Social Change

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  • Culture refers to values, customs, traditions and norms of behaviour shared by a community. Cultural values shape the way we think about and interpret the world; they provide us with a worldview and are the basis for communication. Training for health professionals in the UK emphasises the need for a participatory relationship between professionals and their clients reflecting an emphasis on cultural values such as individuality, choice and autonomy. Over the last twenty years medical practice in diagnostic disclosure has slowly shifted from non-disclosure to full disclosure at the patient’s request. However in other cultures diagnostic disclosure to patients, especially where there is a poor prognosis, is considered to be undesirable. In Singapore, Chinese patients may hold a strong preference for non-disclosure of a cancer diagnosis. Families often request that the patient is not informed and some patients will actively avoid discussion about their diagnosis if they suspect cancer. Discussion of treatment options and involvement in decision-making is considered to be the responsibility of family members rather than patients. For Chinese patients cancer may be “attributed to bad luck, punishment for sins committed in this life or a previous one, an unbalanced ‘yin-yang’ or the will of a supreme being” The use of the term cancer by clinicians could bring about a family crisis due to the social stigma associated with cancer.
  • Culture refers to values, customs, traditions and norms of behaviour shared by a community. Cultural values shape the way we think about and interpret the world; they provide us with a worldview and are the basis for communication. Training for health professionals in the UK emphasises the need for a participatory relationship between professionals and their clients reflecting an emphasis on cultural values such as individuality, choice and autonomy. Over the last twenty years medical practice in diagnostic disclosure has slowly shifted from non-disclosure to full disclosure at the patient’s request. However in other cultures diagnostic disclosure to patients, especially where there is a poor prognosis, is considered to be undesirable. In Singapore, Chinese patients may hold a strong preference for non-disclosure of a cancer diagnosis. Families often request that the patient is not informed and some patients will actively avoid discussion about their diagnosis if they suspect cancer. Discussion of treatment options and involvement in decision-making is considered to be the responsibility of family members rather than patients. For Chinese patients cancer may be “attributed to bad luck, punishment for sins committed in this life or a previous one, an unbalanced ‘yin-yang’ or the will of a supreme being” The use of the term cancer by clinicians could bring about a family crisis due to the social stigma associated with cancer.
  • Social Change

    1. 1. Population Health and Social Change How do changing social conditions influence health?
    2. 2. • Social change is a normal process that occurs throughout human society • It occurs over time in response to complex environmental, political and social factors.
    3. 3. Pressure for Change CHANGE
    4. 4. Pressure for Change Social CHANGE
    5. 5. Pressure for Change Social CHANGE Economic
    6. 6. Pressure for Change Social CHANGE Political Economic
    7. 7. Why Demography is important
    8. 8. Why Demography is important • Estimation of current social needs and prediction of future social needs.
    9. 9. Why Demography is important • Estimation of current social needs and prediction of future social needs. • Size
    10. 10. Why Demography is important • Estimation of current social needs and prediction of future social needs. • Size • Distribution
    11. 11. Why Demography is important • Estimation of current social needs and prediction of future social needs. • Size • Distribution • Structure- age, gender, ethnicity, wealth
    12. 12. Why Demography is important • Estimation of current social needs and prediction of future social needs. • Size • Distribution • Structure- age, gender, ethnicity, wealth • Fertility, morbidity and mortality
    13. 13. Why Demography is important • Estimation of current social needs and prediction of future social needs. • Size • Distribution • Structure- age, gender, ethnicity, wealth • Fertility, morbidity and mortality • Migration
    14. 14. Why Demography is important • Estimation of current social needs and prediction of future social needs. • Size • Distribution • Structure- age, gender, ethnicity, wealth • Fertility, morbidity and mortality • Migration • Future trends
    15. 15. Largest Cities 2015 Source: UN Dept. of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2005)
    16. 16. Largest Cities 2015 Tokyo 35.4 Mumbai 21.8 Mexico City 21.5 Sao Paulo 20.5 New York 19.8 Delhi 18.6 Shanghai 17.2 Calcutta 16.9 Dhaka 16.9 Jakarta 16.8 London (29) 8.6 0 10 20 30 40 Source: UN Dept. of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2005)
    17. 17. Global Urbanisation Source: UN Dept. of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2005)
    18. 18. Global Urbanisation 3,000 2,414 2,400 1,800 1,363 1,200 579 644 600 522 542 394 249 332 276 294 234 21 29 109 70 32 7 0 50 00 25 50 00 25 50 00 25 50 00 25 50 00 25 50 00 25 19 20 20 19 20 20 19 20 20 19 20 20 19 20 20 19 20 20 ica pe n ia a ia ric a an As be ro er Af ce Eu ib Am O ar /C th or ica N er Am tin La Source: UN Dept. of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2005)
    19. 19. Household Trends % living alone % lone parent Source: ONS Census 2001
    20. 20. Household Trends % living alone % lone parent 12 8 4 0 1961 1971 1981 1991 2000 Source: ONS Census 2001
    21. 21. Household Trends % living alone % lone parent 12 8 12 11 4 8 6 4 0 1961 1971 1981 1991 2000 Source: ONS Census 2001
    22. 22. Household Trends % living alone % lone parent 12 8 12 11 10 10 4 8 6 6 4 4 3 0 1961 1971 1981 1991 2000 Source: ONS Census 2001
    23. 23. Cultural Change
    24. 24. Cultural Change  Culture refers to values, customs, traditions and norms of behaviour shared by a community.
