Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Methods of Social Work
Page 1
Chapter 1
Getting Started
1. Social Work Review
2. Methods of Social Work
 Primary methods
...
Methods of Social Work
Page 2
Social work review
The first thing that anyone wants to know about a
subject is its definiti...
Methods of Social Work
Page 3
workers don’t pick and choose what problems and issues
they would like to address. They see ...
Methods of Social Work
Page 4
principles and processes. Each of the methods have
different types of principle, techniques ...
Methods of Social Work
Page 5
Chapter 2
Social Casework
1. Historical Evolution of Social Case Work
2. Concept of social c...
Methods of Social Work
Page 6
Historical evolution of social casework
Social casework is a method of helping people
indivi...
Methods of Social Work
Page 7
more to the control of mendicancy than to the study of
individuals, nevertheless yielded dat...
Methods of Social Work
Page 8
any monetary rewards. They collected data about the needy
individuals and families and helpe...
Methods of Social Work
Page 9
family service association grew out of efforts of this great
pioneer movement. The first boo...
Methods of Social Work
Page
10
administration and the civilian conservation corporation
emerged. Thus major outcome of the...
Methods of Social Work
Page
11
theoretical course and as a method of practice in the
academic program started from the yea...
Methods of Social Work
Page
12
schooling, better medical facilities and better relationship
between religious groups. Soci...
Methods of Social Work
Page
13
Process: Case study, social study, problem identification,
intervention, evaluation, etc.
P...
Methods of Social Work
Page
14
"Social case work may be defined as the art of doing
different things for and with differen...
Methods of Social Work
Page
15
Thus, the social case work is both art and science of
resolving individual problems in soci...
Methods of Social Work
Page
16
1. Individual and society are interdependent and
complimentary to each other.
2. Various fa...
Methods of Social Work
Page
17
4. Every individual has within him/her, the potential
for growth and achievement and he/she...
Methods of Social Work
Page
18
5. Client centered / focused
All the activities in case work is always focused
towards clie...
Methods of Social Work
Page
19
Principles of the Case Work
The principles of social casework are applied in
establishing c...
Methods of Social Work
Page
20
the crux of all help. It embraces two basic ideas --- one
negative and one positive. He/she...
Methods of Social Work
Page
21
8. Principle of client self-determination
The client’s self-determination is the practical
...
Methods of Social Work
Page
22
1. Arousing and focusing attention and concern.
2. Organizing and evaluating the problem an...
Methods of Social Work
Page
23
1. The Person
The person is a man, woman or child or anyone who
finds himself/herself, or i...
Methods of Social Work
Page
24
4. Behavior is purposeful and is in response to the
individual physical and emotional needs...
Methods of Social Work
Page
25
rather inadequate without elaboration for defining in this
chapter.
Human beings face diffi...
Methods of Social Work
Page
26
4. Problems related to institutionalization
5. Behavior problems
6. Problems of marital dis...
Methods of Social Work
Page
27
1. Their source of support-; public taxation (child
welfare, physical and mental health pro...
Methods of Social Work
Page
28
4. The social agency is a living, adaptable organism
susceptible to being understood and ch...
Methods of Social Work
Page
29
facts of the problems or the facts of existing ways of
meeting it.
3. If a person is drench...
Methods of Social Work
Page
30
long as one lives. On the other hand, relationships between
two friends, neighbors or class...
Methods of Social Work
Page
31
1. Intake phase
2. Study phase
3. Assessment phase
4. Treatment phase
5. Evaluation and mon...
Methods of Social Work
Page
32
8. Nature of family, family status, norms and values,
relationship with family members.
2. ...
Methods of Social Work
Page
33
theoretical knowledge. Further collecting of data and
deciding the best course of action to...
Methods of Social Work
Page
34
3. Dynamic diagnosis:
 Proper evaluation of the client’s current problem.
 Role of psycho...
Methods of Social Work
Page
35
treatment should be given to the immediate problems. Total
social casework process includes...
Methods of Social Work
Page
36
5. Resource utilization:
Social case worker should use all the resources
available to impro...
Methods of Social Work
Page
37
5. To create opportunities for growth and development
of the client.
6. To preserve psychol...
Methods of Social Work
Page
38
then it is called crisis in social case work process. Non
motivated client becomes challeng...
Methods of Social Work
Page
39
discuss the problem which he is still facing. If client require
he is referred to the prope...
Methods of Social Work
Page
40
getting an idea of the goals you want to work on and the
best way to use our time over the ...
Methods of Social Work
Page
41
the ending of an ongoing interpersonal support group or
discharge from a residential treatm...
Methods of Social Work
Page
42
2. A means for transmitting energy or force towards
something. Here the word "tool" refers ...
Methods of Social Work
Page
43
There are two types of listening, one is active listening and
second is passive listening.
...
Methods of Social Work
Page
44
5. What the client says or what (s)he appears to be,
cannot but evoke thinking in the mind ...
Methods of Social Work
Page
45
visit to a social work agency. They may be ignorant about
what a social worker does and wha...
Methods of Social Work
Page
46
3. Controlled / structured observation
If observation is done with pre-planned and
structur...
Methods of Social Work
Page
47
(3) To give help.
An interview is a piece of social interaction with one
person asking a nu...
Methods of Social Work
Page
48
eliciting fresh data, clearing doubts, testing assumptions,
assessing facts and for using t...
Methods of Social Work
Page
49
2. Interview on the basis of methodology
a) Non-directive interview
In this method as inter...
Methods of Social Work
Page
50
problem. This type of interview is conducted to find the
solution of the related specific i...
Methods of Social Work
Page
51
people is the condition of their being connected in a
significant way. We experience variou...
Methods of Social Work
Page
52
implicit in one form or other. Parents take care of children,
and when parents grow old the...
Methods of Social Work
Page
53
Treatment relationship
This is the satisfaction and problem alleviation
oriented relationsh...
Methods of Social Work
Page
54
client. Importantly, the interactions which take place
among the family members lend themse...
Methods of Social Work
Page
55
From the data which are in a jumble in the work diary, the
social worker organizes systemat...
Methods of Social Work
Page
56
 Administration useful for future reference.
Techniques of social case work
Casework techn...
Methods of Social Work
Page
57
2. Assurance
In certain contexts, the client needs assurance regarding
the authenticity of ...
Methods of Social Work
Page
58
necessary for the client who is carrying a load of emotional
material, to unburden himself/...
Methods of Social Work
Page
59
a multiple technique. Emotional support, when effectively
used, makes the client hopeful, b...
Methods of Social Work
Page
60
Counseling Techniques
In a broader sense, counseling techniques are
inclusive of the suppor...
Methods of Social Work
Page
61
social worker should be able to draw out the client's
capacity for thinking and to help him...
Methods of Social Work
Page
62
influencing the client to take a course of action that is
considered good for him and his f...
Methods of Social Work
Page
63
helpful and constructive ways of communication from their
experience of the social worker's...
Methods of Social Work
Page
64
very important to know the pattern of person behavior
which is determined by biological fac...
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
complete note of Casework
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

complete note of Casework

58,835 views

Published on

Its a complete note of casework of social work method

Published in: Education

complete note of Casework

  1. 1. Methods of Social Work Page 1 Chapter 1 Getting Started 1. Social Work Review 2. Methods of Social Work  Primary methods  Secondary methods
  2. 2. Methods of Social Work Page 2 Social work review The first thing that anyone wants to know about a subject is its definition, but definitions often have little meaning until one has some comprehension of the larger area within which a part is to be described. The definition of social work has already been described in the previous classes as “social work is an art, science and profession to help the person with their problem to solve them and obtain the better social living and relationship”. There are many other definitions given by different writers which are prevalent for the academic study. These definitions are basic beginning of the social work which is not enough to understand the complete phenomenon of the social work practice. Since social work itself cannot be understood without knowledge of its characteristic problems, objectives, and methods, these will first be given consideration towards their understanding through different methods. To understand the social work in detail one need to be familiar with the methods, techniques, practices and other various integration of the social work. Methods of social work Social Work methods are purely professional knowledge, not barrowed from any other disciplines. It is also called social work practice. These methods and application differentiate social work and many others social sciences that base mere on theoretical knowledge. For instance, sociology, psychology, anthropology and philosophy all lack specific methods like social work although having well advanced theory. A method is well understood to be an orderly way of procedure and therefore it is always carried out towards achievement of a specific aim. Social work methods is such method that social workers use to help people of all ages and from various sections of society to enhance their social functioning and to cope more effectively with their problems. Social
  3. 3. Methods of Social Work Page 3 workers don’t pick and choose what problems and issues they would like to address. They see a problem even a very difficult problem, and try to help people solve it. They must prepare themselves to help people with individualized personal problems on the one hand and very broad problems that affect whole organizations and communities on the other. Methods of social work are grouped as primary method and secondary method. 1.Primary method These are that systematic and planned way of performing an activity, which is fundamental to Social Work. These are just like roots of social work, which give birth to other branches. 1.1 Social Case Work 1.2 Social Group Work 1.3 Social Community Organization 2.Secondary method These are secondary because it facilitates the primary methods. There are also the derivatives of primary methods. 2.1 Social Research 2.2 Social Action 2.3 Social Welfare Administration These methods are the important part of social work that makes social work practice different than any other theoretical knowledge. Among these methods primary method will be the first method which will be elaborated and theoretically understood their concepts, techniques,
  4. 4. Methods of Social Work Page 4 principles and processes. Each of the methods have different types of principle, techniques and process while intervention procedure for the elimination of the problems of individual or group. The above mentioned methods will be elaborated in next chapter.
