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DATA
COLLECTION
PROCESS
By: Mr. Rahul Ranjan
Introduction
 Data are the observable and measurable facts
that provide information about the
phenomenon under study
 Primary and secondary data
 Data collection is the process of gathering
quantitative and qualitative information on
specific variables with the aim of evaluating
outcomes
CONCEPT
• Data collection involves gathering relevant data in
order to achieve an answer to the problem stated.
• Data collection is the process of gathering and
measuring information on variables of interest, in
an established systematic fashion that enables
one to answer stated research questions, test
hypotheses, and evaluate outcomes.
• There are various methods of data collection
which can be used by the investigator depending
upon the nature of study undertaken.
 Interview
 Questioning
 Observation
 Bio physiological measurements
 Psychosocial measurement scales
 Record analysis
PURPOSES OF DATA COLLECTION
reliable,
 identify variables/facts
 measure variable/ phenomena
 describe behaviour
 obtain empirical evidence (objective,
valid)
Data is meaningless as by itself it does not
explain or cause change, information does.
Therefore, the aim of gathering and summarizing
data is to transform this into information in order to:
FIVE ‘W’s OF DATACOLLECTION
 What data to collect? (Consideration on type of
data)
 From whom data is to be collected
 Who will collect data
 From where the data will be collected
 When is the data to be collected
SOURCES OF DATA
 Documentary- primary and secondary
 Field sources
 Include living persons who have a fund of
knowledge about or have been in intimate contact
with social conditions and changes over a
considerable period of time.
 These people are in a position to describe not only
the existing state of affairs but also the observable
trends and significant milestones in a social
process.
HISTORICAL DATA
 These consist of documents and various
historical sources to which the historian himself
has access.
 Materials of cultural history and analytical
history.
 Personal sources of authentic observers and
witnesses.
 These can be oral, written evidence, artifacts
etc.
Methods and tools
 Methods- steps or strategies
 Technique- means of gathering data with the
use of specific tools that are used in given
methods
 Instrument/ tools- instrument is a device used
to measure the concept that researcher uses
to collect data
TECHNIQUES AND TOOLS
scales, Rating
anecdotes
 Machineries, i.e.
Video tape/ Films,
electrocardiogram,
closed circuit T.V.
TOOLS
Instrument procedure
 Observation check
list (structured
unstructured)
TECHNIQUES
Method of collecting
data
 Observation
 Questioning- self
report
 Questionnaire,
 opinionnaire,
 Attitude Scale
 Tests on
psychomotor skills
 Standardized tools
 Physiological
measurements.
 Biophysical
measurements.
 Interview
In vivo
In vitro
Physical
measurements –
e.g. temperature
Chemical
measurements- e.g.
hormone, sugar
Microbiological
measurements-e.g.
bacterial count
 Interview Schedule
Selection of methods of data
collection Nature of phenomenon under study
 Type of research subjects
 Type of research study
 Purpose
 Size of sample
 Distribution of target population
 Time frame of study
 Literacy level of the subjects
 Availability of resources and manpower
 Researchers knowledge level and competence
RECORD ANALYSIS
 Records are a valuable and lucrative source of
nursing research data.
 Records are ever-present source of material.
 Records are found everywhere in homes, offices,
places of leisure, hospitals, museum (Relics &
artifacts), personal diaries and letters, speeches,
Articles, documents etc.
 Records are available in every department,
institution, organizations & Individuals.
 Data sources may be primary or secondary.
INTRODUCTION
 Records are compilation of writings and figures that
individuals have collected.
ADVANTAGES
 Records are unbiased collected.
 Records cover a long period of times, therefore
research can discover events and trends.
 Records are inexpensive. All available at one
time.
 Records are convenient & time saving and
available in their pure form, complied in neat
and orderly fashioned.
Records provide readily available data.
 Researcher can not bias the subjects as the
records have been already collected.
DISADVANTAGES
 Amount of information is limited to what is
available. Researcher can not get more data as
subjects are not present. If record is incomplete,
no way to complete it.
