In the name of Allah Kareem,Most Beneficent, Most Gracious,the Most Merciful !
Qualitative ResearchQualitative research is “an informal, subjective, semi systematic research approachesthat usually emphasizes words rather than numbers in the collection and analysis ofdata” and that is inductive in nature. In other words it generates theory.General Aims Of Qualitative Research: 1- Views of participants 2- It does not claim to generalize 3- Theory generation SUPERIOR GROUP OF COLLEGES
THE MAIN PREOCCUPATIONS OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCHERThese preoccupations reflect epistemologically grounded believes aboutwhat constitutes acceptable knowledge. The qualitative researchers aremore influenced by interpretivism. In this section five different pre-occupations among qualitative researchers will be outlined andexamined 1. See through the eye of the people been studied 2. Emphasis on process of social life 3. Description and the emphasis on contexts 4. Flexibility and limited structure 5. Concept and theory grounded in data
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS1. General Research Question2. Selecting Relevant Site(s) and Subjects3. Collection or Relevant Data 5a. Collection of Further Data4. Analyze and Interpretation of Data5. Conceptual and Theoretical Work 5b. Tighter Specification of the Research Question (s)6. Writing up Findings/Conclusions
Reliability and ValidityValidity refers to the issues of whether or not an indicator really measures theconcept that it is devised to measure whereas Reliability is the stability or theconsistency of measurement. 1. Member Checking 2. Triangulation 3. Self-Reflection and Rich thick description 4. External audit 5. Authenticity
Qualitative SamplingIn qualitative research researcher preferably uses non probabilitysampling that includes: 1. Convenience sampling 2. Snow ball sampling 3. Quota sampling Qualitative MethodsIn qualitative research four methods are used for data collection that is asfollows: 1. Interview 2. Focus group 3. Document analysis 4. Unstructured observation
What is Interview? “A person to person interaction or debate between two or more individual with a specific purpose in mind.”Types of interviews: There are several types of interviews that are as follows 1. Telephone Interview 2. Email Interview 3. Ethnographic Interview 4. One-on-one interview 5. Group Interview SUPERIOR GROUP OF COLLEGES
Modes OF INTERVIEWS1- Structured Interview:This is a fixed format interview in which all questions are prepared beforehandand put in the same order to each interviewee.2- Unstructured Interview:The interviewer is free to move the conversation in any direction of interest thatmay come up. Constantly, unstructured interviewing is particularly useful forexploring a topic broadly.3- Semi structured Interview:In this interview we have a list of questions on fairly specific topics to be covered,often referred to as an interview guide, but the interviewee has a great deal offlexibility in how to reply SUPERIOR GROUP OF COLLEGES
Comparison Chart (Nature of Interviews) Structure Interviews Un Structure Interviews Semi Structure Interviewsb It provides the precision 1- This interview is useful 1- The same questions areand reliability required in for exploring a topic asked of all those involvedcertain situations broadly2- This type of interview is 2- Each interviewee is 2- The kind and form ofeasy to code and enter in the asked a different series of questions go through asoftware to get the findings. questions process of development to ensure the their topic focus3- This type of interview took 3- This style lacks the 3- To ensure equivalentless time so in less span of reliability and precision of coveragetime more interviews can be structure interviewconducted.4- This interview lacks the 4- Some times interviewer 4- Equivalent interview timefree flow of a friendly and interviewee are is allowed in each caseconversation diverted from their discussion objective.