  5. 5. Methods of Social Work Page 5 Chapter 2 Social Casework 1. Historical Evolution of Social Case Work 2. Concept of social case work 3. Definition of Case work 4. Principles of Case work 5. Component of Case work 6. Stages and phases of Case work 7. Tools in Case work 8. Techniques of Case work 9. Supportive and Psycho-social counseling 10.Concept of Family 11.Roles of Family 12.Family Dynamic 13.Recording
  6. 6. Methods of Social Work Page 6 Historical evolution of social casework Social casework is a method of helping people individually through a one-to-one relationship. It is used by professionally-trained social workers in social work agencies or organizations to help people with their problems of social functioning. Problems of social functioning refer to situations concerned with social roles and their performance. Though social work as a profession is a product of the twentieth century, social work as a helping activity is as old as mankind. Historically, charity and philanthropy have always been concerned with religious, educational, and personality building activities, as well as with the relief of destitution. There have been always in every society, though in small numbers, people who were interested in helping others. There were individuals who were known to be receptive and responsive to the needs and difficulties of their fellow human beings. These helpers who existed in every period of human history were the precursors of the modern social worker, who uses casework to help people in trouble. The practice of casework is humanistic attempt for helping the people who have difficulty in coping with the problem of daily living. It has been in practice since ancient time on different basis of charity, philanthropy, individual help etc. Beginning of social casework in west and east Individuals in every society right from ancient times were helped by others to solve their problems. All religions encouraged the helping of the poor and helpless people. However it took professional shape in the late 19th and early 20th century. The social work of St. Vincent de Paul in the 16th and 17th centuries and of Ozanam in the 19th century was considered remarkable in the history of social case work. They help the people through the art of friendly visiting to individualize people at home. German systems of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, directed perhaps
  7. 7. Methods of Social Work Page 7 more to the control of mendicancy than to the study of individuals, nevertheless yielded data on social conditions and on behavior. Edward Denison, Sir Charles Loch, Octavia Hill, and few of the English leaders, developed to a high point the theory and practice of personal service, personal responsibility, and careful study of each case. Later on, Mary Richmond set out the first rational and systematic approach to the analysis of individual social situations. Early Beginnings The Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor (A.I.C.P.) formed in America in 1843 approached the problem of poverty more individually than had been previously it was. The aims of A.I.C.P. were to visit the poor at homes, to give counsel, to assist them practically in obtaining employment, to instill in them self-respect and self-reliance, to inculcate the habits of economy and whenever absolutely necessary to provide such relief as should be suited to their wants. The first professional School of Social Work was the New York School established in 1898. The establishment of this institution indicates that social work had sufficiently large body of knowledge and skills by that time. Further the need was felt for better trained professionals as complicated modern problems could not be handled in traditional ways. Charity Organization Society In 1877 USA established American Charity Organization Society. One of the aims of the society was to find out the ways and means of helping the poor and needy and thus to organize individualized service. The society used volunteers called “FRIENDLY VISITORS”. They were kindhearted volunteers who visited poor families to assess their needs and to provide help, guidance and advice. They made their visits in act of charity and not expecting
  8. 8. Methods of Social Work Page 8 any monetary rewards. They collected data about the needy individuals and families and helped them after assessing their needs. Friendly Visitors replaced by Paid Agents The term Friendly Visitor was replaced by “Paid Agents”. The term Friendly Visitors was subsequently supplemented by the term “Paid Agents”. These Paid Agents developed systematic procedures in performing their task. They collected data about the needy individuals and families and helped them after assessing their needs. Paid Agents also maintained records including personal data and the type of help given to clients. The collective experience of Friendly Visitors and Paid Agents facilitated the understanding of human behavior. With the development of Schools of Social Work, Friendly Visitors received training and instructions about the method of investigation, diagnosis and treatment from experienced social worker. The first training program for the casework The first training program for the casework started during 1914-1917. Casework at this time was based more on medical model. For some time casework was only confined to sick persons, i.e. a sick person to be treated was the priority. The term “work with case” was used for the first time in national conference in USA. The first professional training program especially for the casework was started in the form of summer training. The impact of this training program resulted in the need for more substantial training and schools of social work attached to the agencies came into existence. When these schools started regular training program they were recognized as professionals in social casework Mary Richmond and Francis McLean offered specialized service to thousands of clients. Social casework journal of
  9. 9. Methods of Social Work Page 9 family service association grew out of efforts of this great pioneer movement. The first book in case work “Social Diagnosis” was published in 1917 by Miss Richmond. They introduced the principle of individualization and clients rights to self-determination. Richmond found that diagnosis is a process consisting sequence of steps in order to facilitate the worker to arrive finally at his/her definition of social situation and personality of client. During 1920s At this time caseworker adopted the new psychoanalytical approach to understand the client and their problems. These caseworkers found the psychoanalytical theory and the concepts in psychology very useful in casework movement. This psychoanalytical theory was given by Freud and known as Freudian psychology made strong impact on casework. Thus it was the era of psychiatric development of social work. Focus of caseworker was on psychic forces within the individuals. Professionals also began to move into other fields like prisons, school, etc. Gradually several schools of thought developed with many points in common and number of differences. These schools were based on the theory of Sigmund Freud and Otto Rank. During 1930s It was the era of sudden changes in life-style that lead to economic depression. Casework had to consider the economic factors, which were causing distress to the clients. It was realized that economic distress could lead to emotional disaster and breakdown. The social and economic need of great differentiation refocused sociological and reality consideration for social work and compiled action on the part of federal government. At this time many work programs such as federal emergency relief act, the work progress administration, the public work
  10. 10. Methods of Social Work Page 10 administration and the civilian conservation corporation emerged. Thus major outcome of the depression was establishment of governmental public assistant program. It relieved the voluntary agencies from the task of providing economic help. Caseworker was able to devote more time in dealing with clients inter personal problems. During 1940s Case workers were exposed for formulation of ego; psychology based on observation of human characteristics. During the war there was increase in personal problems on the part of clients due to financial crises. Emotional problems also increased. To meet these needs and to solve these problems family agencies were started. Later on, some casework theoretician began to examine sociological concept like social roles, social systems, social class etc. This shifts the focus from self to social setting. Caseworkers are now more aware of their own contribution to human welfare. As a profession it has now gained more popularity. One of the current trends is increased stress on the importance of research. Also there is growing awareness that personality and environment are interdependent. American influence in India American casework influences the use of casework in India as the first professional social work. i.e. casework started in India. This was done by American School of Social Work. The content of casework was taught as the course. In 1936 Sir Dorabji Tata Graduate school of Social Work, now known as Tata Institute of Social Science (TISS), was started to impart training to those who had a University degree in the field of social service. Thus, the training for the social work was changed into a full time career oriented educational program. Casework as a
  11. 11. Methods of Social Work Page 11 theoretical course and as a method of practice in the academic program started from the year 1946. Development of casework in Nepal The literature of every religion contains the names and activities of teachers and sages who gave of themselves and their resources to help others. The ancient Hindu Shastras and the Buddhist philosophy of Nepal emphasize the activity of dhana or giving. There are different stories of Gautama Buddha who was born in Nepal tells of his kindness and understanding of the individual which led to the transformation of a prostitute and a murderer. Buddhism help should be given to relatives and friends. Thus, one can see that casework, in its limited meaning of a helping activity existed from time immemorial. But casework as a professionalized activity is an event or happening of the 20th century, and in this development, the focus of concern has been people in some kind of distress and who cannot help themselves. As a profession the development of casework was influenced by India. The training for the social work was changed into a full time career oriented educational program. Casework as a theoretical course and as a method of practice in the academic program started from the year 1996. Initially social casework was practiced in relatively few agencies and institutions but nowadays social casework is practiced in many agencies, institutions and organization such as hospitals, clinics, courts, industry, military organization, family welfare agency, child welfare agency, institution for the aged, destitute, orphans etc. Concept of Social Case work Social case work is a primary method of social work which is concerned with the adjustment towards the satisfying human relationship, better family life, improved
  12. 12. Methods of Social Work Page 12 schooling, better medical facilities and better relationship between religious groups. Social Case Work is one of the basic methods of professional social work which is concerned to help and assist individuals, in finding solutions to their problems. This will help the people or individual in his /her adjustment and development. Sometime due to certain internal or external factor an individual fails to use existing facilities. In such situation social case worker helps him to gain his strength back and overcome the malfunctioned situation of the sufferer. Thus, social case work is one to one relationship with the person which help individual for his/her adjustment and development. It is the systematic way to handle person with the problems. A person with problem comes to a place where social worker who is called as social case worker in this context helps him through well-defined process. Case work, is indispensable as a foundation for social planning and social action. It has the same philosophy but it has not the same techniques. The social case work is carried out through its five components which are person, problem, place, process, professionalism. These components can be shortened as p5 for the easy understanding. Each components stand for their own property and function in the case work method. Person: An individual may be man, women, girl, boy, old aged, children, handicapped, etc. Problem: Worst situation related to social, economic, psychology, drug abuse, politics etc. Places: It can be office, hospital, clinic, welfare center, rehabilitation, etc.