 No one sure under which conditions data were
collected. Was more than one person involved in
compilation? How careful they were to handle
facts & figures.
 No assurance of accuracy of the records,
 People who presented the original records were
not aware whether it would be used for research.
Therefore, researcher has to admit any error into
the study that was built in the original records.
PROBLEMS
 Permission has to be sought from concerned
People to study records.
 Difficult to trace if not kept in order & well
organised.
 Authorities/ Concerned people/ Officer may not
like their records to be disturbed for the fear of
misplacing, pulling out information (loss of
paper from files)
 Organisation/ Institution may not like anyone to
go through their pvt. Files other than selected
individuals.
QUESTIONNAIRE
 Most common research instrument
 It is a paper-pencil approach to data collection
 Comprised of a series of questions that are filled
in by all subjects in the sample.
 May be distributed to subjects in the classroom,
on the streets, on campus, home or at work;
 Can be mailed to those who live in a large
geographical area as it is expensive and time
consuming to reach individuals directly.
ADVANTAGES
 Relatively simple method of collecting data.
Items can be constructed easily by beginning
researcher.
 Rapid and efficient method of gathering data
 Collect data from a widely scattered
population
 Inexpensive to distribute
 Easy to tabulate data from close ended items
 Respondents can remain anonymous
 Simple procedure to explore a new topic
 Easiest tool to test for validity & reliability
DISADVANTAGES
 Inability to probe a topic in-depth unless the
questionnaire is lengthy.
 Respondents may omit or disregard any item
that they choose without giving any explanation
response that are not their actual
 Some items may force subjects to choose
Choice
 Some items may be misunderstood.
 Questionnaire use limited to literate.
 Printing may be costly if questionnaire
 Subjects can express their views/opinions better
while speaking than writing.
Types of Questionnaire
 Close Ended (fixedAlternatives)
 Open Ended.
Close Ended
 After questions respondents are given a number
of alternatives to either mark a “Yes” or “No”,
check an item from list of suggested responses.
 Items may be forced choice type e.g.
Do you still beat your wife? “Yes”
 Advantage : Easy to fill, tabulate, analyze and
data suited many statistical analysis.
 Disadvantage: Limited to specific topic to be
answered in a specific way.
Open Ended Questions
 Have no choices from which respondents
select their response. Respondent must
“Create” their response.
Example: Why did you choose to take your
graduate work at this university?
Advantage : Stimulate thought, solicit
suggestions, probe people’s memories.
Disadvantage: Not suited for mailed
questionnaire
- Difficult to construct meaningful variables
for statistical analysis.
- Analysis is often problematic and time
consuming
Methods of questionnaire
administration
Postal
Phone
Electronic
Personally administered
Writing Good Questions
 Use words that are simple, direct and familiar to all.
 Question – Clear and Specific
 Define or quality the term that can be easily be
misinterpreted.
 Avoid double barreled questions.
 Do you think that students should have more classes
about history and culture?
 Beware of double negatives (Are you against not
allowing nurses to strike?)
 Underline a word if you wish to indicate special
emphasis.
e.g. should all schools offer a modern foreign
language?
 Avoid questions that are leading or suggest the
expected answer.
e.g. you don’t approve of strikes, do you?
 Be sure alternatives are enough and
appropriate.
 Reason for asking personal question should be
given.
 Problem words – lead to confusion in subject’s
mind.
e.g. How many patients did you care for last
week?
Interview – Technique of Data Collection
• Second most common method of data collection
• Face to face interpersonal role situation.
• Interview schedule – structured, semi-
structured, unstructured.
• Interview schedule is an oral questionnaire that
is read to the respondent by the researcher
whereas interview guide provides ideas but
allows the interviewer freedom to pursue topics
in depth.
• Interviewer has an ability to control over the
level of questioning
Conducting the Interview
• Interviews can be conducted by
Face to face meeting
Telephonically
Video-recording
• Conduct in a quiet peaceful atmosphere
• Subject to be seated in a comfortable position
• Subject should be informed before hand as to
how much time interview will take.
