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SOCIAL ACTION
in the fields of Social Work
Presented by
Rahul Mahida
Assistant professor
CONCEPT OF SOCIAL ACTION
• Social action is considered an auxiliary method of professional
social work. As one of the methods of working with people, it has
remained a debatable issue among the social work professionals.
• Social action is a method of social work used for mobilizing
masses in order to bring about structural changes in the social
system or to prevent adverse changes.
• It is an organised effort to change or improve social and economic
institutions. Some of the social problems like dowry system,
destruction of natural resources, alcoholism, poor housing,
health, etc. can be tackled through social action.
Conti…
As a method of professional social work, social action has
remained an issue with wide ranging of opinions regarding its
scope, strategies and tactics to be used, its status as a method
and its relevance to social work practice. Mary Richmond was the
first social worker to use the word ‘social action’ in 1922.
She defines social action as “mass betterment through
propaganda and social legislation”.
DEFINITION(S)
•Baldwin (1966) defines social action as “an organised effort to
change social and economic institutions as distinguished from social
work or social service, the fields which do not characteristically cover
essential changes in established institutions. Social action covers
movements of political reforms, industrial democracy, social
legislation, racial and social justice, religious freedom and civic liberty
and its techniques include propaganda, research and lobbying”
• Friedlander (1977) defines “social action as an individual, group or
community effort within the framework of social work philosophy
and practice that aims to achieve social progress, to modify social
policies and to improve social legislation and health and welfare
services”
Conti…
• Wickendon, 1956: “social action is a term applied to that aspect
of organised social welfare actively directed towards shaping,
modifying or maintaining the social institutions and policies that
collectively constitute the social environment.”
• Moorthy, (1966): states that the scope of social action includes
work during catastrophic situations such as fires, floods, epidemics,
famines, etc., besides securing social legislation.
• Nanawati (1965) views social action as “a process of bringing
about the desired changes by deliberate group and community
efforts. Social action does not end with the enactment of social
legislation, but the execution of the policies was the real test of
success or failure of social action”.
OBJECTIVE OF SOCIAL ACTION
The objective of social action is the proper shaping and development of
socio-cultural environment in which a richer and fuller life may be
possible for all the citizens. Mishra (1992) has identified following goals
of social action:
1) Prevention of needs;
2) Solution of mass problems;
3) Improvement in mass conditions;
4) Influencing institutions, policies and practices;
5) Introduction of new mechanisms or programmes;
6) Redistribution of power and resources (human, Decision-making;)
8) Effect on thought and action structure; and
9) Improvement in health, education and welfare.
PRINCIPLES OF SOCIAL ACTION
• PRINCIPLES Considering Gandhian principle of mobilization as a
typical example of the direct mobilization model of social action Britto
(1984) brings out the following principles of social action:
1. Principle of Credibility Building
2. Principle of Legitimization
3. Principle of Dramatization
4. Principle of Multiple Strategies
5. Principle of Dual Approach
6. Principle of Manifold Programmes
1.Principle Of Credibility Building
• It is the task of creating public image of leadership, the
organization and the participants of the movement as champions
of justice, rectitude and truth. It helps in securing due
recognition from the opponent, the reference- public and the
peripheral participants of the movement.
• Credibility can be built through one or many of the following
ways:
1) Gestures of goodwill towards the opponent.
2) Example setting
3) Selection of typical urgently felt problems for struggles
4) Success
2.Principle of Legitimisation
• legitimization is the process of convincing the target group and the
general public that the movement- objectives are morally right.
• Leaders of the movement might use theological, philosophical, legal-
technical, public opinion paths to establish the tenability of the
movement’s objectives.
• Legitimization is a continuous process. Following are the three
approaches to legitimization:
Theological and religious approach
Moral approach
Legal and technical approach
3.Principle of Dramatization
• Dramatization is the principle of mass mobilisation by which the
leaders of a movement galvanize the population into action by
emotional appeals to heroism, sensational news- management, novel
procedures, pungent slogans and such other techniques.