  13. 13. Methods of Social Work Page 13 Process: Case study, social study, problem identification, intervention, evaluation, etc. Professionalism: The faithful and honest relationship with client and agent. Thus, in the social case work a person with problem comes to social case worker to get rid of the problem and the social case worker uses various methods or process to solve the problem of a client. The relationship between the two people is always professional and faithful in nature. The aim of the social case worker is to help people or family to mobilize their capacity for the solution of problem that brought them to the agency. The internal and external forces of the client are motivated in such a manner so, that the client may solve his problem. Social case worker does not make a person entirely free from his problem but helps to be free from these problems through his assistance. Definition of social case work The process of social case work involves the study of individual problems in its total setting. It is concerned with the understanding of individual as the whole personalities and the adjustment of the individual to socially healthy life. As a method of social work, it involves a very careful observation of a problem. Social case wok has been defined in various ways by various writers. "Social case work consists of those processes which develop personality through adjustments consciously effected, individual by individual, between men and their social environment." Mary Richmond (1922)
  14. 14. Methods of Social Work Page 14 "Social case work may be defined as the art of doing different things for and with different people by cooperating with them to achieve at one and the same time their own and society's betterment." Mary Richmond (1917) “A process used by certain human welfare agencies to help individuals to cope more effectively with their problems in social functioning.” Helen Harris Perlman (1957) “An art in which knowledge of science of human relation skills in relationship are used to mobilize capacities in the individual and resources in the community. Appropriate for better adjustment between client and all or any parts of his total environment.” Swithun Bowers “Social case work is the method of affecting the understanding of the needs, resources and reactions of the individual.” Robert Lee Barker “Social case work is the art of helping an individual in developing and making use of his/her personal capacities to deal with problems which he/she faces in his/her social environment”. Dr. Jonathan Swift “Social case work which is both a tool and area of work consists of processes which develop personality through adjustment consciously affect individual by individual between man and his social environment”. Gordon and Hamilton
  15. 15. Methods of Social Work Page 15 Thus, the social case work is both art and science of resolving individual problems in social area, for individual and society are interdependent and social forces influence behavior and attitude of an individual. The above definition explains the understanding of the social case work in relation to the society and individual with respect to their surrounding and the social forces. Objectives of Social Casework The social case work is fundamental beginning of the social work which has different objectives, behind this social case work. Every methods of social work have certain objectives that seek to fulfill by implementing different process of intervention to the individual. Some of the objectives of the case work can be understood by the following points given below. 1. To understand, identify and solve the internal and external problems of an individual. 2. To strengthen the power of client. 3. Look the problem in problem solving process. 4. To help people to use his/her capacity to solve problem. 5. To bring the adjustment between the individual and his situation. 6. To develop individual personality. Basic Assumptions of Social Casework The main work of social casework is to enable an individual in solving a problem through self-efforts. The social worker’s job is to provide adequate help and guidance. According to Hamilton the chief assumptions of social casework are:
  16. 16. Methods of Social Work Page 16 1. Individual and society are interdependent and complimentary to each other. 2. Various factors operative in the society influence human behavior and attitude. 3. Some problems are psychological and some are interpersonal in nature. 4. In the process of social casework conscious and controlled relations are established for achieving its aims. 5. Social casework enables an individual to solve his/ her problems by channelizing his/her energy and capacity positively. 6. Social casework provides everyone equal right to progress. It also provides help to every needy and disabled person. Philosophical Assumptions The ultimate goal of social casework is to establish harmonious relationship between individual and the society to which he belongs. According to Grace Mathew there are certain assumptions, which constitute the fundamental structure of social casework. They are generated out of the collective thinking and traditions in casework. These philosophical assumptions are: 1. Every human being has to be considered as a person with dignity and worth. 2. Human beings are interdependent and it governs their interaction in social groups. 3. There are common human needs for growth and development of individuals. The existence of common needs does not negate the uniqueness of individuals. Every individual is like all other human beings in some aspects and like no other individuals in certain aspects.
  17. 17. Methods of Social Work Page 17 4. Every individual has within him/her, the potential for growth and achievement and he/she has a right to the realization of this potential. From this it follows that people has capacity to change. 5. Society has an obligation to help those who do not have the means for the realization of their potentials. Characteristic of the social case work The character shows the nature and the quality of the work that has to be with in the process of solving the problems. The different natures of the social case work are mentioned below: 1. One to one relationship The relationship between client and case worker is one to one relationship. 2. Professional in nature The relationship between client and case worker is always professional in nature. 3. Goal oriented Case worker is always oriented towards their goal. It is always oriented towards solving the problems of the clients. This will help client to develop personality in the society. 4. Process Case worker is always goal oriented and to attain goal, social case worker has to follow the definite process or methods for solving problems like identification of problems, diagnosis of problems and treatment.
  18. 18. Methods of Social Work Page 18 5. Client centered / focused All the activities in case work is always focused towards client. This client centered activities help the client to solve or get rid from his/her problem. 6. It is an art or skill Problem solving is also one of the art or skill of case worker various problem solving technique are used by the social case worker to strengthen the client’s capacities. 7. Practice in specific setting This case work is practiced in specific setting and specific place like counseling center, juvenile home, hospitals, rehabilitation center etc. 8. Client and case worker are interdependent In social case work, case worker and client are interdependent to each other. Case worker help client to solve problems. But without client case worker doesn’t have existence. Thus, their relationship is taken as two sides of the same coin because without one the existence of another is impossible. 9. Improvement of condition Social case worker help the client to improve his social, psychological and emotional condition. 10. Proper use of tools and techniques In social case work different tools are used to get required information about the client and his/her problems. The frequently used tools are home visit, interview, observation etc. Similarly, proper use of technique like counseling, diagnosis, treatment etc. and tools helps to solve problems of the client.
  19. 19. Methods of Social Work Page 19 Principles of the Case Work The principles of social casework are applied in establishing close relationship between social caseworker and the client. Relationship is the medium through which changes are brought in the behavior and personality of the client. The term relationship in social casework was used for the first time by Miss Virginia Robinson in her book, “A Changing Psychology in Social Case Work” in 1939. Thus the purpose of establishing relationship is to help the client with his/her psycho-social needs and problems. The relationship between caseworker and client may be more strengthened by using certain principles. 1. Principle of individualization No two persons are alike in all qualities and traits. Their problems may be the same but the cause of the problem, the perception towards the problem and ego strength differs in every individual. Therefore, each individual client should be treated as a separate entity and complete information is required to establish close relations in order to solve his/her problem from root. 2. Principle of meaningful relationship The purpose of establishing relationship in social casework is to change the behavior of the client or to achieve adjustment in maladjusted situation. Meaningful relationship is developed in social casework by demonstrating the interests in client. He/she is convinced of the caseworker’s warmth as an individual and conveys respect and caring for him/her. In return, the caseworker helps the client to trust in his/her objectivity and feel secured as worthwhile individual. 3. Principle of acceptance Social caseworker accepts the client as he is and with all his/her limitations. He/she believes that acceptance is
  20. 20. Methods of Social Work Page 20 the crux of all help. It embraces two basic ideas --- one negative and one positive. He/she does not condemn or feel hostile towards a client because his/her behavior differs from the approved one. Later on, he/she tries to modify his/her behavior step by step. 4. Principle of communication Communication is a two-way process. There must be proper communication between caseworker and the client, which helps, in proper understanding of each other. It is the road to the identification of the client’s problem. The function of social caseworker is primarily to create an environment in which the client will feel comfortable in giving expression to his/her feelings. It depends on a proper communication. 5. Principle of expression of feelings Purposeful expression of feelings is the recognition of the client’s need to express his/her feelings freely, especially his/her negative feelings. The caseworker listens purposefully, neither discouraging nor condemning the expression of those feelings. Sometimes he/she even stimulates and encourages them when the expression is of therapeutic nature. 6. Principle of controlled emotional involvement The social caseworker tries to understand the client’s feelings and emotions but he/she himself/herself does not involve emotionally in his/her problems. 7. Principle of non-judgmental attitude The non-judgmental attitude is a quality of the casework relationship. The caseworker does not blame the client for his/her problem nor does he assign any responsibility for his/her miseries. He/she only evaluates the attitudes, standards or action of the client.
  21. 21. Methods of Social Work Page 21 8. Principle of client self-determination The client’s self-determination is the practical recognition of the right and need of clients to freedom in making his/her own choices and decisions. But this right is limited by the client’s capacity for positive and constructive decision making. 9. Principle of self-awareness It means that caseworker should know his/her own strengths and limitations in dealing with client’s problems. If he/she feels that the problems of the client are beyond his/her capacity, the client should be transferred to the appropriate authority. 10. Principle of social functioning Social functioning means the functioning of the individual in his/her social roles and relationships, with emphasis on his/her relation to the environment. The caseworker tries to assess the roles of the client and his/her capacity to perform these roles. 11. Principle of tuning behavior Man has body, mind and intellect as three instruments of experiences through which life constantly pulsates. These three instruments have their own distinct characteristics in each person. Hence each person has unique personality. There is need of tuning three instruments for right perception and thinking. The social caseworker does it. 12. Principle of social learning Social learning is a pre-requisite to the changes that are inevitably involved in problem- solving. The social learning processes involve:
  22. 22. Methods of Social Work Page 22 1. Arousing and focusing attention and concern. 2. Organizing and evaluating the problem and planning future action. 3. Searching for and acquiring new information. 4. Providing opportunities to the client for new experience. 13. Principle of confidentiality Confidentiality is the preservation of the secret information concerning the client, which is disclosed in the professional relationship only. In the process of social case work, the client discloses many of his secret facts to the social case worker which help for the treatment. Similarly, the case worker gets many information of client in his home visit or in interview. All these facts must be kept secret. In other words, the client must have total faith regarding his secret disclosed by him will remain confidential. Confidentiality in case work is taken as professional code of ethics. There is little reason that leads for the confidentiality. Components of casework The social case work is the integrity of different elements and a material which forms the nucleus of the social case work. The nucleus is the crucial part that consists of different component while social case works practice. The practitioner has to understand each and every component of the nucleus of social case work to carry out better intervention process. There are five components of social case work known as 5 p’s. 1. The person 4.The process 2. The problem 5. Professionalism 3. The place
  23. 23. Methods of Social Work Page 23 1. The Person The person is a man, woman or child or anyone who finds himself/herself, or is found to be, in need of help in some aspect of his social-emotional living, whether the need be for tangible provisions or counsel. As he/ she begin to receive help, he/she is called a “client”. A client is one who seeks professional help, one who employs the help of another or one who is served by a social agency or an institution. The person live in environment and interact in the environment is influenced by physical, social, cultural, economic and political aspects. The main aim of social case worker is to facilitate the individual to adopt, to restore, to reshape or to reinforce his functioning as a social being. The client is a person with both needs and a problem(s). The problem may be related to a client. The person’s behavior has purpose and meaning to gain satisfaction, to avoid and dissolve frustration and to maintain his/her balance- in- movement. To understand a person, it is important to know his/her parts of personality that is the person’s behavior. To understand human behavior and individual difference, Grace Mathew has given the points like: 1. An individual behavior is the result of his/her experience. Behavior is his/her reaction, feeling, thinking etc. with the surrounding. 2. For growth and development of human, it is essential to meet certain basic needs (according to Maslow). 3. Emotional needs are real and they can be met or removed through intellectual reasoning.