Advantages
• Data from each interview are usable, whereas
not true for each questionnaire returned.
• In-depth data can be obtained, since researcher
can pursue any question of special interest.
• Interview offers protection against ambiguous or
confusing questions.
• Respondents are less likely to give “don’t know”
responses or leave a question unanswered
• Flexibility
• Permit greater control over the sample
Disadvantages
• It is time consuming and costly
• Rapport and interpersonal relationships are
important aspect of this technique. Therefore,
element of bias can be from both interviewer
and interviewee.
• Interviewer usually has little or no choice in the
data or place of the interview
• Difficult to make a comparison of data collected
by one interviewer’s with another.
• Recording may be biased, incomplete or
selective
Interviewing process
 Preparation for interview
 Pre interview introduction
 Developing rapport
 Carrying the interviewforward
 Recording the interview
 Closing the interview
Types
 Structured interview
 Unstructured interview
 Semi structured interview
 In depth interview
 Focused groupinterview
 Telephone interview
OBSERVATION TECHNIQUE
 It is one of the basic and oldest method to
gatherdata
 Is systematically planned andrecorded.
 It is a technique to acquire information
through occurrence that can be observed
through senses with or without mechanical
devices.
 It is a two part process i.e. someone is
observing and there is something to observe
(observer; observed)
Four Broad Questions in observation
 What should beobserved?
 How should observation be recorded?
 What procedures should be used to try to assure the
accuracy of observation?
 What relationship should exist between the observer
and the observed, and how can such relationship be
established?
Observation methods
 Unstructured observation – is made to provide
as complete and non-selective a description as
possible of an event –or behaviour observed.
Techniques used for unstructured method of
observation :-
Participant observation – involves researcher
to participate in the functioning of social
group underinvestigation.
Researcher attempts not to interject his
views & meaning into the social situation
underobservation.
Unstructured observation method
 Provides rich and deep understanding of human
behaviour.
 Observer bias and influence are prominent
difficulties
 Memory distortions represent another possible
source of inaccuracy.
Logs, Field Notes, Anecdotes
 Logs – is a record of events & conversation,
maintained on dailybasis.
 Field Notes – include daily log but tend to be
much broader, more analytic and include more
interpretation than mere listing of occurrences.
Essential to record simultaneously because of
memory failure.
 Anecdotes – Focus on behaviour of particular
interest. Anecdote typically selects specific kind of
events and behaviours for observation before
hand. Observer objectively and accurately records
theobservation.
Structured Observation
 Excellent method of datacollection.
 Indicates presence or absence of pre-specified behaviour /
attribute.
 More subjects can be observed in much less time
 Checklists, rating scales and category system arecommonly
used tools in structuredobservation.
Types
Participant
 Live or work in the
field
 Unstructured tools
Non participant
 Observe without
interaction
 Children and
animals
Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages Disadvantages
Important technique
for studying human
behaviour specially
where interventionsare
used.
Provides depth and
variety of information.
Observation and
interpretation is a
demanding task requiring
attention, sensation,
perception andconception
Lack of consent.
Rating scales
 Express an opinion on person, object, situation orcharacter
 In RS we judgeobject in absolute terms againstspecified
criteria without reference toothersimilarobjects
 Refers toa scale with a set of opinion , which describes
varying degree of the dimensions of an attitude being
observed
 A rating scale is a set of categories designed to elicit
informationabout aquantitativeoraqualitativeattribute
 eg Likertscale
 3 point, 5 point or 7 pointRS
Types
 Graphic rating scale
 Descriptive rating scales
 Numerical rating scales
 Comparative rating scales
grs
Comparative RS
Adv
 Easy to administer andscore
 Widely used in Nursingresearch
 Easier to makeand less timeconsuming
 Can be used fora largegroup
 Also used in quantitativemethods
 Evaluateskills
 Adaptable and flexible
Dis adv
 Difficultand dangerous to fix rating about many
aspects of an individual
 Misusecan result in decrease in objectivity
 Chances of subjectivity- unscientific andunreliable
scales
Likert scales
• respondents are asked to indicate their degree of
agreement ordisagreement
 Likert scale is a psychometric scale commonly
involved in
• research that employsquestionnaires.
