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Lobbying
Module 7
Lobbying
Purpose:
To influence government policy and its
implementation and to help set the political
agenda
Legislative Route
Lobbying
But, just as campaign can be political or
corporate, so can lobbying
Influencing animal-use businesses, and their
policies
Market Route
Many Ways of Lobbying,
Including:
Insider advocacy (with policy makers)
Consultations
Face-to-face meetings
Presentations
Conferences etc.
Demonstrating problem/solutions
Legal challenges
Written or verbal representations
Insider Advocacy – Potential
Pitfalls
Tokenism – representation is given to provide
a veneer of democracy/consultation, but your
views and opinions are not taken on board.
Conflict of interests – fear of losing your insider
position could prevent you from being a
powerful advocate for your cause.
Cooption – there is a danger of becoming
coopted (peer pressure brings you to become
‘one of them’).
The Successful Lobbyist
Lobbyist:
Skills/Experience
A lobbyist needs:
Strategic ability
Interpersonal skills
Knowledge of subject
Lobbyist: Attitude
A lobbyist needs:
Belief in cause
Principles
Optimism – set sights high
Loyalty to organization
To be persuasive, not argumentative
To understand opponents’ views and
position, but not to be won over
Tenacity – never concede too early
To be a tough opponent!
Attitude and application
are key!
Media Importance
The media – press, radio and television (TV) –
shapes public opinion
It is probably the single most effective vehicle
for spreading social change messages
It is the most effective way of reaching mass
audiences
Which enables the animal protection
movement to reach new supporters (and
move towards critical mass)
It should be a leading priority for a
campaigning organization
Vital Components!
Commitment and energy
are vital components of any
successful campaign:
Believing you will win
Dedication and
commitment
Persistence
Being in for the ‘long
haul’
Politicians as ‘sofas’ – bearing imprint of last
person to have sat on them!
Managing Your Lobby
Stay on top of everything
Stay flexible & maximize
opportunities
Listen to the opposition!
Never take ‘No’ for an
answer!!
How Not To!
Three main errors of NGO
lobbying:
‘Speak First, Think Later’
Knowing ‘People in
High Places’
Eating Your Way Out of
Trouble
- Charles Miller
Aim High!
“The greatest danger for
most of us is not that we aim
too high and we miss it, but
we aim too low and reach
it”
- Michelangelo
Lobbying Strategy
Campaign & Lobbying
Lobbying should be an integral part of
campaigns strategy
Political
Corporate
Lobbying has far greater impact when
part of a strategic – and phased –
advocacy campaign
Success Criteria
Key to successful lobby, is same as key
to successful campaign:
Strategically planned pathway
Ability to take advantage of key
opportunities
Keeping big picture in mind
(helicopter view)
Lobbying: keeping finger on
political/corporate pulse
Influence
Every campaign goal involves influencing
decision-makers
This can be done through channels (e.g.
supporters, consumers etc.)
But – it is far more effective when reinforced
by personal contacts
Key Points
You need to know:
How lobby fits into overall campaign strategy – ‘Strategy’
How to achieve your strategy – ‘Operations’
The legislative process (power/influence) – ‘Process’
The people involved (and motivation) – ‘Players’
The law (and practice) relating to lobbying activities
You need knowledge of
policy environment and…
psychology!
Lobbying Strategy
The overall aim of the lobby
The targets of the lobby (President/Prime
Minister, Ministers, Parliament, Political Parties,
Civil Servants [departments/levels])
Channels to be used (e.g. meetings, letters,
petitions, motions in Parliament, questions in
Parliament, initiation of Parliamentary
commissions/enquiries etc.)
Arguments/influences to be used (including
accurate facts, use of opinion polls etc.)
Allies & opponents – including forming
alliances to give added weight to the lobby
Public Action/Pressure
"Public opinion is everything.
With public sentiment nothing
can fail. Without it, nothing can
succeed."
— Abraham Lincoln
Seven Stage Model
Ignorance
Knowledge
Motivation
Skills/Resources
Optimism
Facilitation
Reinforcement
(Applies equally to politicians!!)
Public Action/Pressure
Seek to raise political awareness by
campaign
Media coverage/letters to editors
Public letters
Postcards
Petitions
Meetings with MPs
Need to mobilize/use active
supporters and groups
Corporate Lobbying
Business
Business is in the game for profits
This makes threats to its customers, profits or
finances powerful!