  24. 24. Methods of Social Work Page 24 4. Behavior is purposeful and is in response to the individual physical and emotional needs. 5. Other person’s behavior can be understood only in terms of one’s own emotional and intellectual aspect. According to the Sigmund Freud, the process of human personality is the combination of id, ego and super ego. To understand a person it is necessary to understand the personality of the individual that is substitute into 3 parts.  Id: It is unconscious which is known as the life force in the individual that is the combination of energy and needs. This drives him to wants and to will. All our motives are in the interest of our biological and psychological aspects. As a person behavior achieves his goal, he experiences satisfactions both consciously and unconsciously.  Ego: It is the person’s mental image a kind of self- expectations hope to solve the conflict. It is to mobilize and experience feeling in the way that are satisfying to the self and to external world.  Super ego: super ego is a dynamic system of the prohibitions, expectations, standards, values and ideas which a person has in relation to other individuals and to his society. It guides the individual. 2. The Problem Problem, according to the America Heritage dictionary is a “question or situation that presents uncertainty, perplexity or difficulty”. This definition is
  25. 25. Methods of Social Work Page 25 rather inadequate without elaboration for defining in this chapter. Human beings face difficulties in day-to-day living, many of which are handled adequately with resources at hand. These are difficulties of living that fall within our coping abilities and strategies. When difficulties assume dimensions that strain our coping capacity and go beyond our competence in handling, they become problems. People who seek casework service are those who encounter problems. Problems of living may be caused by unmet physical or psychosocial needs or by the inability to perform one's social roles owing to any causes. Physical needs pertain to the biological needs of food, shelter, clothing, and the psychosocial needs pertain to love, recognition, security, opportunities for not only intellectual and emotional growth but also for fulfillment of one's potential. A problem which defies an individual's coping skills may be the end result or derivative of other problems or difficulties that remain unsolved from an earlier point of time. A human problem cannot be considered an isolated happening or an entity in itself. It is usually the end point or one point in a chain of cause-effect relationships. The problems reported by clients to the agency, or in other words, problems for which help was sought, may be classified in different ways. According to Grace Mathew the problems can be categorized as follows: 1. Problems related to illness or disabilities 2. Problems due to lack of material resources 3. School related problems
  26. 26. Methods of Social Work Page 26 4. Problems related to institutionalization 5. Behavior problems 6. Problems of marital discord 7. Problem situations needing a follow-up service 8. Needs related to rehabilitation of people handicapped by disabilities 9. Predicaments and difficulties of clients caught up in problems that have been regarded as social problems like gambling, prostitution, alcoholism, drug addiction and unmarried motherhood. 3. The Place The place is a social service agency or a social service department of another kind of human welfare agency. The place to which the individual with problem reach for help is called social agency. The agency is an organization designed to express the will of the society or some group of people in society welfare. Its purpose is to help individuals with the particular social handicaps which hampers good personal or family living and with the problems created by faulty person-to-person, person to-group or person-to- situation relationships. This agency’s purpose and functions come to life in the person and professional performance of the case worker. Social case work agencies differ one from the other in a number of ways, and they depend upon the factors like money, knowledge and competence of staff in agency, interest, resources available and community support etc. but there are three major factors that determine their classification:
  27. 27. Methods of Social Work Page 27 1. Their source of support-; public taxation (child welfare, physical and mental health programs etc.) or voluntary contribution. 2. Their source of professional authority-; primary agencies carry full authority and responsibility for their social functions and secondary agencies derive their authority and responsibility from the host agency. 3. Their special function and area of concern-; primary agencies both public and private, may define certain areas of social need as the particular fielding in which they give services. Secondary, case work help is related to the work of some other profession, such as medicine, education or law and to its specific knowledge and purpose. Perlman has described some of the characteristic of the organization. 1. An agency embodies a society’s decision to protect its members against social breakdowns, to prevent their maladjustments and/or to promote the development of better or higher levels of humans functioning. 2. Each social agency develops a program by which to meet the particular areas of need with which it sets out to deal. 3. The structure of an agency identifies and assigns separate and joint responsibilities, authorities and tasks to each personnel and demarcates the relationship among various functions in the total agency body.
  28. 28. Methods of Social Work Page 28 4. The social agency is a living, adaptable organism susceptible to being understood and changed, much as other living organisms 5. Every staff member in an agency speaks and acts for some part of the agency’s function, and the case worker represents the agency in its individualized problem-solving help. 6. The case worker, while representing his/her agency, is first and foremost a representative of his/her profession. 4. Process The process in case work is a progressive transaction between the professional helper (the case worker) and the client. It consists of a series of problem solving operations carried out within a meaningful relationship. The end of this process is contained in its meaning: to influence the client person that he/she develops effectiveness in coping with his/her problem and /or to so influence the problem as to resolve it or reduce its effects. Social work problem solving is finding a way through feeling, thinking, and acting. It progresses over time in a cyclical, irreversible manner that is focused on removing blocks to need fulfillment that individuals cannot remove with their own resources. In order to understand what the case work process must include in its problem-solving help, it is necessary for the social case worker to take stock first of the kinds of blockings which occur in people’s normal problem-solving effort. These six factors are among the most common: 1. A problem cannot be solved if the necessary tangible means and resources are not available to the person. 2. Sometimes, people are unable to solve their problems simply out of ignorance or misapprehension about the
  29. 29. Methods of Social Work Page 29 facts of the problems or the facts of existing ways of meeting it. 3. If a person is drenched by emotional or physical strength. He/she needs to mobilize himself/herself. 4. When problems sets off a conflagration of feeling, a person’s thought processes, delicately attuned as they are to his/her emotions become clouded and tumbled about. 5. Some people find problems in solving a difficult situation because they have never developed systematic habits of orderly methods of thinking and planning. In the case work relationship, a constant medium is provided that is accepting, nurturing and supporting at the same time that the stimulus of problem-solving work is injected to promote the client’s effort to feel, to be or to act in the ways leading to his/her better social adjustment. There are various methods and phases in problem solving process like: 1. Preliminary statement of the problem. 2. Statement of preliminary assumptions about the nature of the problem. 3. Selection and collection of information. 4. Analysis of information available. 5. Development of a plan. 6. Implementation of the plan. 7. Evaluation of the plan. 6. Professionalism Relationship between any two people is the condition of their being connected in a significant way. We experience various kinds of relationships in our lives. Parent-child, sibling-sibling, uncle-niece relationships are examples. These are permanent and unalterable, lasting as
  30. 30. Methods of Social Work Page 30 long as one lives. On the other hand, relationships between two friends, neighbors or classmates are temporary. The doctor-patient, teacher-student, supervisor - supervisee, lawyer-client are examples of professional relationships. One can broadly classify relationships according to quality also. It follows from the above discussion that the social worker- client relationship is a professional relationship, and that it has to be positive in nature. Only a positive relationship can serve as a means towards the desirable end of helpfulness, the type of helpfulness that provides scope for the exercise of casework principles. During a process of social case work a relationship is built between client and social case worker which is professional in nature for certain time until the client recover its strength and become self-dependent. Professional relationships have some common characteristics. They are bound by time to specific purposes. When the purpose is met, the relationship comes to an end. This professionalism involves the process of sharing responsibilities, recognition of others rights, acceptance of difference to stimulate interaction to solve problem of the client. Stages and phases of Case work Casework process is the ongoing movement of the continuing development of the case involving several activities , some carried out by the social worker alone, some by the client alone and some by the worker and the client together. Social casework entails different steps during the practice of the social case work. To solve the problem of the client the client has to visit the agency or the social worker who vow to help the client and uses the best ways to solve the problem of the client. During the process of solving the problem different stages were followed accordingly by the worker and also by the client. The different steps were given below:
  31. 31. Methods of Social Work Page 31 1. Intake phase 2. Study phase 3. Assessment phase 4. Treatment phase 5. Evaluation and monitoring phase 6. Follow up and termination phase 1. Intake phase This is the first stage of social case work process. The client who is in need of help will meet the agency for the professional help by the social case worker. During this period the relationship between two person of unequal position and power is developed. The social case worker accepts the client as a person who is in a very stressful situation. He respects the client personality and promise to solve the problem of the client. In other word, the social case workers picks up the client from stressful situation and help him/her to regain personal and social balance which is satisfying in the relationship. During rapport building process the case worker tries to have following information regarding the client. 1. The stage of the problem at which the client is in. 2. Through whom or for what reason the client comes to this agency. 3. The nature of relation to the problem, cause of the client’s problem and how client see the problem. 4. His/her adjustment to the social function in job, family, society etc. 5. The state of his physical and mental health. 6. His appearance including dress, hairstyle etc. in his first meeting. 7. Level of motivation, how quick the client has desire or need to get rid of the problems.