• Almost every leader mobilising the masses, uses this principle of
dramatization. The following are the techniques:
Use of songs
Powerful speeches
Role of women
Boycott
Slogans
4.Principle of Multiple Strategies
• There are two basic approaches to development: conflictual and non-
conflictual. Taking the main thrust of a programme, one can classify it
as political, economic or social.
• The basket principle indicates the adoption of a multiple strategy, using
combined approaches and also a combination of different types of
programmes.
• Zeltman and Duncan have identified four development strategies from
their experience of community development. These have been framed
for use in social action. They are:
Educational strategy
Persuasive strategy
Facilitative strategy
Power strategy
5.Principle of Dual Approach
• Any activist has to build counter-systems or revive some
unused system, which is thought to be beneficial to the
mobilized public on a self-help basis without involving the
opponent.
• This is a natural requirement consequent upon the attempt
to destroy the system established/maintained by the
opponents.
• This cooperative effort indicates that Gandhians adopted or
attempted to a dual approach in their mobilization.
6.Principle Of Manifold Programmes
•This principle means developing a variety of
programmes with the ultimate objective of mass
mobilization. These can be broadly categorized
into three parts:
Economic Programs
Social Programs
Political Programs
SCOPE OF SOCIAL ACTION
• The scope of social action is very vast and it is one of the
most apt methods of social work practice even in today’s
context as the approach of social work practice has shifted
from charity to empowerment, the scope of social work has
expanded enormously.
• The innovative approaches, participatory techniques,
outreach, and holistic thinking are critically important in
creating a better world, which is indeed the vision of social
work profession.
Conti…
• It is important to understand the systems from the
perspective of social work intervention which
determines the scope of Social Action. They are:
Change Agent System
Client System
Target System
Action System
PROCESS OF SOCIAL ACTION
The following steps forms part of Social Action. They are:
• The Initiating set
• The Legitimizers
• The Diffusion set
• Defining the need
• Commitment to action
• Goals
• Means
• Plan for action
• Mobilizing and organizing resources
• Launching the program
• Carrying out the program
• Final evaluation
SKILLS REQUIRED IN SOCIAL ACTION
• After understanding the concept and principles of social action, let us take a look
at the skills needed by social workers for social action. These skills are no
different from the general skills; professional social worker uses these skills by
combining the ethics and principles of professional social work. However, a social
worker using social action, as a method of social work, requires certain skills; the
more important among these are briefly described below.
• Relational Skills
• Analytical and Research Skills
• Intervention Skills
• Managerial Skills
• Communication Skills
• Training Skills
ISSUES & CHALLENGES
Let us now take a look at some of the critical issues, which influence
the success of mass mobilization and in turn, the achievement of set
goals through social action. As mentioned earlier social action uses a
number of strategies and tactics (details of these would be given in
subsequent units) and envisages the active role of many of
stakeholders.
This multiplicity of strategies and involvement of different stakeholders
demand meticulous planning and careful implementation. If not
addressed beforehand, these issues may lead to disruption of the
process and sometimes failure of planned interventions. The issues
that a professional social worker needs to keep in mind are:
Conti..
• Empowerment of the Clientele
• Dealing with Groupism
• Accountability
• Building Right Alliances
• Balancing Micro-Macro Issues
• Remaining Apolitical
CONCLUSION
• Social action is a secondary method of professional social work. It is
used for mobilizing masses in order to bring about structural changes
in the social system or to prevent negative changes. Certain social
problems like ecological balancing, bonded labour, child labour,
women empowerment, substance abuse, etc., can be tackled through
social action.
• The primary objective of social action is to bring about solutions to
mass problems, improve mass conditions and redistribute power and
resources(human, material and moral).
Reference
• Beena Antony, Archana Kaushik Social Work Intervention with
Communities and Institutions, Social Action: Concept and Principles
• Siddiqui, H.Y. (1984), Social Work and Social Action (ed.), Harnam
Publications.
• Moorthy, M.V. (1966), Social Action, Asia Publishing House, Bombay.
• Singh, Surender (1986), Social Action in Horizons of Social Work (ed).