 A Likert item is simply a statement that the respondent
is asked to evaluate by giving it a quantitative value on
any kind of subjective or objective dimension, with
level of agreement/disagreement being the dimension
most commonly used.
 LS is a composite measure of attitudes that involve
summation of scores on the set of items to which
Example
Uses
 Measureattitudes, valuesand feelingsof peopleabout
specific concepts
 Quantifying a qualitativeattribute
 Opinionaboutan abstractconcept
Adv
 Easy toconstruct
 More reliableand valid to measure psychosocial
variables
 Easy toadministersince respondentsonly have to tick
 Less timeconsuming forconstructionand
administration
Dis adv
 Forced choice
 Real feelingsof the researchers may not beassessed
 Difficulty in justifying the numberof categoriesand
numerical assignments to thesecategories
 Casual approach can provide misleadingdata
CHECKLISTS
 Performanceevaluation
 It is a simple instrumentconsisting of a prepared listof
expected items of performance or attributes which are
checked bya researcher for theirpresenceorabsence.
Construction
 Express each item in clearand simple language
 Type is determined byan intensivesurveyof literature
 Listof items should becontinuousand divided into
groups of related items
 Get advice fromexperts
 Avoid negativestatements
 Clearresponses should be there likeyesor no, trueor
false
 Completenessand comprehensiveness should be there
Adv
 Adaptable tosubject matter areas
 Useful in evaluating learning activities,procedural
work
 Has objectivity toevaluatecharacteristics
 Decreases chances of error ofobservation
Dis adv
 Does not indicate quality ofperformance
 Limited use
 Onlya limited componentof overall clinical
performance can beevaluated
 Limited use in qualitativestudies
Biophysiological methods
 Purposes
 Basic physiologywith relevance for nursing care
 Ways that nursing actions or medicalinterventions
affect patient healthoutcomes
 Evaluation of specific nursing proceduresor
interventions testing ahypothesis
 Improving measurement and recording of bio
physiologic data collected byRN
 Correlation of physiologic function in patientwith
health problems
USE OF BIOPHYSIOLOGIC
MEASURES IN NURSING RESEARCH
 Study of biophysiologicprocesses
 Effect of nursing intervention on humanphysiological
process
 Correlate physiologic functioning withhealth
outcomes
Major types
 In vivo
 Measurements performed directlywith in oron living
organisms themselves
 May use complex instrumentationsystem with
computers
 May be simple – thermometer, pulseoximeter,
stethoscope
 In vitro
 Measurements performed outside the organism’sbody
 Specimens collected and tested outsidebody
 Blood chemistries, microbiologic, cytologicspecimens
ADVANTAGES
 Accurate precise &sensitive
 Objective
 Instrumentused are valid and reliable
 Biophysiologic measuresare notexpensive but there
can be expensivetests
DISADVANTAGES
 Interferences that create artifacts inBiophysiologic
measures
 High degree of interaction among themajor
Biophysiologicsystem
Projective techniques
 Rorschach inkblot test; thematic apperceptiontest
(tell a story based on a picture)
 Eg
 The associative imagery technique is aqualitative tool
with which researchers usecarefullyselected
photographs or images to trigger participants’
responses toexplaindifficult behavioural and social
concepts.
Vignettes
 Vignettes are simulations of real events which can be
used in research studies to elicit subject's knowledge,
attitudesoropinionsaccording to how theystate they
would behave in the hypothetical situation depicted.
validity.
Pilot study
 Small scale version or trial run designed to test the
methods to be used in a larger, more rigorousstudy
 Purpose is topreventan expensive fiasco- that isa
costly but flawed large scalestudy
 Called feasibilitystudies
Functions
 Adequacy of study method andprocedures
 Likelysuccessof a participant recruitmentstrategy
 Appropriateness and quality of instruments-validity
and reliability of tools
 Strengthof relationships between keyvariables so that
sample size can beestimated
 Identification of confounding variables
 Refine methodology
 Plan for dataanalysis and interpretation
Thank You!