  32. 32. Methods of Social Work Page 32 8. Nature of family, family status, norms and values, relationship with family members. 2. Study phase Social, study is a systematic study of the client and his/her circumstances in relation to his/her problem. In this phase the case worker makes initial assessment or diagnosis of the client current relevant past and possible future modes of adaptation to stressful situation to have normal living situation. It requires an analysis of social, psychological and biological determinants of client’s current stressful situation. The case worker should get following information regarding the client’s problem. 1. Nature of problems. 2. Significance of problems. 3. Cause of problems. 4. Effort made by client and his family members to cope with problem. 5. Nature of solution. The case worker can obtain data related to the client by questionnaire methods interview and recording methods. After getting data the case worker develops hypothesis for understanding the client and his situation for the further process. 3. Assessment / diagnosis phase Assessment is aimed at finding answers to three major questions: What is the problem? How has it arisen? What can be done to solve it? The operation underlying social assessment is that of making a conceptual picture of the problem, leading to a plan of action. It means linking up the contributory factors meaningfully with the help of
  33. 33. Methods of Social Work Page 33 theoretical knowledge. Further collecting of data and deciding the best course of action to solve the problem is carried by case worker. This helps to arrive at the exact possible situation of the client and also help to understand both psychological and personality factor which leads the client to difficulties. Data related to assessment or diagnosis can be collected by interview observation, lab test etc. Diagnosis or assessment should contain following information: 1. Nature of problem and client relationship. 2. Nature of person who bears problems. 3. Nature and purpose of agency and kind of help it can afford or make available. Types of assessment or diagnosis 1. Clinical diagnosis:  In this diagnosis the person is described by the nature of illness. Like typhoid, hypertension, hepatitis etc.  The clinical diagnosis is used in medical field.  It is used in minimum case work practice.  It is very important in medical and psychological field. 2. Etiological:  In this process the worker tries to find out the cause and development of the present difficulty.  The case worker also searches about the history of the client.
  34. 34. Methods of Social Work Page 34 3. Dynamic diagnosis:  Proper evaluation of the client’s current problem.  Role of psychological, biological, social and environmental factors for problem evaluation.  No attempts to dig life history of client.  Case worker and client are engaged in appropriate action or treatment. The steps used in diagnosis process 1. Case worker begin to focus on problematic behavior. 2. Behavior and client’s environment are studied. 3. Complex behaviors are breakdown into clear components. 4. Data are collected by various methods. 5. Information and data are summarized to find out any major problems for treatment. 6. Selected data are used for treatment in the final step of diagnosis. 4. Treatment plan / Intervention phase According to Hamilton, “Treatment is the sum total of all the activities and services directed towards helping the individual with solution of their problems.” The treatment is the main part of social case work with different steps and techniques. The case worker should plan about the treatment in different way thoroughly. The treatment plan is different in different case works according to the change of the client, problem, situation etc. But every social case work is done through the same methods. The focus in
  35. 35. Methods of Social Work Page 35 treatment should be given to the immediate problems. Total social casework process includes three stages or three phases they are the beginning, middle and ending. While treatment or intervention process different techniques are used for the identification and eradication of their problem. The techniques used in the treatment are as follows: 1. Support : Social case worker should give total support to the client to improve his weak personality. In this process social case worker tries to make good and strong relationship with client. 2. Clarification: The social case worker should be clear on the client’s personality, family background, personal history, family, history, social aspect etc. 3. Insight: The social case worker tries to find out the actual cause of the client’s problem. He goes deep into to the clients mind and find out the root causes of his problems. This is possible only with the help of the client and family members near and dear ones. 4. Identification: Here the social case worker will identify the client’s total personality, his problems, strength, weakness etc. This will help the client to get rid of his problems.
  36. 36. Methods of Social Work Page 36 5. Resource utilization: Social case worker should use all the resources available to improve the progress of client like yoga, meditation etc. Some case worker tries to find out good jobs for the client if he is unemployed one or help client to get loan to start his own business. 6. Evaluation: After completing all the above techniques, the case worker should record his work with the client, so that he can evaluate his work easily. During evaluation if the case worker finds his work not satisfactory, he can make further correction. Thus, his evaluations also help for the better follow up process. 7. Modification of environment: Sometime after solving problems there may be a chance that problem may arise again so the case worker should make the client’s environment suitable for his personality group. (e.g., In case of drug addiction and alcoholism the family members will not accept and behave with client properly.) Thus, the social case worker must provide counseling service to the client’s family to change or modify as environment for the client to overcome from his personal problem. Objectives of social case work treatment 1. To prevent social breakdown and bring back to social functioning. 2. To conserve clients strength. 3. To restore social functioning of the client. 4. To provide happy experience to the client.
  37. 37. Methods of Social Work Page 37 5. To create opportunities for growth and development of the client. 6. To preserve psychological damage to client. 7. To increase capacity for self-determination. 8. To increase client’s social contribution. 5. Evaluation and monitoring Evaluation is one of the important steps in social case work. Evaluation is the activity of ascertaining whether casework service has achieved the desired result in a case. It is the social worker's reviewing of all the other components of the casework process to make an appraisal of the result. Evaluation is also an ongoing activity, although as a component of the casework process, it finds full scope and expression only after a period of activity. As the social worker continues to offer the service or services, evaluative discernment occurs to him/her at specific points of time regarding the strength, weakness or gaps in his/her social assessment and regarding the success or failure of his/her ways of helpfulness. Evaluation provides feedback to the case worker regarding the client like: 1. Whether the treatment plan is successful or not according to the desire. 2. Whether the established goal has been achieved or not. 3. Modifications in program are essential or not. 4. The client is being helped in real sense or not. These all will help the social case worker to monitor the activities of client. If goals are not achieved in case work,
  38. 38. Methods of Social Work Page 38 then it is called crisis in social case work process. Non motivated client becomes challenge to social case worker. Dealing with such client and situation requires special knowledge and process. This special knowledge is used as term as crisis intervention. Importance of Evaluation 1. Evaluation helps to check the efforts of the case worker in case working. 2. It helps to know what are outcome. 3. It helps to check the efforts are meaningful or not. 4. It helps for the further strengthening the relationship between the case worker and client. 5. Provides motivation to the client to work towards his goal. 6. It helps to check the effectiveness of the process or services. 7. It also helps to tell the public that the process used by the case worker is beneficial and effective. 8. Social case worker can enhance his own image and also helps to increase public relation of the agency. 6. Follow up and termination It is necessary to check the work done by the case worker. For this the social case worker needs to do follow up process after evaluation of the activities done during the intervention. This will help the agent to get the information regarding the client’s improvements. The follow up process is to be done to help the client to maintain the improvements and to get information about the client and his problem. During follow up the client is helped to
  39. 39. Methods of Social Work Page 39 discuss the problem which he is still facing. If client require he is referred to the proper source for help and service. If he is improving in social functioning he is not prefer. The follow up should be planned in descending order. (e.g., the social worker will meet the client in descending order like after two week, then in a month, then six month and a year.) Following this follow up process will lead to the termination process. The follow up process can also be done by reviewing the record, by asking the questions through telephone calls, home visit, observation etc. Termination refers to the process of formally ending the individual social worker-client relationship. It is a feature of practice with a variety of client systems, from individuals and families to task groups, coalitions, and communities, and it occurs regardless of the duration of the helping relationship. Terminations can occur when goals are met, when clients make a transition to other services, when time-limited services are concluded, and when social workers or clients leave the helping relationship. Even if clients are likely to “come and go” form service over a period of time as their concerns and needs change, it is important to draw closure to each unique episode of care. The notion of ending is often introduced at the beginning of service, when the social worker notes the likely duration of care, the number of sessions allotted, or the goals that will guide the helping process. In some time treatment models, the fixed length of care is part of informed consent discussions at the outset. For e.g., the social worker might explain, “we believe that brief treatment is effective and helps both you and me make efficient use of our time together. So we’ll begin today by
  40. 40. Methods of Social Work Page 40 getting an idea of the goals you want to work on and the best way to use our time over the next 6 to 8 weeks to achieve those goals.” Whether in short-or long-term therapy models, successful termination involves preparing clients adequately for separation from the social worker and/or group and accomplishing other tasks that facilitate the transition from being a client to being “on one’s own”: 1. Evaluating the service provided and the extent to which goals were accomplished. 2. Determining when to implement termination. 3. Mutually resolving emotional reactions experienced during the process of ending. 4. Planning to maintain gains achieved and to achieve continued growth. The significance of these tasks and the extent to which they can be successfully accomplished are determined in large measure by the context in which the helping relationship takes place. The intensity of the termination process is affected by factors such as the type of contact (voluntary or involuntary), the size and characteristics of the client system, and the nature of the intervention used. Emotional reactions will vary depending on the nature and length of the helping relationship. That is, involuntary clients and those with more structured and time limited services will be less likely to experience a sense of loss at termination than those who have engaged in longer and more voluntary relationships with the social worker. For example, termination of a time-limited educational group may be less intense and require less preparation of members than would
  41. 41. Methods of Social Work Page 41 the ending of an ongoing interpersonal support group or discharge from a residential treatment setting. Terminations from brief crisis intervention, case management, or discharge planning relationships may differ in intensity depending on the nature of the needs met and the length of service. Termination from family sessions may be less difficult than those from individual work, because most of the client system will continue to work and be together, albeit without the social worker’s involvement. Tools in social casework A tool is anything that serves as a means of operation in the practice of a trade, occupation or a profession. The tools of an occupation like carpentry, being concrete, tangible and determinate lend themselves to sensory perception. Casework tools, on the other hand, are abstract concepts, and not concrete instruments or things that can be handled by one's limbs. The tools used in casework are: listening, observation, interview, relationship and home visit. The word "tool", which immediately produces the mental image of concrete things, cannot be easily explained when it is used as an intangible, non-material entity. Two common meanings of the word "tool" may be adapted to explain the term "casework tools". 1. A means of contact with something or a means of access to something. Casework tools are means of contact with clients. They are also means of access to information about the client, his family and his problem. This meaning is applicable to all the five casework tools. Observation and listening may be considered as tools within tools as they are components of interview, relationship and home visit.