Can be negative or positive campaign/lobby
But beware of counter action
Single company focus
Comparative focus
Thorough research is vital
Channels of Influence
Shareholders
Suppliers
Customers
Media
Supporters
Legislative Structures,
Systems and Processes
Government Structures
The ruling elite (core group who run the
nation)
Strategies, policies and processes
Administrative functions/bureaucracy
The legal system
Government Structures
Ruling Elite
Legal System
Administrative Functions
Policies Strategies
Processes
Structure and Power
Which government department deals with
your issue?
Who is the Minister responsible?
Spokesperson for opposition?
Relevant committees? Chairs? Secretariat?
Who advises the decision makers?
The System
Legislative system
and stages?
Legislative
procedures?
Committee system
and procedures?
Role of any animal
welfare committee?
Parliamentary Processes
What mechanisms are
available to raise issues?
Introduction of bills into
Parliament?
Motions/speeches for
debate?
Parliamentary Questions – oral
and written?
What are relevant
parliamentary rules and
procedures?
Parliament information office?
Structures and Democracy
Government structures
Democratic principles
Human rights
Openness & transparency –
freedom of information
Consultation
International sensitivities
Animal protection &
constitution
Enforcement
'Enforcement is of fundamental importance,
because any measures to improve animal
welfare can only be effective if they are
properly implemented and enforced.‘
--Professor Sir Colin R W Spedding KBE, former
Chairman, UK Farm Animal Welfare Council
Legislation must give clear duty
Allocation of responsibility?
Enforcement is 90% education and advice
People
Players Involved
The legislative process is controlled by people
All members of legislature not equal
Majority party members have more power
Senior members more influential
Senior legislative staff wield enormous power
Know legislators – interests, past records etc.
Lobby the administration (do all briefing & recs)
Remember: Some aides wield power and
enormous influence
Pyramid of Power
Know the ‘Pyramid of
Power’
But don’t let it rule you!
There are often useful
‘pinch points’
Internal or expert pressure
on the top may be most
influential
Political pressure sometimes
needed first – importance
of timing
People Skills
Dress acceptably
Be well organized
Get to know people
Familiarity
Mirroring
Be pleasant
Be constructive
Politeness
Always say ‘thank you’
Exploiting Weaknesses
Elected politicians – Ego and vanity
Politicians’ aides – The influence game
Bureaucrats – Lethargy/laziness
Opposition – Facade of ‘ethical watchdog’
Elections – Crazy time! Promise anything to
win.
Overcoming Barriers
Overcoming Prejudices
Prejudices include:
Animal welfare seen as marginal issue consideration
Prejudice towards people issues
Perceptions of animal protection movement (middle
class luxury, white/female, ‘bunny huggers’, cat ladies
etc.)
Possible ways to overcome/answer:
Opinion surveys in different communities to
demonstrate popular support
Show that situation can improve without substantial
cost
Show potential costs of inactivity
Suggested arguments – see next slide
Use International Policy
International animal welfare policy (and
international opinion) can be a powerful
lobbying tool!
Know the international policy
environment, and use this in your
lobbying
See WAN website
Ask WAN for advice, if in doubt
Reasons for animal
protection:
Altruistic: Protection of animals for their own sakes, recognizing
the intrinsic value of animal life
Moral/ethical: 'The greatness of a nation and its moral progress
can be judged by the way its animals are treated' Gandhi
International acceptance: As above, but playing on a country's
desire for international acceptance and regard
Democracy: The 'people want it'
Protecting country's fauna 'heritage': Domestic animals/wildlife
Humanistic/social: Preventing animal cruelty because this can
have adverse impact upon human values and actions
Public health: Protecting animal and public health
Ownership/responsibility: Encouraging responsibility (liability)
Economic: Following changing consumer trends and competition
Importance of High
Standards
Status of animals can be raised by
improvements to legislation
Practical treatment can by raised by
high legislative
provisions/enforcement
Opponents – include vested financial
interests – will seek to lower standards
Animal protection organizations are
advocates for voiceless – animals
Time element – legislative timetable
and animals not priority so:
MAKE MOST OF PRESENT
OPPORTUNITY
Researching and Using
Opportunities
Constant political environmental
‘scanning’
Conferences
International highlights/activities
e.g. UN/OIE activities, World Animal Day
Official press releases
Current major concerns
e.g. Climate change, obesity, health,
etc.
Communicating your
Message
Communications
Briefing – one page or Annex
Formal letters ranked highest
E-mails (and faxes) becoming
more acceptable
E-lobbying e.g. Advocacy Online
Don’t only write – talk too if
possible
Follow telephone call by written
confirmation
Protests – numbers versus
originality
Information
Credibility
Reliable research is essential
Accurate and well-presented
Don’t be over-emotional or
exaggerate
You might need/use European or
other precedents
Scientific evidence may already exist
(or consider commissioning)
Making Commitments
Stick
Record in writing
Record with press conference
Staged live interview (TV, radio)
Inclusion in election manifesto
Get commitment at public meeting
Get commitment at conference
Just Do It!
