Definitions of Social change
According to Davis: By social change is meant
only such alternative as occur in social
organization that is structure and functions of
According to Jones: Social changes is a term
used to describe “variation or modification of
any aspect of social processes, social patterns,
social interaction or social organiztion.
According to Horton and Hunt: Social
change is meant change in the social structure
or function of societal forms.
Thus we can conclude that social change is the
reorganization of society in terms of time and
Theory of Social Change:
Ibn-e-Khaldun (1332-1406 AD) Theory: His full name is
Abdul Rehman Abu Zayd Ibne Muhammad Ibn-e-
Khaldun. He is also called the father of socialogy. He
has given his view on social change.
According to him, nation or dynasties have a natural
life span like individual and no matter what the
circumstance are, no dynasty last more than three
generation. That changes follow the clockwise pattern.
He said that every generation is equal to average
duration of an individual’s life
Which is about 120 years and this process is
repeatedly occurring in the same society. These
three stages will be growth development and
decay. When the last stage i.e decay comes, it
soon dies its natural death and disappears in
the darkness of history, hence the rise and fall
of the nations occur. Because when a nation
rose to the top. it will have to fall. He has name
it as the rise and fall of the nations.
Factors of Social Change
A) Geographical Factor.
1) Physical or geographical factor.
2) Natural calamites and climate.
B) Biological Factor.
1) Population factor.
3) Cultural Factor…..
1) Technology factor.
3) Psychological factor.
4) Isolation and contact.
5) Social structure.
6) Attitude and values.
A) Geographical factors:
1) Physical factor: some times changes in the
physical environment also bring changes
which are important for society. The physical
changes or physical factors for example a
change from greenery into desert. It means
that if an area is green one and after
sometime it convert into a desert, this is
physical change and it effects the social
2) Climate or natural calamities: climate and all
factors of the earth’s surface influence man’s
Livelihood heat, cold, atmospheric conditions,
draught, earthquake etc. are factors whose
interplay man condition.
3) Migration: many human groups throughout
history have changed their physical environment
through migration especially in primitive societies
where the people were directly dependent upon
their physical environment. Migration to different
environment brings major changes in culture.
B) Biological factors: plants and animals form a
part of man’s non-human environment and as in
the case of this geographic environment man
modifies and uses it in ways that are culturally
1) Population factor: human being themselves
are a part of man’s biologic environment both
changes in the genetic character of human beings
and changes in the density composition and
numbers of population can be important factor of
C) Cultural factor: contact with different
cultures diffusion, invention, discovery and
borrowing and technology etc. are sources from
which some changes in society emerge. As factors
in interplay with others, they are significant in the
process of social change.
1) Technology factor: it is the source and
stimulating factor for social change. The role of
technology may be vary from society to society,
often being very significant as in the U.S.A, japan
and now in Malaysia and frequently setting off a
series of other changes. In other societies
technology may play a much less significant role in
2) Diffusion: the spreading of the characteristics
of one culture to another. It is suggested that all
the social and cultural changes are the result of
contact between different cultures that is every
innovation of culture born once and then spread to
other cultures. For example modern technology as
computer, automobiles, electronics, TV etc are the
forign innovation imported by us and adopted.
3) Psychological factor: it is consider important
for social change. Psychological acceptance of
change prepares one for discovering new things
and new ways of life. As a result the values, mores,
traditions and customs of human society would be
undergoing perpetual changes.
4) Isolation and contact: those societies which
are located at the cross roads, but having contact
with other societies and cultural groups, get some
new traits of culture of other groups in contact.