  42. 42. Methods of Social Work Page 42 2. A means for transmitting energy or force towards something. Here the word "tool" refers to a channel, medium or venue for the transmission of energy or force. This meaning is applicable only to three of the casework tools, interview, relationship and home visit, which serve as channels for the transmission of information, knowledge and help. They are the channels through which casework techniques become operative. Casework techniques are systematic procedures of helping. The utility of casework tools is along three dimensions: (1) Getting information directly about clients (2) Getting information indirectly about clients (3) Giving help to clients. Direct information is from What the client says and getting direct information is a characteristic of all the five tools. It will be seen that indirect information is obtained through client's non-verbal communication and sometimes from what the client omits to say. Getting indirect information, as a dimension, applies mostly to observation and in some contexts to listening. The third dimension — giving help to clients — applies only to interview, relationship and home visit. As implied earlier, these three tools function as conveyors for the transmission of help. 1. Listening Listening is a basic casework tool. Active, attentive listening is purposeful. The purpose is to understand the speaker's words and feelings as accurately as possible, for which mental concentration is necessary. The listener has to pay attention to what is said, what is not said, and what is suggested. Listening, therefore, becomes a consciously performed activity for the social worker. It is also an aspect for the practice of the principle of acceptance.
  43. 43. Methods of Social Work Page 43 There are two types of listening, one is active listening and second is passive listening. 1. Active listening means the listening that took place face to face between client and social worker. 2. Passive listening means the information that is collected from the secondary source like recording, data etc. There are some common obstacles to active listening, knowledge of which is necessary for one who wants to train himself/herself as an effective listener. Obstacles and solution to Listening 1. Distraction of various kinds takes a listener off the path of active listening. 2. The listener's anxiety or fear concerning the speaker can become a block to good listening. 3. Selective listening which refers to the mental tendency of hearing only what one likes to hear prevents effective listening. There are a few guidelines which will help the social worker to develop the habit of effective listening. 1. It is important to maintain eye contact with the client during conversations. 2. The social worker must ensure, though it may not always be possible, that the place where the interviews with the clients take place, is quiet, with minimum external distractions. 3. As a preparation for interviews with the client, the worker should clear his/her mind of internal pre- occupations and preconceived ideas or opinions of the client. 4. The ears should be trained to listen to everything that the client says.
  44. 44. Methods of Social Work Page 44 5. What the client says or what (s)he appears to be, cannot but evoke thinking in the mind of the social worker. 2. Observation Observation is the practice of noticing features about people, things or situations, and in the context of casework, the purpose is to use the observed data for understanding the client and his situation. Specially, in the cases like robbery, prostitution, anti-social activities this method is used. By this information related to the cases like relationship, behavior between teacher and student, gender discrimination in family and society, behavior or workers in organization etc. can be obtained. Every parent can use this method to bring change in behavior and attitude of their children. Similarly, this method can help a lot to bring the real data of the client. The caseworker has to take cognizance of the following with reference to the client: 1. The general outward appearance. 2. Facial expression, posture, gestures, etc. 3. The characteristics, particularly the emotional nuances of interactions that take place between clients and others, including their family members. The social worker should not have any difficulty in paying attention to the client's personal appearance — his/her clothes, level of cleanliness, and such like. The human face occasionally reflects the feelings within and to the social worker facial expression is a matter for observation. Feelings like sadness, anger and hostility do not need verbal expression to indicate their presence; there will be tell-tale signs on the face that bespeak the unexpressed feelings. Similarly, the individual's postures, gestures, tone of voice and body movements are also meaningful. Many of our clients do not feel comfortable on their first day of
  45. 45. Methods of Social Work Page 45 visit to a social work agency. They may be ignorant about what a social worker does and what they can expect from the agency. The pressure of their problems and their having to talk to a stranger about it add to their discomfiture. The confusion and tension that the client experiences within is likely to make him fidgety and restless. The way (s)he sits, and the manner in which (s)he participates in the conversation with the social worker should be observed carefully for indications of his/her emotional state of mind whether (s)he is tense or relaxed, trusting or suspicious, receptive or inattentive. Knowing what the client feels or getting at least some clues to his/her feelings is helpful in that the social worker can prime himself/herself to respond appropriately. For instance, a client who feels ill at ease can be helped to feel more comfortable. Types of observation 1. Participatory observation This method is used usually by being the part of the problem or situation. If the information or data is collected by the researcher by becoming the part of the situation is called participatory observation. The investigator actively participates as a member of the group to observe the cause of the problem or the situation. In this process the group members may or may not identify the investigator. 2. Non-Participatory observation In this the observer or the investigator does not participate in the activities of the group to be studied but simply remain or present in the group is called non- participatory observation. The observer feels independent in this method and observes every activity.
  46. 46. Methods of Social Work Page 46 3. Controlled / structured observation If observation is done with pre-planned and structured questionnaire than it is called controlled or structured observation. Social case worker uses this method with structured questions, check list of the items to be observed and recording sheet. Data collected from this kind of observation helps to compare progress of the client. 4. Uncontrolled observation Researcher does not have any control over the research according to the purpose. Researcher observes in research area without any disturbance or interruption is called uncontrolled observation. For example, the researcher observing on the activities of the animals to study them, they capture or record it without any control over them. 5. Indirect observation In indirect observation social case worker observes clues of post behavior or events that cannot be observe directly. In this type of observation social case worker has to depend on audio or visual document. Police investigation of criminal activities is a popular example of indirect observation. 3. Interview The casework interview refers to the meeting of the social worker and the client in a face to-face conversation. It is not a casual conversation but a professional activity on the part of the social worker, because the conversation is geared to specific or general purposes. The purposes may be one or more of the following: (1) To obtain information from or impart information to the client (2) For studying and assessing the client's problem and related situation
  47. 47. Methods of Social Work Page 47 (3) To give help. An interview is a piece of social interaction with one person asking a number of questions and another person gives the answer. In this method the case worker collects data directly by his active participation. It is also known as participatory method of data collection. During the process of interview, the interviewer collects different information. This is one of the most effective and reliable method of fata collection. The questions asked in interview may be open ended or close ended. And the type of questions depends up on the type of interview. The client is a perfect stranger to the agency on his/her first visits. The social worker has to gather data regarding the problem, how the client perceives it, what (s)he has done about it, some data about the client himself/herself, his/her family and his/her resources. When a client is not able to furnish the required information, members of his/her family are interviewed for the purpose. Interviewing is a two-way process. Just as information is received by the social worker, so also information is imparted to the client regarding official procedures and other matters about himself/herself, his/her role as a social worker, and about the function of the agency. Information about the self is all the more important for those clients who come to the social worker not of their own volition but through other people's coercion. The client is also informed about other services. Interviewing as a professional activity requires that the social worker prepares himself/herself for the occasion. After reviewing the previous interview or interviews with the same client, the social worker should make note of the gaps in information, the ambiguities that need clarification and one's own lapses and shortcomings that need to be replaced with skills of handling. Keeping these points of review in mind, the next interview should be planned for
  48. 48. Methods of Social Work Page 48 eliciting fresh data, clearing doubts, testing assumptions, assessing facts and for using techniques appropriately. The interview should be good to collect the proper information regarding client and his/her problem. Qualities of good interview 1. Voice and language of interviewer must be clear and commanding. 2. Interviewer must have good and attractive personality. 3. (S)He must have knowledge and training regarding subject matter. 4. Materials used in interview must be familiar. 5. (S)He must be free from political, religion and other aspects. 6. (S)He must understand feelings and thoughts of interview. 7. Must be able to dissolve in that society and situation. 8. Must be simple in habit, thought, language etc. 9. Must be free from phobia. 10. Must have enough time should be able to give time. Types of interview There are different types of interview on different basis. 1. Interview on the basis of informant a) Personal interview When interview are collected from only one informant is called personal interview. Confidential information is collected by this method. b) Group interview When information are collected from large number of people than such type of interview is known as group interview. Usually 20 to 25 people are used to gather information. In this method the interviewer must be able to handle the situation.
