
  • 8. Media Planning Carefully plan the time and place of press conferences and media events Include visual impacts in planning Decide the extent and limits of your search for media (e.g. What is appropriate to your organization’s image and your message?) Develop and use a celebrity strategy Include media in research and investigations planning
  • 9. Media Planning cont. Analyze audiences and target relevant media Prepare and maintain a media contacts list, including details of interests and past coverage N.B. Commercial databases exist in some countries Rank media and lobby the most important systematically Plan so the media has regular, but not too persistent, approaches - with variety Link to major world events, where possible If seeking a high level of reactive coverage, decide which subjects will be covered and establish a system Use supporters as part of your media strategy – particularly for local media
  • 10. Methods of Obtaining Coverage Press releases Press conferences/Media packs Letters to editors Writing articles Making footage and photographs available Media worthy demonstrations, events and photo-calls Use of celebrities Advertising Helping documentaries/investigative programs Agreeing to be featured on topical issues Persuading ‘soaps’ to take up your cause/campaign
  • 11. Media Hits Type of stories that make it into the media: 'We name the guilty' 'We reveal the startling facts' 'The powerless will fight' 'Underdogs win' 'Shock statement' 'Incredible facts' 'Cuddly pets' (the aw factor)
  • 12. 13 Steps to Successful Coverage 1. Keep it short 2. Think headlines 3. Use consistent slogans/’sound bites’ 4. Do it regularly 5. Be positive 6. Set the agenda
  • 13. 13 Steps cont. 7. Be visual 8. Appeal to emotions in news stories 9. Entertain 10. Match the medium 11. Limit the campaign segment 12. Use events to boost your release 13. Develop your theme over time
  • 14. Media Contacts Only put forward ‘newsworthy’ items Always remember the visual In all contacts, give essentials before background Always be factual and accurate Think carefully about media opportunities/requests Respond immediately to media inquiries - deadlines Never lie to a reporter You can protect sources Never use ‘off the record’ briefings! Always be helpful and polite Local media may be easier targets (especially if local angle)
  • 15. Targeting Target the right: Publication/TV station: Your target groups Column/article Journalist: Position and individual Message: to target groups and media Timing/schedule
  • 16. Letters to Editors Keep letter tightly composed Use specific examples One point per letter Accurate, up-to-date information Don’t make personal attacks on those opposing your viewpoint Always sign your name Include contact details
  • 17. Press Releases Consider: the message, the audience, and the desired result Most important information in first paragraph Rest in descending order of importance Heading: short, eye catching, includes main points First paragraph should answer 5W’s: Who What When Where Why
  • 18. Press Releases cont. Body: Give essentials, then ‘background notes’. Include: One issue only Background on organization One page only – short and to the point Quotes – from credible figure, include ‘sound bites’ that are readily quoted and remembered Photo opportunities Facts only – don’t exaggerate Statistics
  • 19. Press Releases cont. Background notes include: Contact details Any explanations for clarity but not publication An ‘all hours’ contact and phone number and spokesperson details (If you are doing a national release, try to find local people to be available to speak to local media) Send press releases to named journalist, where possible Follow up with a call afterwards, ostensibly to offer them something further
  • 20. TV and Radio Don’t forget news directors of radio and TV stations when circulating press releases You will need a visual angle for TV  A picture tells a thousand stories! (Videos should be broadcast quality (Betacam or Mini DV) with separate sound tracks)
  • 21. TV and Radio Interviews Prepare well for radio and TV interviews Find out the aim and angle of the interview Why you, and who else will be interviewed? Ask for type of questions to be asked, and the first question Live or recorded? Who will be interviewer? Length of interview? Audience?