Bibliography
• Nursing Research & Statistics by Suresh K
Sharma
• Google search

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Data Collection Process

  • 2. Introduction  Data are the observable and measurable facts that provide information about the phenomenon under study  Primary and secondary data  Data collection is the process of gathering quantitative and qualitative information on specific variables with the aim of evaluating outcomes
  • 3. CONCEPT • Data collection involves gathering relevant data in order to achieve an answer to the problem stated. • Data collection is the process of gathering and measuring information on variables of interest, in an established systematic fashion that enables one to answer stated research questions, test hypotheses, and evaluate outcomes. • There are various methods of data collection which can be used by the investigator depending upon the nature of study undertaken.
  • 4.  Interview  Questioning  Observation  Bio physiological measurements  Psychosocial measurement scales  Record analysis
  • 5. PURPOSES OF DATA COLLECTION reliable,  identify variables/facts  measure variable/ phenomena  describe behaviour  obtain empirical evidence (objective, valid) Data is meaningless as by itself it does not explain or cause change, information does. Therefore, the aim of gathering and summarizing data is to transform this into information in order to:
  • 6. FIVE ‘W’s OF DATACOLLECTION  What data to collect? (Consideration on type of data)  From whom data is to be collected  Who will collect data  From where the data will be collected  When is the data to be collected
  • 7. SOURCES OF DATA  Documentary- primary and secondary  Field sources  Include living persons who have a fund of knowledge about or have been in intimate contact with social conditions and changes over a considerable period of time.  These people are in a position to describe not only the existing state of affairs but also the observable trends and significant milestones in a social process.
  • 8. HISTORICAL DATA  These consist of documents and various historical sources to which the historian himself has access.  Materials of cultural history and analytical history.  Personal sources of authentic observers and witnesses.  These can be oral, written evidence, artifacts etc.
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  • 14. Methods and tools  Methods- steps or strategies  Technique- means of gathering data with the use of specific tools that are used in given methods  Instrument/ tools- instrument is a device used to measure the concept that researcher uses to collect data
  • 15. TECHNIQUES AND TOOLS scales, Rating anecdotes  Machineries, i.e. Video tape/ Films, electrocardiogram, closed circuit T.V. TOOLS Instrument procedure  Observation check list (structured unstructured) TECHNIQUES Method of collecting data  Observation
  • 16.  Questioning- self report  Questionnaire,  opinionnaire,  Attitude Scale  Tests on psychomotor skills  Standardized tools  Physiological measurements.
  • 17.  Biophysical measurements.  Interview In vivo In vitro Physical measurements – e.g. temperature Chemical measurements- e.g. hormone, sugar Microbiological measurements-e.g. bacterial count  Interview Schedule
  • 18. Selection of methods of data collection Nature of phenomenon under study  Type of research subjects  Type of research study  Purpose  Size of sample  Distribution of target population  Time frame of study  Literacy level of the subjects  Availability of resources and manpower  Researchers knowledge level and competence
  • 19. RECORD ANALYSIS  Records are a valuable and lucrative source of nursing research data.  Records are ever-present source of material.  Records are found everywhere in homes, offices, places of leisure, hospitals, museum (Relics & artifacts), personal diaries and letters, speeches, Articles, documents etc.  Records are available in every department, institution, organizations & Individuals.  Data sources may be primary or secondary. INTRODUCTION  Records are compilation of writings and figures that individuals have collected.
  • 20. ADVANTAGES  Records are unbiased collected.  Records cover a long period of times, therefore research can discover events and trends.  Records are inexpensive. All available at one time.  Records are convenient & time saving and available in their pure form, complied in neat and orderly fashioned. Records provide readily available data.  Researcher can not bias the subjects as the records have been already collected.