By Surender Singh & K.S. Soodan, op. cit. p. 161
Presented by
Rahul Mahida
Thanks
For more content(related to social work and HRM/labour practice visit and follow
https://www.Slideshare.Net/rahulmahida1

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Social Action

  • 1. SOCIAL ACTION in the fields of Social Work Presented by Rahul Mahida Assistant professor
  • 2. CONCEPT OF SOCIAL ACTION • Social action is considered an auxiliary method of professional social work. As one of the methods of working with people, it has remained a debatable issue among the social work professionals. • Social action is a method of social work used for mobilizing masses in order to bring about structural changes in the social system or to prevent adverse changes. • It is an organised effort to change or improve social and economic institutions. Some of the social problems like dowry system, destruction of natural resources, alcoholism, poor housing, health, etc. can be tackled through social action.
  • 3. Conti… As a method of professional social work, social action has remained an issue with wide ranging of opinions regarding its scope, strategies and tactics to be used, its status as a method and its relevance to social work practice. Mary Richmond was the first social worker to use the word ‘social action’ in 1922. She defines social action as “mass betterment through propaganda and social legislation”.
  • 4. DEFINITION(S) •Baldwin (1966) defines social action as “an organised effort to change social and economic institutions as distinguished from social work or social service, the fields which do not characteristically cover essential changes in established institutions. Social action covers movements of political reforms, industrial democracy, social legislation, racial and social justice, religious freedom and civic liberty and its techniques include propaganda, research and lobbying” • Friedlander (1977) defines “social action as an individual, group or community effort within the framework of social work philosophy and practice that aims to achieve social progress, to modify social policies and to improve social legislation and health and welfare services”
  • 5. Conti… • Wickendon, 1956: “social action is a term applied to that aspect of organised social welfare actively directed towards shaping, modifying or maintaining the social institutions and policies that collectively constitute the social environment.” • Moorthy, (1966): states that the scope of social action includes work during catastrophic situations such as fires, floods, epidemics, famines, etc., besides securing social legislation. • Nanawati (1965) views social action as “a process of bringing about the desired changes by deliberate group and community efforts. Social action does not end with the enactment of social legislation, but the execution of the policies was the real test of success or failure of social action”.
  • 6. OBJECTIVE OF SOCIAL ACTION The objective of social action is the proper shaping and development of socio-cultural environment in which a richer and fuller life may be possible for all the citizens. Mishra (1992) has identified following goals of social action: 1) Prevention of needs; 2) Solution of mass problems; 3) Improvement in mass conditions; 4) Influencing institutions, policies and practices; 5) Introduction of new mechanisms or programmes; 6) Redistribution of power and resources (human, Decision-making;) 8) Effect on thought and action structure; and 9) Improvement in health, education and welfare.
  • 7. PRINCIPLES OF SOCIAL ACTION • PRINCIPLES Considering Gandhian principle of mobilization as a typical example of the direct mobilization model of social action Britto (1984) brings out the following principles of social action: 1. Principle of Credibility Building 2. Principle of Legitimization 3. Principle of Dramatization 4. Principle of Multiple Strategies 5. Principle of Dual Approach 6. Principle of Manifold Programmes
  • 8. 1.Principle Of Credibility Building • It is the task of creating public image of leadership, the organization and the participants of the movement as champions of justice, rectitude and truth. It helps in securing due recognition from the opponent, the reference- public and the peripheral participants of the movement. • Credibility can be built through one or many of the following ways: 1) Gestures of goodwill towards the opponent. 2) Example setting 3) Selection of typical urgently felt problems for struggles 4) Success
  • 9. 2.Principle of Legitimisation • legitimization is the process of convincing the target group and the general public that the movement- objectives are morally right. • Leaders of the movement might use theological, philosophical, legal- technical, public opinion paths to establish the tenability of the movement’s objectives. • Legitimization is a continuous process. Following are the three approaches to legitimization: Theological and religious approach Moral approach Legal and technical approach
  • 10. 3.Principle of Dramatization • Dramatization is the principle of mass mobilisation by which the leaders of a movement galvanize the population into action by emotional appeals to heroism, sensational news- management, novel procedures, pungent slogans and such other techniques. • Almost every leader mobilising the masses, uses this principle of dramatization. The following are the techniques: Use of songs Powerful speeches Role of women Boycott Slogans
  • 11. 4.Principle of Multiple Strategies • There are two basic approaches to development: conflictual and non- conflictual. Taking the main thrust of a programme, one can classify it as political, economic or social. • The basket principle indicates the adoption of a multiple strategy, using combined approaches and also a combination of different types of programmes. • Zeltman and Duncan have identified four development strategies from their experience of community development. These have been framed for use in social action. They are: Educational strategy Persuasive strategy Facilitative strategy Power strategy
  • 12. 5.Principle of Dual Approach • Any activist has to build counter-systems or revive some unused system, which is thought to be beneficial to the mobilized public on a self-help basis without involving the opponent. • This is a natural requirement consequent upon the attempt to destroy the system established/maintained by the opponents. • This cooperative effort indicates that Gandhians adopted or attempted to a dual approach in their mobilization.