  49. 49. Methods of Social Work Page 49 2. Interview on the basis of methodology a) Non-directive interview In this method as interviewer conducts interview in an uncontrolled way. In this method questions are not prepared beforehand. Thus, this method is also known as unstructured method. Especially, for research and life history interview, this method is adopted. b) Directive interview This interview is conducted with district question. Hence, it is also known as schedule-cum-interview or controlled interview or structured interview. c) Focused interview The interviews which are highly focused regarding the issue related to national level, special subjects, incident to find out the cases and solution is called focused interview. This type of interview is conducted by mass media like radio, television, newspaper etc. d) Depth interview This interview is conducted for finding the depth of the issue and problem up to its root. In this interview the researcher or social worker keeps on interviewing with the client to get to the depth of the root cause of the problem or the issue. e) Critical interview The use of critical analysis on to the clients thought and belief is known as critical interview. In this interview the interviewer tries to find the thoughts and belief of the client towards their problems and the cause of the issues. f) Prolonged interview This is the longest type of interview which is intended towards the specific subject related to the client
  50. 50. Methods of Social Work Page 50 problem. This type of interview is conducted to find the solution of the related specific issue of the client. 3. Interview on the basis of function a) Diagnostic interview When the objective of the interview is confined to investigating an issue or problem; it is called diagnostic interview. b) Treatment interview The process of interview that involves the treatment of the problem of the client is called treatment interview. c) Research interview Interview conducted for the purpose of data collection or hypothesis building in a research is called research interview. 4. Interview on the basis of formality a) Formal interview The interview which is formal in nature and that is structured with different pre-prepared questionnaire. This interview has some formality that has to be followed and meet while interviewing with the client b) Informal interview The interview which is not formal in nature and not structured with any steps or rules is called informal interview. It does not have any rules to follow while interviewing the client. 4. Relationship The worker-client relationship is another casework tool that needs to be delineated. Relationship between any two
  51. 51. Methods of Social Work Page 51 people is the condition of their being connected in a significant way. We experience various kinds of relationships in our lives. First of all, there are the relationships derived from being members of one's family and kinship groups. Parent-child, sibling-sibling, uncle- niece relationships are examples. These are permanent and unalterable, lasting as long as one lives. On the other hand, relationships between two friends, neighbors’ or classmates are temporary. The doctor-patient, teacher-student, supervisor - supervisee, lawyer-client are examples of professional relationships. One can broadly classify relationships according to quality also. A relationship between two people, characterized by hatred is a negative relationship; nevertheless, it is a relationship. Likewise, a relationship marked by affection is a positive one. It follows from the above discussion that the social worker- client relationship is a professional relationship, and that it has to be positive in nature. Only a positive relationship can serve as a means towards the desirable end of helpfulness, the type of helpfulness that provides scope for the exercise of casework principles. Professional relationships have some common characteristics. They are bound by time to specific purposes. When the purpose is met, the relationship comes to an end. Unlike family relationships which are diffuse and permeate many areas of human life, professional relationships pertain only to the areas surrounding specific purposes. For e.g., take the teacher-student relationship. The student's academic life is a matter of legitimate interest and attention for the teacher, who thereby assumes responsibility regarding how the student spends his/her time in school. The teacher is not concerned what the student does after school hours. The parent-child relationship, on the other hand, is all inclusive. There is hardly any aspect of the child's life that is not pertinent to the parents' view. In family relationships, mutuality is also
  52. 52. Methods of Social Work Page 52 implicit in one form or other. Parents take care of children, and when parents grow old the children, who are adults by that time, are expected to take care of the ageing parents. The dyadic pair in a professional relationship, however, is not bound by any consideration of mutuality. There, the mutuality concept is replaced by market economy, in the sense that, the professional service gets paid through some kind of monetary arrangement. In a professional relationship, as between a doctor and patient or a social worker and client, the professional person uses two types of authority, one based on his/her knowledge and the other sanctioned by society for the practice of one's profession. Because of his/her knowledge and skills (S)he is able to apply suitable procedures for helping the patient or client. The possession of knowledge and skills is instrumental in obtaining a certain amount of conferred authority for the practice of his/her profession. The social case work implies two types of relationship with client. They are as below: 1. Professional relationship 2. Treatment relationship Professional relationship This is the relationship between social case worker and client which is started at the beginning of the problem solving process with the promise of solving the problem of the client. The case worker focuses on need of the client only to solve the problem. During agreement the places is fixed for the interaction like office, institution agency or any other organization. During problem solving the social case worker gives ideas views or solutions to the client which is professional in nature and the two person meet at the fixed time period. The relationship is open between client and social case worker and the priority is given to the satisfaction of the client.
  53. 53. Methods of Social Work Page 53 Treatment relationship This is the satisfaction and problem alleviation oriented relationship which is oriented towards reducing the problems of the client by different treatment methods and process. It helps the client to gain maximum satisfaction of understanding the situation and heading towards resolution of the problem. 5. Home visit Conducting the interviews in the office of the agency has certain advantages. It provides for privacy and prevents distractions. It invests a certain degree of formality and professionalism in the conversation, to the extent that the clients are encouraged to view the interviews seriously. But to some clients, the formality of the office may be threatening, provoking them to put on masks that hide their real selves and feelings. For such people, having one or two interviews at home will be a welcome relief. There are also some other considerations which make home visits an important and necessary casework tool. First of all, there is the likelihood that the client perceives the social worker's visit to his/her home as an indication of the social worker's interest in his/her welfare. Recognition by the client of the social worker's interest and concern is desirable as far as the progress of the casework process is concerned. Furthermore, there are clients whose fatalistic attitude to life's problems and the resultant resignation to problems prevents them from doing anything. Social workers have to go to them rather than wait for them at the agency. One or two home visits may not bear any fruit; more visits will be necessary. Repeated home visits by social workers are recorded in some of the Survey of Casework Records (SOCR) cases, the social worker's persistence paying off in the end. Home visit is definitely advantageous in that it enables the social worker to observe the home environment of the
  54. 54. Methods of Social Work Page 54 client. Importantly, the interactions which take place among the family members lend themselves to the social worker's observation from which the social worker is able to make useful inferences about the attitudes and relationships within the family. There was the case of Lakshman (15 years) who was referred to the social worker for poor academic performance and aggressive behavior. Lakshman lived in a one-room tenement with his parents who asserted that they loved Lakshman very much, that they gave him everything he wanted and that they expected him to do well in school. Even the T.V. set was bought for him, they declared. During every visit, the social worker found the whole family in front of the T.V., including Lakshman, who had his school books open in front of him but his eyes on the program. On one visit, the social worker was talking to Lakshman about his school report, suddenly and unexpectedly, the father began to beat Lakshman, scolding him loudly for his failure in the examination. The contradictions in parental handling could be easily seen by the social worker during home visits. 6. Recording Recording is one of the essential tools of the social case work. The term ‘recording’ indicates the noting down of the facts or sequences of activities or events. By maintaining records social case worker can improve his professional skills and techniques. The social worker records many other things as the case progresses. His/her work diary is meant for jottings on events as they happen. The jottings cover names, addresses, dates, notes on interviews, points of importance gleaned from conversations with people other than clients collaterals and resource persons, observations, inferences and elements of the casework process.
  55. 55. Methods of Social Work Page 55 From the data which are in a jumble in the work diary, the social worker organizes systematically the content of the formal case record, which is a formal or official record maintained at the agency. The casework record serves some important purposes. It is humanly not possible to retain in mind all the information related to a client. Writing becomes necessary for formulating the social assessment and plans of action in each and every case. Putting down the events and related aspects in black and white helps the social worker in evaluating his/her own work. So the practice of recording regularly is the features of the case along with the helping activities facilitate the casework process. Casework records are necessary from administrative considerations as well. They provide the data necessary for reviewing periodically the work of the agency, from perspectives of quality and quantity of service. From the content of the case records the administrator is able to find out how, where, and in what, the social worker's professional time is spent and this kind of reviewing is necessary to assess the effectiveness of the work of the agency. Purposes of recording in casework  Helps in diagnosis and treatment.  Enables more effective interviewing and intervention.  Useful for organizing and structuring of information/aids orderly thinking.  Refreshes the memory of the worker/increases retrospective understanding.  Enables better planning for subsequent interview.  Useful as a guide to new worker in correcting past mistakes.  Useful as an index for correction of polices.  Ensure continuity if any caseworker discontinues a case.
  56. 56. Methods of Social Work Page 56  Administration useful for future reference. Techniques of social case work Casework techniques are the procedures of helping the client. They are the wherewithal through which the client gets the experience of being helped. The client may not perceive the procedures as specific units or characteristics of his/her contact with the social worker, but (s)he will generally experience the fact of being helped. Supportive Techniques The supportive techniques are indeed necessary, because they obviate the use of defenses by the client. The supportive techniques and the techniques that cater for the material and non-material needs, thus remove some of the obstacles for change. Most of the remaining obstacles can be removed by means of counseling, unless they are too deeply entrenched and also complicated by other factors. 1. Acceptance Acceptance is one of the basic techniques of helping. The abstract principle of acceptance is made a reality through the technique of acceptance. It is a way of approach, an ongoing disposition through which the client feels that (s)he is welcome to the social work agency and that the social worker wants to help him/her. Acceptance by the social worker is conveyed through words, the tone of the words and the overall behavior which is visible to the client. Further, it is characterized by the worker's warmth and courtesy to the client, his/her demonstration of interest in the client, his/her geniality and cordiality. The way the client is received, given a seat and listened to, is important in creating an atmosphere of acceptance.