Don’t be intimidated…
Remember, lobbying is
your democratic right

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Module 7 - Lobbying

  • 2. Lobbying Purpose: To influence government policy and its implementation and to help set the political agenda Legislative Route
  • 3. Lobbying But, just as campaign can be political or corporate, so can lobbying Influencing animal-use businesses, and their policies Market Route
  • 4. Many Ways of Lobbying, Including: Insider advocacy (with policy makers) Consultations Face-to-face meetings Presentations Conferences etc. Demonstrating problem/solutions Legal challenges Written or verbal representations
  • 5. Insider Advocacy – Potential Pitfalls Tokenism – representation is given to provide a veneer of democracy/consultation, but your views and opinions are not taken on board. Conflict of interests – fear of losing your insider position could prevent you from being a powerful advocate for your cause. Cooption – there is a danger of becoming coopted (peer pressure brings you to become ‘one of them’).
  • 7. Lobbyist: Skills/Experience A lobbyist needs: Strategic ability Interpersonal skills Knowledge of subject
  • 8. Lobbyist: Attitude A lobbyist needs: Belief in cause Principles Optimism – set sights high Loyalty to organization To be persuasive, not argumentative To understand opponents’ views and position, but not to be won over Tenacity – never concede too early To be a tough opponent! Attitude and application are key!
  • 9. Media Importance The media – press, radio and television (TV) – shapes public opinion It is probably the single most effective vehicle for spreading social change messages It is the most effective way of reaching mass audiences Which enables the animal protection movement to reach new supporters (and move towards critical mass) It should be a leading priority for a campaigning organization
  • 10. Vital Components! Commitment and energy are vital components of any successful campaign: Believing you will win Dedication and commitment Persistence Being in for the ‘long haul’ Politicians as ‘sofas’ – bearing imprint of last person to have sat on them!
  • 11. Managing Your Lobby Stay on top of everything Stay flexible & maximize opportunities Listen to the opposition! Never take ‘No’ for an answer!!
  • 12. How Not To! Three main errors of NGO lobbying: ‘Speak First, Think Later’ Knowing ‘People in High Places’ Eating Your Way Out of Trouble - Charles Miller
  • 13. Aim High! “The greatest danger for most of us is not that we aim too high and we miss it, but we aim too low and reach it” - Michelangelo
  • 15. Campaign & Lobbying Lobbying should be an integral part of campaigns strategy Political Corporate Lobbying has far greater impact when part of a strategic – and phased – advocacy campaign
  • 16. Success Criteria Key to successful lobby, is same as key to successful campaign: Strategically planned pathway Ability to take advantage of key opportunities Keeping big picture in mind (helicopter view) Lobbying: keeping finger on political/corporate pulse
  • 17. Influence Every campaign goal involves influencing decision-makers This can be done through channels (e.g. supporters, consumers etc.) But – it is far more effective when reinforced by personal contacts
  • 18. Key Points You need to know: How lobby fits into overall campaign strategy – ‘Strategy’ How to achieve your strategy – ‘Operations’ The legislative process (power/influence) – ‘Process’ The people involved (and motivation) – ‘Players’ The law (and practice) relating to lobbying activities You need knowledge of policy environment and… psychology!
  • 19. Lobbying Strategy The overall aim of the lobby The targets of the lobby (President/Prime Minister, Ministers, Parliament, Political Parties, Civil Servants [departments/levels]) Channels to be used (e.g. meetings, letters, petitions, motions in Parliament, questions in Parliament, initiation of Parliamentary commissions/enquiries etc.) Arguments/influences to be used (including accurate facts, use of opinion polls etc.) Allies & opponents – including forming alliances to give added weight to the lobby
  • 20. Public Action/Pressure "Public opinion is everything. With public sentiment nothing can fail. Without it, nothing can succeed." — Abraham Lincoln
  • 22. Public Action/Pressure Seek to raise political awareness by campaign Media coverage/letters to editors Public letters Postcards Petitions Meetings with MPs Need to mobilize/use active supporters and groups
  • 24. Business Business is in the game for profits This makes threats to its customers, profits or finances powerful! Can be negative or positive campaign/lobby But beware of counter action Single company focus Comparative focus Thorough research is vital
  • 27. Government Structures The ruling elite (core group who run the nation) Strategies, policies and processes Administrative functions/bureaucracy The legal system
  • 28. Government Structures Ruling Elite Legal System Administrative Functions Policies Strategies Processes
  • 29. Structure and Power Which government department deals with your issue? Who is the Minister responsible? Spokesperson for opposition? Relevant committees? Chairs? Secretariat? Who advises the decision makers?