  • 21. DISADVANTAGES  Amount of information is limited to what is available. Researcher can not get more data as subjects are not present. If record is incomplete, no way to complete it.  No one sure under which conditions data were collected. Was more than one person involved in compilation? How careful they were to handle facts & figures.  No assurance of accuracy of the records,  People who presented the original records were not aware whether it would be used for research. Therefore, researcher has to admit any error into the study that was built in the original records.
  • 22. PROBLEMS  Permission has to be sought from concerned People to study records.  Difficult to trace if not kept in order & well organised.  Authorities/ Concerned people/ Officer may not like their records to be disturbed for the fear of misplacing, pulling out information (loss of paper from files)  Organisation/ Institution may not like anyone to go through their pvt. Files other than selected individuals.
  • 23. QUESTIONNAIRE  Most common research instrument  It is a paper-pencil approach to data collection  Comprised of a series of questions that are filled in by all subjects in the sample.  May be distributed to subjects in the classroom, on the streets, on campus, home or at work;  Can be mailed to those who live in a large geographical area as it is expensive and time consuming to reach individuals directly.
  • 24. ADVANTAGES  Relatively simple method of collecting data. Items can be constructed easily by beginning researcher.  Rapid and efficient method of gathering data  Collect data from a widely scattered population  Inexpensive to distribute  Easy to tabulate data from close ended items  Respondents can remain anonymous  Simple procedure to explore a new topic  Easiest tool to test for validity & reliability
  • 25. DISADVANTAGES  Inability to probe a topic in-depth unless the questionnaire is lengthy.  Respondents may omit or disregard any item that they choose without giving any explanation response that are not their actual  Some items may force subjects to choose Choice  Some items may be misunderstood.  Questionnaire use limited to literate.  Printing may be costly if questionnaire  Subjects can express their views/opinions better while speaking than writing.
  • 26. Types of Questionnaire  Close Ended (fixedAlternatives)  Open Ended.
  • 27. Close Ended  After questions respondents are given a number of alternatives to either mark a “Yes” or “No”, check an item from list of suggested responses.  Items may be forced choice type e.g. Do you still beat your wife? “Yes”  Advantage : Easy to fill, tabulate, analyze and data suited many statistical analysis.  Disadvantage: Limited to specific topic to be answered in a specific way.
  • 28. Open Ended Questions  Have no choices from which respondents select their response. Respondent must “Create” their response. Example: Why did you choose to take your graduate work at this university? Advantage : Stimulate thought, solicit suggestions, probe people’s memories.
  • 29. Disadvantage: Not suited for mailed questionnaire - Difficult to construct meaningful variables for statistical analysis. - Analysis is often problematic and time consuming
  • 31. Writing Good Questions  Use words that are simple, direct and familiar to all.  Question – Clear and Specific  Define or quality the term that can be easily be misinterpreted.  Avoid double barreled questions.  Do you think that students should have more classes about history and culture?  Beware of double negatives (Are you against not allowing nurses to strike?)  Underline a word if you wish to indicate special emphasis. e.g. should all schools offer a modern foreign language?
  • 32.  Avoid questions that are leading or suggest the expected answer. e.g. you don’t approve of strikes, do you?  Be sure alternatives are enough and appropriate.  Reason for asking personal question should be given.  Problem words – lead to confusion in subject’s mind. e.g. How many patients did you care for last week?
  • 33. Interview – Technique of Data Collection • Second most common method of data collection • Face to face interpersonal role situation. • Interview schedule – structured, semi- structured, unstructured. • Interview schedule is an oral questionnaire that is read to the respondent by the researcher whereas interview guide provides ideas but allows the interviewer freedom to pursue topics in depth. • Interviewer has an ability to control over the level of questioning
  • 34. Conducting the Interview • Interviews can be conducted by Face to face meeting Telephonically Video-recording • Conduct in a quiet peaceful atmosphere • Subject to be seated in a comfortable position • Subject should be informed before hand as to how much time interview will take.
