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mems and nems


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about integration of electrical and mechanical systems.

Published in: Engineering
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mems and nems

  1. 1. By: U. Kishore Chandra 1155109 M.Tech S.V.University.
  2. 2. WHY?  Richard Feynman in his famous talk in 1959, "There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom,”.  To avoid mechanical Wear by substituting the electronics.  Fundamental research.  Include nonlinear dynamics, origin of sound, damping and observing quantum effects on mechanical structures.
  3. 3. MEMS:- Micro Electro Mechanical Systems.. NEMS:- Nano Electro Mechanical Systems.
  4. 4. Electro mechanical systems.  These are devices that convert electrical energy into mechanical and vice versa. Eg. Solenoids, bushless DC motors, Relays etc.  These are sometimes referred to as mechatronics.  These systems can be as simple as push button motor starting circuit or as complex as complete industrial process.  Devices for control of mechanical system using circuits containing a few million transistors.
  5. 5. Miniaturization Advantages  It is a trend to manufacture ever smaller mechanical, optical and electronic products and devices.  Cost Reduction with improved efficiencies.  Improved product and building materials.  Ease of transportation  High precision surgical equipment.  Job opportunities in new fields.
  6. 6. History  First MEMS device a micro mechanical pressure sensor developed in 1970’s by IBM  Later in 1979 HP developed inkjet cartridge using micro mechanical nozzles.  The first VLSI NEMS device was demonstrated by researcher from IBM in 2000.  Its premise was an array of AFM(Automatic Force Microscopy) tips which can heat or sense a deformable substrate in order to function as memory device.
  7. 7. MEMS  Technology to form small structure with dimensions in the micrometer scale.  It conveys the advantages of miniaturization multiple components, and microelectronics to the design and construction of integrated electromechanical system.  There are already MEMS around you. In a car, maybe in a television, and in your mobile phone!
  8. 8. Eg. Cantilever sensor  MEMS cantilevers with chemical arrays attached haveing a natural frequency of vibration which changes as more mass is attached. The change in frequency is sensed MEMS actuator and this can be converted into electrical signal for further analysis.
  9. 9. NEMS  Integrating electrical and mechanical devices functionality in to the nano-scale.  They typically integrate transistors like nano-electronics with mechanical actuators.  Typical devices having low mass, high mechanical frequencies, use full for surface based sensing mechanisms.
  10. 10.  NEMS promise to revolutionize measurements of extremely small displacements extremely weak forces, particularly at the molecular level.  NANO materials: they started with carbon and their behavior depends on morphology.
  11. 11. Benefits of NEMS  Benefits include greater efficiency and reduced size, decreased power consumption and lower cost of production in electromechanical systems.  Small mass and size of NANO machines gives them a number of unique attributes that offer immense potential for new applications and fundamental measurements.  It has high ratings of fundamental power.
  12. 12. Fabrication:
  13. 13. Fabrication Basic technologies are:- Deposition:- ability to deposit thin films of material on substrate. If it is due to chemical deposition i. Chemical vapor deposition ii. Electro deposition iii. Thermal oxidation. If it is due to physical reaction i. Physical vapor deposition ii. Casting
  14. 14.  lithography:- to apply a patterned mask on top of the films by photolithographic imaging. Image made of polymer coating applied to a flexible aluminum plate. The image can be printed directly from the plate or it can be offset, by transferring the image into a flexible sheet.  Etching:- immersion of a substrate into a solution of reactive chemical that will etch exposed regions of the substrate at measurable rates. In dry itching material is sputtered or dissolved using reactive ions or vapor phase etchant.
  15. 15. Lithography Itching
  16. 16. Application of MEMS  Micro engines:- highly compact energy source.  Inertial sensors:- Accelerometer, gyroscopic sensor. Etc.  Pressure Sensor:- to measure blood pressure of fluid pressure.  Optical MEMS:- sensing or manipulating optical signals on a very small size scale using integrated mechanical, optical, and electrical systems .  Fluidc MEMS:- technology that enables precise, automated manipulation of tiny volumes of fluid mainly used in therapeutics(eg.drug delivery)
  17. 17. Applications of NEMS  Accelerometer:-measures the tilting of and orientation of mobile phones.  Nano nozzles:- direct the ink in inkjet printers.  Miniature robots:- NANO robots, self assembly robots.  Thermal actuators:- these are able to deliver large force with large displacement to the overall device for small amount of thermal expansion in one part.  Medicine:- it is the largest market for NEMS(eg. pressure sensors to measure blood pressure.)  Bio technology:-lithographic methods to assemble inorganic and metallic materials to layered devices.
  18. 18. Negative impacts:  Material toxicity  Difficult in handling.  Non- biodegradable materials.  Unanticipated consequences.  Job losses due to increased manufacturing efficiencies.
  19. 19. Conclusion:  Electrical and mechanical systems working together perform better.  MEMS and NEMS are have very good scope in present scenario.  NANO technology helps in maintaining the most sophisticated mechanism the we ever know.  Future of these technology may be PEMS,FEMS,AEMS.etc.
  20. 20. References:   Mechanical_Systems  s  ms 