  57. 57. Methods of Social Work Page 57 2. Assurance In certain contexts, the client needs assurance regarding the authenticity of his/her feelings and that (s)he will not be judged, or ostracized for his/her feelings. The client has to be helped to understand the difference between feelings and doing. One may feel murderously angry at another person but does not have to feel guilty as long as one does not commit the murder or do any other thing that causes harm to the person against whom (s)he has the angry feelings. Feelings of any kind are neither wrong nor blameworthy, but certain acts carried out under the force of feelings can be unlawful and wrong because of the harm it causes others. For example; In the SOCR, there were a few female clients who had told the social workers at one time or the other that there were times when they wished that their alcoholic husbands were dead. The common observation was that, after making this angry statement they felt embarrassed and guilty. The social workers were not shocked at hearing such statements nor were they inclined to reprimand the client for expressing such feelings. But they were accepting and assuring in their responses that conveyed the message: "I can understand your feelings of anger. It is human and natural to have these feelings in such circumstances''. 3. Facilitation of Expression of Feelings It has been stated before that for the client, the expression of feelings is necessary; it is now added that facilitation of expression of feelings becomes a technique for the social worker. The accepting attitude on the part of the social worker does make it easy for the client to vent his/her feelings. Strong feelings, when bottled up, can create blocks in thinking and thus impair one's problem solving abilities. Feelings like anger, guilt, sorrow, despair, and such others consume considerable mental energy, leaving very little for problem solving. Hence, it is
  58. 58. Methods of Social Work Page 58 necessary for the client who is carrying a load of emotional material, to unburden himself/herself. The social worker by careful listening, by asking appropriate questions and by refraining from judgmental statements, facilitates expression of feelings by the client. The social worker acts as a prompter and prodder. 4. Accrediting and Building of Self-Confidence It has to be remembered that the social worker cannot take over the client's problem, however helpless the client may be. All techniques should be directed towards making the client an active participant in problem solving, and for that, the client needs to develop self-confidence. Pointing out the client's strengths and giving him/her due credit for the tasks (s)he has been able to perform successfully, is helpful in building up self-confidence. 5. Encouragement and Reassurance Encouragement and reassurance need to be used to clients' advantage in casework. It is a common experience of social workers that clients are generally reluctant to do unfamiliar things without strong encouragement, albeit doing such things is necessary to improve the situation. 6. Emotional Support All the techniques presented and discussed in this and preceding pages constitute the supportive techniques in casework. They provide emotional sustenance to the client and are used with the goal of making the client fully affirmed and sufficiently strengthened to take the next step. Giving emotional support is a term commonly used in social work parlance, with the speaker using the term to mean as if it were a single technique. Realistically speaking, the term refers to a cluster of techniques, that is, a combination of all or some of the techniques discussed above. Therefore, emotional support may be considered as
  59. 59. Methods of Social Work Page 59 a multiple technique. Emotional support, when effectively used, makes the client hopeful, bolsters his morale and sets the stage ready for his participation in problem solving. Almost all clients need emotional support in order that they may feel comfortable with the social worker, the agency and themselves to be able to use help to handle their difficulties. 7. Change of Physical Environment The change of physical environment is another technique which will be necessary for some clients for better functioning. For example; some of the children who were referred to the community centers for poor academic performance were children who had no facilities at home for quiet study. Their dwelling places were often overcrowded with too many persons living in a small area of space and there was no nook or corner where they could sit and read. Arranging a place for them which they could use for a few hours every day for study was helpful. Even these small changes demanded persistent efforts on the part of the social workers. Effecting more substantial changes like finding a place of accommodation for clients who were pavement dwellers was beyond the capacity of the social worker, though in a few cases, plots for huts could be procured in slums. 8. Enhancing Information and Knowledge Imparting knowledge, like any other casework technique is used according to the needs of the situation and the client. In these situations the social worker's role is almost like that of a teacher, teaching about human needs, relationships and how parents could involve themselves in growth producing relationships. But the teaching in casework practice has to be carried out in an indirect manner without making the client self-conscious or uncomfortable about his lack of knowledge.
  60. 60. Methods of Social Work Page 60 Counseling Techniques In a broader sense, counseling techniques are inclusive of the supportive techniques because in the beginning phase of the social worker-client transactions, use of supportive techniques is necessary for initiating a positive relationship. They are presented as two categories to highlight the fact that with regard to some client’s casework service does not go beyond the application of supportive techniques and the techniques for enhancing resources. When they are considered as two sets of techniques the meaning becomes clear with the statement that, counseling techniques are always preceded by one or more of the supportive techniques. But supportive techniques are not always followed by counseling techniques. Counseling techniques helps client in such a way that the client find him/herself capable of dealing with problems at present. Counseling may also solve the problems of the client in the near future. 1. Reflective Discussion Reflective discussion is discussion between the social worker and the client based upon the client's deep thinking on the different areas of his/her life that have a bearing upon his/her problem. Most of the problems of living need thinking through, for finding constructive solutions. At one point or other, in the social worker-client relationship, the client has to be enabled to view his/her problem objectively by separating the actualities of the situation from the feelings and impressions surrounding it. There is a need to look at the various aspects of the problem, its antecedents and the likely consequences. It may be necessary to trace the development of the problem and be aware of the parts played by self and others, knowingly or unknowingly. Then, there is the question of what can be done now? By means of appropriate questions, empathetic remarks, and statements linking the various elements of the problem, the
  61. 61. Methods of Social Work Page 61 social worker should be able to draw out the client's capacity for thinking and to help him/her to reflect upon the different aspects of the situation. Reflective discussion as a multiple technique may span a part or the whole of one or more interviews. 2. Advice Advice is a technique in counseling. In casework literature, most of which has originated from the West, advice is not ranked high in the list of techniques for various reasons. But it is used considerably, and with advantage in casework practice in India and some other country. In the Indian socio-cultural tradition, advice is something which is sought, given and accepted without misgivings. Social work clients do ask for advice and even at times when it is not asked, it may be given or provided, it is given objectively, is based on sound knowledge and on the client's genuine need for it. There is also the condition that advice-giving is not followed by any attempt of coercion or compulsion to make the client follow the advice. Advice-giving can avoid the bad flavor that is often associated with it, by the social worker's thoughtful act of initiating reflective discussion on the matter advised. Take the question of family planning. Many clients with large families struggling with problems of poverty will need advice on family planning. But it is not just a message conveyed by the social worker to clients; it is a matter that has to be discussed. The client will have queries needing answers and anxieties that need to be allayed. 3. Motivation Closely connected with advice is 'motivation', (a multiple technique) a term which is commonly heard in the field of family planning. One who advises guides and finally persuades a man to undergo sterilization operation is called a motivator. In casework, motivation refers to
  62. 62. Methods of Social Work Page 62 influencing the client to take a course of action that is considered good for him and his family, or that is necessary for solving the problem he faces. Expectedly, some clients respond normally to the social worker's techniques of advising, informing, and imparting knowledge by doing according to the line of action indicated. Here, the implication is that the emotional readiness to act in a new way happens by way of a chain reaction. There are, however, clients who listen and participate attentively in the casework interview and even decide to take up a course of action but fail in the last step that is, actually doing. They cannot get themselves to the doing part. The emotional readiness to act in a new way is not there. In such cases, the social worker may have to provide additional stimulation, inducement or spurring to activate the client. Then the entire process of advising, discussing, informing, teaching and spurring becomes motivation. 4. Clarification In some contexts, clarification is called for before the client can be motivated for a particular line of action. Clarification means conceptually disentangling the various factors of a situation, to render it more comprehensible to the client. It would involve explicating one or more elements of the situation that are not perceived correctly by the client. For Example, There was the case of Shirin. She was a prostitute and she was unwilling to go for a medical test for sexually transmitted diseases. Clarification of the factors linking prostitution to the disease was necessary before she could agree to take the test. 5. Modeling Clients do learn from what the social worker says and also from what (s)he does. Since the social worker converses purposefully and responsibly, some clients learn
  63. 63. Methods of Social Work Page 63 helpful and constructive ways of communication from their experience of the social worker's pattern of communication. When the social worker presents a prototype of behavior with the idea that, the client may learn new forms of speaking and doing, it is the modeling technique at work. Supportive and Psycho-social counseling Support plays a vital role in social case work. Social case worker must provide full support to help the client to get rid of his/her problems because it provide client with courage and confident to tackle problems. Thus, counseling provided to the client must be supportive in nature. The term psycho-social is made of two word “psycho” and “social” where psycho means relating to psychological or mental and social means the factors relating to social behavior or society. Thus, Psychosocial means the combination and the interaction of the psychological and social factor in relation to the thought and behavior of the person. The individual and his environment are inter-related with each other. The change in one system creates change in other system. In other words behavior and personality of an individual is the product of psychological factors and environmental factors. Thus, problem inclined is not only due to psychological factor but also due to environmental factors but also due to environmental factor where the individual live. The psychology and personality of any person is affected by social, cultural as well as religious factors. If individual is not good then the society will also be the same. In other word to make the better society we should make a good individual. Similarly the actual behavior and appearance of the person is also a result of biological and social factors. The differences between individuals are due to differences in heredity characters and influences in environment. It is
  64. 64. Methods of Social Work Page 64 very important to know the pattern of person behavior which is determined by biological factor and which is by social factor. Thus, problems in individual are due to different factors like environment, social, culture, religious and heredity. For solving the problem the caseworker must have knowledge about these problems and must use different techniques of intervention like supportive and counseling systems. Factors related to psychosocial counseling 1. Social relation and environment of present and past should be focused. 2. External influence has to be addressed in order to promote better adjustment between his/her surround. 3. Specific approach should be used to collect data or social evidence like social study, diagnosis and treatment process. 4. Each person and each family is unique, thus must be studied and listen separately. 5. Gathering information and understanding clients dilemmas. 6. Observation and arrangement of data in order. 7. Conduct early interview for gathering information. 8. Observe clients non-verbal behaviors and psycho- social study of children, parents, teachers and other concerned people. 9. Many problems emerge due to the development phase of individual and family life cycle therefore early life history’s data is to be taken for psychosocial study. 10. After determining the most probable strategy treatment need to be done.

×