  • 35. Advantages • Data from each interview are usable, whereas not true for each questionnaire returned. • In-depth data can be obtained, since researcher can pursue any question of special interest. • Interview offers protection against ambiguous or confusing questions. • Respondents are less likely to give “don’t know” responses or leave a question unanswered • Flexibility • Permit greater control over the sample
  • 36. Disadvantages • It is time consuming and costly • Rapport and interpersonal relationships are important aspect of this technique. Therefore, element of bias can be from both interviewer and interviewee. • Interviewer usually has little or no choice in the data or place of the interview • Difficult to make a comparison of data collected by one interviewer’s with another. • Recording may be biased, incomplete or selective
  • 37. Interviewing process  Preparation for interview  Pre interview introduction  Developing rapport  Carrying the interviewforward  Recording the interview  Closing the interview
  • 38. Types  Structured interview  Unstructured interview  Semi structured interview  In depth interview  Focused groupinterview  Telephone interview
  • 39. OBSERVATION TECHNIQUE  It is one of the basic and oldest method to gatherdata  Is systematically planned andrecorded.  It is a technique to acquire information through occurrence that can be observed through senses with or without mechanical devices.  It is a two part process i.e. someone is observing and there is something to observe (observer; observed)
  • 40. Four Broad Questions in observation  What should beobserved?  How should observation be recorded?  What procedures should be used to try to assure the accuracy of observation?  What relationship should exist between the observer and the observed, and how can such relationship be established?
  • 41. Observation methods  Unstructured observation – is made to provide as complete and non-selective a description as possible of an event –or behaviour observed. Techniques used for unstructured method of observation :- Participant observation – involves researcher to participate in the functioning of social group underinvestigation. Researcher attempts not to interject his views & meaning into the social situation underobservation.
  • 42. Unstructured observation method  Provides rich and deep understanding of human behaviour.  Observer bias and influence are prominent difficulties  Memory distortions represent another possible source of inaccuracy.
  • 43. Logs, Field Notes, Anecdotes  Logs – is a record of events & conversation, maintained on dailybasis.  Field Notes – include daily log but tend to be much broader, more analytic and include more interpretation than mere listing of occurrences. Essential to record simultaneously because of memory failure.  Anecdotes – Focus on behaviour of particular interest. Anecdote typically selects specific kind of events and behaviours for observation before hand. Observer objectively and accurately records theobservation.
  • 44. Structured Observation  Excellent method of datacollection.  Indicates presence or absence of pre-specified behaviour / attribute.  More subjects can be observed in much less time  Checklists, rating scales and category system arecommonly used tools in structuredobservation.
  • 45. Types Participant  Live or work in the field  Unstructured tools Non participant  Observe without interaction  Children and animals
  • 46. Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages Disadvantages Important technique for studying human behaviour specially where interventionsare used. Provides depth and variety of information. Observation and interpretation is a demanding task requiring attention, sensation, perception andconception Lack of consent.
  • 47. Rating scales  Express an opinion on person, object, situation orcharacter  In RS we judgeobject in absolute terms againstspecified criteria without reference toothersimilarobjects  Refers toa scale with a set of opinion , which describes varying degree of the dimensions of an attitude being observed  A rating scale is a set of categories designed to elicit informationabout aquantitativeoraqualitativeattribute  eg Likertscale  3 point, 5 point or 7 pointRS
  • 48. Types  Graphic rating scale  Descriptive rating scales  Numerical rating scales  Comparative rating scales
  • 49. grs
  • 51. Adv  Easy to administer andscore  Widely used in Nursingresearch  Easier to makeand less timeconsuming  Can be used fora largegroup  Also used in quantitativemethods  Evaluateskills  Adaptable and flexible
  • 52. Dis adv  Difficultand dangerous to fix rating about many aspects of an individual  Misusecan result in decrease in objectivity  Chances of subjectivity- unscientific andunreliable scales
  • 53. Likert scales • respondents are asked to indicate their degree of agreement ordisagreement  Likert scale is a psychometric scale commonly involved in • research that employsquestionnaires.  A Likert item is simply a statement that the respondent is asked to evaluate by giving it a quantitative value on any kind of subjective or objective dimension, with level of agreement/disagreement being the dimension most commonly used.  LS is a composite measure of attitudes that involve summation of scores on the set of items to which
  • 55. Uses  Measureattitudes, valuesand feelingsof peopleabout specific concepts  Quantifying a qualitativeattribute  Opinionaboutan abstractconcept
  • 56. Adv  Easy toconstruct  More reliableand valid to measure psychosocial variables  Easy toadministersince respondentsonly have to tick  Less timeconsuming forconstructionand administration
  • 57. Dis adv  Forced choice  Real feelingsof the researchers may not beassessed  Difficulty in justifying the numberof categoriesand numerical assignments to thesecategories  Casual approach can provide misleadingdata
  • 58. CHECKLISTS  Performanceevaluation  It is a simple instrumentconsisting of a prepared listof expected items of performance or attributes which are checked bya researcher for theirpresenceorabsence.