Interview procedureInterview procedure is the set of sequential interdependent activities thatresults in collection of comprehensive information regarding the researchtopic. It consists of following steps1. Interview objectives2. Methodology3. Interview composition and screening Geographical coverage: Lahore, Karachi, Islamabad, , Gender: -Males & Females Age: - 25 plus Job Tenure: - Minimum 3 years Positions in organizations - faculty members (minimum lecturer) Usage Pre-requisites: - 20% Inter level - 30% Bachelors level - 50% Masters level Organization type -Private or Public - (Private must be affiliated educational institute, college, University(HEC recognized)
Interview procedure4. Interview schedule S.No. Activity Dates 1 Objective setting and Screener development 14th Nov’ 08 2 Approval of objectives and screener 15th Nov’ 08 3 Selection of sites and respondents 16th – 20th Nov’ 08 4 Development of guidelines and arrangements 16th – 20th Nov’ 08 5 05- interviews (A) 22nd – 28th Nov 08 6 05- interviews (B) 24th – 28th Nov 08 7 05- interviews (C) 24th – 28th Nov 08 8 Transcripts 24th – 8th Dec’ 08 9 Analysis and Report writing 15th Dec’ 08 10 Report submission 17th Dec’ 085. Deciding about the ethical issues I. Identifying yourself as researcher II. Developing respondent consent form defining i. the research purposes ii. types of information required iii. confidentiality and anonymity statement iv. surety of security, summary publicity, fair uses of information and wastage of data after due time period
Interview procedure6. Discussion guide7. Questions preparation i. Pruning and revising possible questions ii. Trailing iii. Piloting and pre-piloting iv. Prompts and probing8. Conducting the interview i. Preparation phase 1. Research area office to be in upright condition (illumination, seating arrangement, noise free, etc) 2. Walkman with new batteries (verified twice). 3. Required documents (screener summary sheets) designed and ready 4. Cassettes (new) to be ready with tags and coding 5. Board markers, plain papers, pencils and other stationary items 6. Moderator guidelines printed and set on the table 7. Refreshment for the interviewee 8. Pick n drop facility for the interviewees 9. Gifts for the interviews as thanks for sparing time 10 Interviewee dress code suitability, matching, colour choice etc .
Interview procedure ii. Initial contact phase iii. Orientation phase iv. Substantive phase v. Closure phase09- Transcribing the interviews10. Analyzing the data i. First Stage Analysis ii. Thematic analysis iii. Stage-structure analysis11. Coding the data12. Analysis grid13. Writing up interview data
Qualitative DataSoft„, Nonnumeric, textual intangible orsubjective data that describes but notmeasure the attributes, characteristics,properties, etc., of a thing orphenomenon.ExampleConversation, text, audio, video colors, smells, tastes, textures, or sounds, SUPERIOR GROUP OF COLLEGES
Qualitative Data Analysis: what & why Qualitative Data analysis is a process of gathering, modeling, and transforming qualitative data with the goal of highlighting useful information suggesting conclusions, and supporting decision making.
How to conduct QDA: a step by step process 1.Get to know your data 2.Analyze your data 3.interpret your findings 4.prepare your report SUPERIOR GROUP OF COLLEGES
10.i. Get to know your DataGood analysis depends on understanding the data. • read and re-read the text. • listen to the tape recordings several times. • Write down any impressions you have. These impressions may be useful later. • Before beginning any analysis, consider the quality of the data and proceed accordingly SUPERIOR GROUP OF COLLEGES
2. Analyze your dataBefore proceeding to analysis, review the purposeof the evaluation and what you want to find out.Identify a few key questions that you want youranalysis to answer. Write down these questions.These will help you decide how to begin. The fullprocess of analyzing a transcription can be split intodifferent stages that were discussed one by one:1. The first step is just to read each transcription, go through them and highlighting the important statements from each portion as called substantive statements SUPERIOR GROUP OF COLLEGES
EXAMPLEExcerptFirst of all I would like to say few things before I give an answer to it. This is an organization whichgives you a plenty of (0.2) you see! Opportunities in which you can participate in decision making. Ialways:::: been allowed by top management to participate in decision making. Like (0.2) if there areanything regarding hiring faculty or there is any matter regarding curriculum improvement. Theyhave always asked me to participate in decision making and I have always give then decisions andthey have always cater those decisions implemented in their systems.Substantive StatementThis is an organization which gives you a plenty opportunities in which you can participate indecision making. I always:::: been allowed by top management to participate in decision making.[For example] if there are anything regarding hiring faculty or there is any matter regardingcurriculum improvement. [The management] always asked me to participate in decision making andthen decisions and they have always catered those decisions implemented in their systems.