    25. 25. Cultural Change  Culture refers to values, customs, traditions and norms of behaviour shared by a community.  Cultural values shape the way we think about and interpret the world; they provide us with a world view and are the basis for communication.
    26. 26. The extent of cultural influences
    27. 27. The extent of cultural influences People who share a culture tend to associate with each other
    28. 28. The extent of cultural influences People who share a culture tend to associate with each other Values are pervasive, not equally shared by individuals within a community
    29. 29. The extent of cultural influences People who share a culture tend to associate with each other Values are pervasive, not equally shared by individuals within a community The degree of commitment to cultural values varies according to age, gender, social layer etc.,
    30. 30. ‘Traditional’ Cultures
    31. 31. ‘Traditional’ Cultures
    32. 32. ‘Traditional’ Cultures Relationships Formality Co-dependent Cultural Conformity Knowledge Experiential Authority Tradition Nature, spirits, Religion Many Gods Primary ancestors, cyclical Lifestyle Consistency Maturity Collectivist
    33. 33. ‘Traditional’ Cultures Relationships Formality Co-dependent Cultural Conformity Knowledge Experiential Authority Tradition Nature, spirits, Religion Many Gods Primary ancestors, cyclical Lifestyle Consistency Maturity Collectivist
    34. 34. ‘Traditional’ Cultures Relationships Formality Co-dependent Cultural Conformity Knowledge Experiential Authority Tradition Nature, spirits, Religion Many Gods Primary ancestors, cyclical Lifestyle Consistency Maturity Collectivist
    35. 35. ‘Traditional’ Cultures Relationships Formality Co-dependent Cultural Conformity Knowledge Experiential Authority Tradition Nature, spirits, Religion Many Gods Primary ancestors, cyclical Lifestyle Consistency Maturity Collectivist
    36. 36. ‘Traditional’ Cultures Relationships Formality Co-dependent Cultural Conformity Knowledge Experiential Authority Tradition Nature, spirits, Religion Many Gods Primary ancestors, cyclical Lifestyle Consistency Maturity Collectivist
    37. 37. ‘Traditional’ Cultures Relationships Formality Co-dependent Cultural Conformity Knowledge Experiential Authority Tradition Nature, spirits, Religion Many Gods Primary ancestors, cyclical Lifestyle Consistency Maturity Collectivist
    38. 38. ‘Traditional’ Cultures Relationships Formality Co-dependent Cultural Conformity Knowledge Experiential Authority Tradition Nature, spirits, Religion Many Gods Primary ancestors, cyclical Lifestyle Consistency Maturity Collectivist
    39. 39. ‘Traditional’ Cultures Relationships Formality Co-dependent Cultural Conformity Knowledge Experiential Authority Tradition Nature, spirits, Religion Many Gods Primary ancestors, cyclical Lifestyle Consistency Maturity Collectivist
    40. 40. ‘Traditional’ Cultures Relationships Formality Co-dependent Cultural Conformity Knowledge Experiential Authority Tradition Nature, spirits, Religion Many Gods Primary ancestors, cyclical Lifestyle Consistency Maturity Collectivist
    41. 41. ‘Traditional’ Cultures Relationships Formality Co-dependent Cultural Conformity Knowledge Experiential Authority Tradition Nature, spirits, Religion Many Gods Primary ancestors, cyclical Lifestyle Consistency Maturity Collectivist
    42. 42. ‘Traditional’ Cultures Relationships Formality Co-dependent Cultural Conformity Knowledge Experiential Authority Tradition Nature, spirits, Religion Many Gods Primary ancestors, cyclical Lifestyle Consistency Maturity Collectivist
    43. 43. ‘Traditional’ Cultures Relationships Formality Co-dependent Cultural Conformity Knowledge Experiential Authority Tradition Nature, spirits, Religion Many Gods Primary ancestors, cyclical Lifestyle Consistency Maturity Collectivist
    44. 44. ‘Traditional’ Cultures Relationships Formality Co-dependent Cultural Conformity Knowledge Experiential Authority Tradition Nature, spirits, Religion Many Gods Primary ancestors, cyclical Lifestyle Consistency Maturity Collectivist
    45. 45. ‘Traditional’ Cultures Relationships Formality Co-dependent Cultural Conformity Knowledge Experiential Authority Tradition Nature, spirits, Religion Many Gods Primary ancestors, cyclical Lifestyle Consistency Maturity Collectivist
    46. 46. ‘Traditional’ Cultures Relationships Formality Co-dependent Cultural Conformity Knowledge Experiential Authority Tradition Nature, spirits, Religion Many Gods Primary ancestors, cyclical Lifestyle Consistency Maturity Collectivist
    47. 47. ‘Traditional’ Cultures Relationships Formality Co-dependent Cultural Conformity Knowledge Experiential Authority Tradition Nature, spirits, Religion Many Gods Primary ancestors, cyclical Lifestyle Consistency Maturity Collectivist
    48. 48. ‘Modern’ Cultures
    49. 49. ‘Modern’ Cultures
    50. 50. ‘Modern’ Cultures Relationships Informality Independence Transcultural Knowledge Scientific Rationality Currency Religion One God One Life Secondary Lifestyle Change Youth Individuality