  • 30. The System Legislative system and stages? Legislative procedures? Committee system and procedures? Role of any animal welfare committee?
  • 31. Parliamentary Processes What mechanisms are available to raise issues? Introduction of bills into Parliament? Motions/speeches for debate? Parliamentary Questions – oral and written? What are relevant parliamentary rules and procedures? Parliament information office?
  • 32. Structures and Democracy Government structures Democratic principles Human rights Openness & transparency – freedom of information Consultation International sensitivities Animal protection & constitution
  • 33. Enforcement 'Enforcement is of fundamental importance, because any measures to improve animal welfare can only be effective if they are properly implemented and enforced.‘ --Professor Sir Colin R W Spedding KBE, former Chairman, UK Farm Animal Welfare Council Legislation must give clear duty Allocation of responsibility? Enforcement is 90% education and advice
  • 35. Players Involved The legislative process is controlled by people All members of legislature not equal Majority party members have more power Senior members more influential Senior legislative staff wield enormous power Know legislators – interests, past records etc. Lobby the administration (do all briefing & recs) Remember: Some aides wield power and enormous influence
  • 36. Pyramid of Power Know the ‘Pyramid of Power’ But don’t let it rule you! There are often useful ‘pinch points’ Internal or expert pressure on the top may be most influential Political pressure sometimes needed first – importance of timing
  • 37. People Skills Dress acceptably Be well organized Get to know people Familiarity Mirroring Be pleasant Be constructive Politeness Always say ‘thank you’
  • 38. Exploiting Weaknesses Elected politicians – Ego and vanity Politicians’ aides – The influence game Bureaucrats – Lethargy/laziness Opposition – Facade of ‘ethical watchdog’ Elections – Crazy time! Promise anything to win.
  • 40. Overcoming Prejudices Prejudices include: Animal welfare seen as marginal issue consideration Prejudice towards people issues Perceptions of animal protection movement (middle class luxury, white/female, ‘bunny huggers’, cat ladies etc.) Possible ways to overcome/answer: Opinion surveys in different communities to demonstrate popular support Show that situation can improve without substantial cost Show potential costs of inactivity Suggested arguments – see next slide
  • 41. Use International Policy International animal welfare policy (and international opinion) can be a powerful lobbying tool! Know the international policy environment, and use this in your lobbying See WAN website Ask WAN for advice, if in doubt
  • 42. Reasons for animal protection: Altruistic: Protection of animals for their own sakes, recognizing the intrinsic value of animal life Moral/ethical: 'The greatness of a nation and its moral progress can be judged by the way its animals are treated' Gandhi International acceptance: As above, but playing on a country's desire for international acceptance and regard Democracy: The 'people want it' Protecting country's fauna 'heritage': Domestic animals/wildlife Humanistic/social: Preventing animal cruelty because this can have adverse impact upon human values and actions Public health: Protecting animal and public health Ownership/responsibility: Encouraging responsibility (liability) Economic: Following changing consumer trends and competition
  • 43. Importance of High Standards Status of animals can be raised by improvements to legislation Practical treatment can by raised by high legislative provisions/enforcement Opponents – include vested financial interests – will seek to lower standards Animal protection organizations are advocates for voiceless – animals Time element – legislative timetable and animals not priority so: MAKE MOST OF PRESENT OPPORTUNITY
  • 44. Researching and Using Opportunities Constant political environmental ‘scanning’ Conferences International highlights/activities e.g. UN/OIE activities, World Animal Day Official press releases Current major concerns e.g. Climate change, obesity, health, etc.
  • 46. Communications Briefing – one page or Annex Formal letters ranked highest E-mails (and faxes) becoming more acceptable E-lobbying e.g. Advocacy Online Don’t only write – talk too if possible Follow telephone call by written confirmation Protests – numbers versus originality
  • 47. Information Credibility Reliable research is essential Accurate and well-presented Don’t be over-emotional or exaggerate You might need/use European or other precedents Scientific evidence may already exist (or consider commissioning)
  • 48. Making Commitments Stick Record in writing Record with press conference Staged live interview (TV, radio) Inclusion in election manifesto Get commitment at public meeting Get commitment at conference
  • 49. Just Do It! Don’t be intimidated… Remember, lobbying is your democratic right