10.ii.Thematic analysis2. After identifying the substantive statements you should conduct thematic analysis; that is the process of deriving themes out of the substantive statements. Themes can be of two categories. I. Preset Themes II. Emergent Themes i. Basic Theme ii. Organizing Theme iii. Global Theme SUPERIOR GROUP OF COLLEGES
EXAMPLE (Basic themes) (organizing themes) (global themes)1. Plenty of opportunities regarding decision2. decision acceptable by top management3. decision regarding hiring faculty and curriculum improvement4. ideas , suggestions are taken when hire any person and Participation in decision making implementing any system5. decision to have powers and authority regarding the ideas are so much considered by the organization1. reward is one thing which has made this organization a Supportive singular success HR2. when the rewards compare with any competitive institution, I feel myself lucky to be a part of this practices organization Fairness of rewards3. the rewarded ratio is quite high as compare to been unrewarded4. The effort has been appreciated and they ((management)) have pat on the back, that well done and keep up the good work.1. growth in my career, the maximum skills and knowledge are gained ((by me)) IN THIS ORGANIZATION Growth Opportunities2. knowledgeable, up-to-date information
10.iii.Stage-Structure analysisIt is the process of identifying the stages or levels ofthe themes while working on the successive interviewtranscripts, in order to develop the general flow ofdifferent stages in the narrative to show theprogression. SUPERIOR GROUP OF COLLEGES
HR PRACTICES Recruitment and selection Participation in decision making Training and development Compensation and rewardJob commitment Job Satisfaction Performance
11.Coding the DataIt is the process of developing a code book for beingable to refer to certain respondents‟ words intranscription. In this process the researcher will definecodes for each interviewee, category, subcategory,question, and substantive statement. SUPERIOR GROUP OF COLLEGES
Code: aA1.2 i Global theme Code: Numbers (1,2,3 …...) Organizing theme Code: Decimals (.1,.2,.3,….) Basic theme Code: Roman Numbers (I,ii,iii…..) Question Code: Small letters (a,b,c…..) Interviewee Code: Capital letters (A,B,C…..)
12.Analysis GridAfter having done all the analysis and the code bookthe researcher will develop an analysis grid(spreadsheet) manually or using Microsoft excelintegrating all major categories taking interviewees atone side and the categories at top. Then reviewing allthe transcripts the researcher will fill in all thestatements with coded reference against eachstatement SUPERIOR GROUP OF COLLEGES
Interpret your findingsOn getting completed the analysis grid as outcome of the analysis process theresearcher needs to explain his finding using the themes, categories and theconnections between them. Interpreting the data involves attaching meaningand significance to the analysis.How to interpret• Read through the grid• Develop a list of key points or findings• Think about what have you learned; the major lessons• Develop an outline for presenting your findings• Write down the meanings you derive as per your understanding from the set of categories and the quotes from the edited version of transcripts. Stress on the more significant findings with the help of excerpts with proper coding.
13.Writing up the reportFinally the researcher will write down a report on the outcomes of thedata debating on the key themes, and categories derived from theinterview process using analysis grid. How to write report• Explain the background and objectives of your work with the justification of topic, and the interview method you selected supported of literature.• Brief about the step by step process of interview and the rationale for the selection of interviewee• Elaborate the qualitative analysis done on the basis of transcripts and the interpretation.• Give references both in-text and end-list to authenticate your report. SUPERIOR GROUP OF COLLEGES
Focus Group “A focus group discussion is a tool in which a small group of people (8-10individuals) engages in a roundtable discussion of selected topics of interest in an informal setting” it can be1. Group focused2. Content focused
Document AnalysisIt is a systematic process of gathering analyzing,evaluating and using a very heterogeneous setof documents including i. Personal documents (Diaries, letters, and autobiographies etc), ii. Public documents (Public inquiry transcripts, magazines, newspaper, TV programs etc) iii. Organizational documents (Memos, minutes of meeting, daily reports etc)
Unstructured ObservationUnstructured observation is the unplanned, informal, watching and recordingof behaviors as they occur in a natural environment.How to conductTake a notebook and pen: 1. Note down when you see something interesting. 2. Write down theories as you form them. 3. Don‟t jump to conclusions straight away. 4. Look for more evidence. 5. Ask people to confirm things