    51. 51. ‘Modern’ Cultures Relationships Informality Independence Transcultural Knowledge Scientific Rationality Currency Religion One God One Life Secondary Lifestyle Change Youth Individuality
    52. 52. ‘Modern’ Cultures Relationships Informality Independence Transcultural Knowledge Scientific Rationality Currency Religion One God One Life Secondary Lifestyle Change Youth Individuality
    53. 53. ‘Modern’ Cultures Relationships Informality Independence Transcultural Knowledge Scientific Rationality Currency Religion One God One Life Secondary Lifestyle Change Youth Individuality
    54. 54. ‘Modern’ Cultures Relationships Informality Independence Transcultural Knowledge Scientific Rationality Currency Religion One God One Life Secondary Lifestyle Change Youth Individuality
    55. 55. ‘Modern’ Cultures Relationships Informality Independence Transcultural Knowledge Scientific Rationality Currency Religion One God One Life Secondary Lifestyle Change Youth Individuality
    56. 56. ‘Modern’ Cultures Relationships Informality Independence Transcultural Knowledge Scientific Rationality Currency Religion One God One Life Secondary Lifestyle Change Youth Individuality
    57. 57. ‘Modern’ Cultures Relationships Informality Independence Transcultural Knowledge Scientific Rationality Currency Religion One God One Life Secondary Lifestyle Change Youth Individuality
    58. 58. ‘Modern’ Cultures Relationships Informality Independence Transcultural Knowledge Scientific Rationality Currency Religion One God One Life Secondary Lifestyle Change Youth Individuality
    59. 59. ‘Modern’ Cultures Relationships Informality Independence Transcultural Knowledge Scientific Rationality Currency Religion One God One Life Secondary Lifestyle Change Youth Individuality
    60. 60. ‘Modern’ Cultures Relationships Informality Independence Transcultural Knowledge Scientific Rationality Currency Religion One God One Life Secondary Lifestyle Change Youth Individuality
    61. 61. ‘Modern’ Cultures Relationships Informality Independence Transcultural Knowledge Scientific Rationality Currency Religion One God One Life Secondary Lifestyle Change Youth Individuality
    62. 62. ‘Modern’ Cultures Relationships Informality Independence Transcultural Knowledge Scientific Rationality Currency Religion One God One Life Secondary Lifestyle Change Youth Individuality
    63. 63. ‘Modern’ Cultures Relationships Informality Independence Transcultural Knowledge Scientific Rationality Currency Religion One God One Life Secondary Lifestyle Change Youth Individuality
    64. 64. ‘Modern’ Cultures Relationships Informality Independence Transcultural Knowledge Scientific Rationality Currency Religion One God One Life Secondary Lifestyle Change Youth Individuality
    65. 65. ‘Modern’ Cultures Relationships Informality Independence Transcultural Knowledge Scientific Rationality Currency Religion One God One Life Secondary Lifestyle Change Youth Individuality
    66. 66. Values, customs and traditions
    67. 67. Values, customs and traditions Shared values, traditions and lifestyles of a group or community
    68. 68. Values, customs and traditions Shared values, traditions and lifestyles of a group or community Terminal values: Why we live our life. (wealth, happiness, religion.)
    69. 69. Values, customs and traditions Shared values, traditions and lifestyles of a group or community Terminal values: Why we live our life. (wealth, happiness, religion.) Instrumental values: How we live our life (the things we value, family, technology, clothes, cars etc.)
    70. 70. Values, customs and traditions Shared values, traditions and lifestyles of a group or community Terminal values: Why we live our life. (wealth, happiness, religion.) Instrumental values: How we live our life (the things we value, family, technology, clothes, cars etc.) Customs: Contemporary ways of doing things
    71. 71. Values, customs and traditions Shared values, traditions and lifestyles of a group or community Terminal values: Why we live our life. (wealth, happiness, religion.) Instrumental values: How we live our life (the things we value, family, technology, clothes, cars etc.) Customs: Contemporary ways of doing things Tradition: Historical ways of doing things
    72. 72. Values, customs and traditions Shared values, traditions and lifestyles of a group or community Terminal values: Why we live our life. (wealth, happiness, religion.) Instrumental values: How we live our life (the things we value, family, technology, clothes, cars etc.) Customs: Contemporary ways of doing things Tradition: Historical ways of doing things Value sets: Collection of values adopted by a cultural group or sub group
    73. 73. Acculturation Resistance/Receptiveness Duration & Intensity Variables Cultural Similarity of Contact Degree of Integration

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