  • 13. 6.Principle Of Manifold Programmes •This principle means developing a variety of programmes with the ultimate objective of mass mobilization. These can be broadly categorized into three parts: Economic Programs Social Programs Political Programs
  • 14. SCOPE OF SOCIAL ACTION • The scope of social action is very vast and it is one of the most apt methods of social work practice even in today’s context as the approach of social work practice has shifted from charity to empowerment, the scope of social work has expanded enormously. • The innovative approaches, participatory techniques, outreach, and holistic thinking are critically important in creating a better world, which is indeed the vision of social work profession.
  • 15. Conti… • It is important to understand the systems from the perspective of social work intervention which determines the scope of Social Action. They are: Change Agent System Client System Target System Action System
  • 16. PROCESS OF SOCIAL ACTION The following steps forms part of Social Action. They are: • The Initiating set • The Legitimizers • The Diffusion set • Defining the need • Commitment to action • Goals • Means • Plan for action • Mobilizing and organizing resources • Launching the program • Carrying out the program • Final evaluation
  • 17. SKILLS REQUIRED IN SOCIAL ACTION • After understanding the concept and principles of social action, let us take a look at the skills needed by social workers for social action. These skills are no different from the general skills; professional social worker uses these skills by combining the ethics and principles of professional social work. However, a social worker using social action, as a method of social work, requires certain skills; the more important among these are briefly described below. • Relational Skills • Analytical and Research Skills • Intervention Skills • Managerial Skills • Communication Skills • Training Skills
  • 18. ISSUES & CHALLENGES Let us now take a look at some of the critical issues, which influence the success of mass mobilization and in turn, the achievement of set goals through social action. As mentioned earlier social action uses a number of strategies and tactics (details of these would be given in subsequent units) and envisages the active role of many of stakeholders. This multiplicity of strategies and involvement of different stakeholders demand meticulous planning and careful implementation. If not addressed beforehand, these issues may lead to disruption of the process and sometimes failure of planned interventions. The issues that a professional social worker needs to keep in mind are:
  • 19. Conti.. • Empowerment of the Clientele • Dealing with Groupism • Accountability • Building Right Alliances • Balancing Micro-Macro Issues • Remaining Apolitical
  • 20. CONCLUSION • Social action is a secondary method of professional social work. It is used for mobilizing masses in order to bring about structural changes in the social system or to prevent negative changes. Certain social problems like ecological balancing, bonded labour, child labour, women empowerment, substance abuse, etc., can be tackled through social action. • The primary objective of social action is to bring about solutions to mass problems, improve mass conditions and redistribute power and resources(human, material and moral).
  • 21. Reference • Beena Antony, Archana Kaushik Social Work Intervention with Communities and Institutions, Social Action: Concept and Principles • Siddiqui, H.Y. (1984), Social Work and Social Action (ed.), Harnam Publications. • Moorthy, M.V. (1966), Social Action, Asia Publishing House, Bombay. • Singh, Surender (1986), Social Action in Horizons of Social Work (ed). By Surender Singh & K.S. Soodan, op. cit. p. 161
  • 22. Presented by Rahul Mahida Thanks For more content(related to social work and HRM/labour practice visit and follow https://www.Slideshare.Net/rahulmahida1