  • 22. Interview Preparation Research the issues Research the program Formulate and learn 3 Main ‘points to make’ Consider all possible questions and practice answers Be sure of your facts ‘Off the cuff’ quotes should be well rehearsed
  • 23. Interview Tips: Dos Dress smartly Be punctual Be relaxed, be yourself Answer crisply and directly, speak slowly and clearly Give ‘sound bites’ of around 20 seconds Get your main points in Always sound reasonable and thoughtful Paint pictures, use examples Be positive and upbeat Mention your organization
  • 24. Interview Tips: Don’ts Exaggerate Lose your cool Be aggressive, even if challenged Be tricked by leading questions Waffle or ramble on Get side-tracked from your message
  • 25. Press Conferences Planning should include: Choose chairperson Key ‘points to make’ Good quotes/examples Considering all possible questions beforehand and prepare Ensuring everybody is well briefed Giving media reminder call on day before conference Making certain audio systems are flawless Name plates on the ‘top table’
  • 26. Press Conferences cont. You will need to know: Location that will attract reporters Hour press most likely to attend How far in advance press to be notified, and best method for notifying Press conference presentations should be brief, with more time for questions Visual evidence presented at the conference should be brief and full of impact
  • 27. Media Packs Copy Press Release Background information on the organization Background information on the issue Photo CD (or thumbnails of available photos) Details of further information available (e.g. reports, footage/Betacams) NB. Keep list of Press Conference attendees for follow-up
  • 28. Criticism Get an independent expert speaker to answer the criticism Reclaim the agenda - redefine the issue in a more appropriate light This is hard because once you are responding to criticism you no longer have control over the agenda Divert attention away from the issue by having an event or a press release on a different but related topic You will need a credible and firm spokesperson for each of these options
  • 29. Mobilizing Media is not just about getting messages or issues across… It is about reaching people emotionally, in order to translate knowledge into action
  • 30. Media Evaluation Evaluate against objectives Celebrate successes Replicate successful formulas Don’t apportion blame Use as opportunity for improvement Communicate and learn through failures
  • 31. No ‘One Size Fits All’ The media in each country works differently What makes absolutely no impact in one country may be novel and hit the headlines in another! Factors: The level of press freedom Extent of private media Links to advertisers Most popular media (TV, radio, papers) Relevant magazines, programs etc. The stage of development of animal protection issues Each organization needs to ‘try and test’ approaches, evaluate these, and build successful formulas into media planning.
  • 33. Communications The 3 W’s Define your purpose WHY? Know your audience WHO? Select content and structure WHAT?
  • 34. Target Audiences It is vital to identify your target audiences and speak directly to them Make your message a simple campaign against the unacceptable Always give ways to help!
  • 35. Communications Impact Grab attention Make an impact Compel action Powerful conclusion - memorable 33%60% Approximately 7% depends of words used 33% on voice and intonation 60% on body language 7%
  • 36. Internet Campaigning The Internet is fast-becoming a major campaigning tool It provides a fast and cheap way to relay information, including pictures and video Can provide instant lobby facility Social media is vital in any media strategy.
  • 38. Valuing Supporters Your supporters are vital to your work To gain maximum benefit from them you need to: Communicate with them appropriately Don’t send them inappropriate requests Make them feel special and valued
  • 39. Targeting Supporters need to be categorized in order to be addressed appropriately e.g.  Activists Letter-writers Media contacters Office volunteers Fundraisers Donors Legacy prospects And also interests noted e.g. which campaigns/projects they support
  • 40. Supporter Development Just as with fundraising, the aim with supporters should be to move them up the pyramid of involvement e.g. Activists Enquirers Responders Occasional campaigners Occasional protest writers Regular campaigners Regular writers
  • 41. Engagement To take supporters beyond awareness to engagement you need to: Move the problem up their list of priorities By indicating: seriousness and/or urgency Show them that they can make a difference Make their job easy!
  • 42. Making Activists The seven-stage model for engagement is: Ignorance Knowledge Motivation Skills/Resources Optimism Facilitation Reinforcement
  • 43. There’s More! Don’t forget the Module notes which refer to the many advocacy tools on media and various communications!
  • 44. Public Action/Pressure "Public opinion is everything. With public sentiment nothing can fail. Without it, nothing can succeed." — Abraham Lincoln