  • 59.
  • 60. Construction  Express each item in clearand simple language  Type is determined byan intensivesurveyof literature  Listof items should becontinuousand divided into groups of related items  Get advice fromexperts  Avoid negativestatements  Clearresponses should be there likeyesor no, trueor false  Completenessand comprehensiveness should be there
  • 61. Adv  Adaptable tosubject matter areas  Useful in evaluating learning activities,procedural work  Has objectivity toevaluatecharacteristics  Decreases chances of error ofobservation
  • 62. Dis adv  Does not indicate quality ofperformance  Limited use  Onlya limited componentof overall clinical performance can beevaluated  Limited use in qualitativestudies
  • 63. Biophysiological methods  Purposes  Basic physiologywith relevance for nursing care  Ways that nursing actions or medicalinterventions affect patient healthoutcomes  Evaluation of specific nursing proceduresor interventions testing ahypothesis  Improving measurement and recording of bio physiologic data collected byRN  Correlation of physiologic function in patientwith health problems
  • 64. USE OF BIOPHYSIOLOGIC MEASURES IN NURSING RESEARCH  Study of biophysiologicprocesses  Effect of nursing intervention on humanphysiological process  Correlate physiologic functioning withhealth outcomes
  • 65. Major types  In vivo  Measurements performed directlywith in oron living organisms themselves  May use complex instrumentationsystem with computers  May be simple – thermometer, pulseoximeter, stethoscope
  • 66.  In vitro  Measurements performed outside the organism’sbody  Specimens collected and tested outsidebody  Blood chemistries, microbiologic, cytologicspecimens
  • 67. ADVANTAGES  Accurate precise &sensitive  Objective  Instrumentused are valid and reliable  Biophysiologic measuresare notexpensive but there can be expensivetests
  • 68. DISADVANTAGES  Interferences that create artifacts inBiophysiologic measures  High degree of interaction among themajor Biophysiologicsystem
  • 69. Projective techniques  Rorschach inkblot test; thematic apperceptiontest (tell a story based on a picture)  Eg  The associative imagery technique is aqualitative tool with which researchers usecarefullyselected photographs or images to trigger participants’ responses toexplaindifficult behavioural and social concepts.
  • 70. Vignettes  Vignettes are simulations of real events which can be used in research studies to elicit subject's knowledge, attitudesoropinionsaccording to how theystate they would behave in the hypothetical situation depicted. validity.
  • 71. Pilot study  Small scale version or trial run designed to test the methods to be used in a larger, more rigorousstudy  Purpose is topreventan expensive fiasco- that isa costly but flawed large scalestudy  Called feasibilitystudies
  • 72. Functions  Adequacy of study method andprocedures  Likelysuccessof a participant recruitmentstrategy  Appropriateness and quality of instruments-validity and reliability of tools  Strengthof relationships between keyvariables so that sample size can beestimated  Identification of confounding variables  Refine methodology  Plan for dataanalysis and interpretation
  • 74. Bibliography • Nursing Research & Statistics by Suresh K Sharma • Google search