Organizational Behaviour Chapter # 2 Individual Behavior, Values and Personality

10,349 views

Published on

Chapter # 2 Individual Behavior, Values and Personality

Published in: Marketing, Technology, Career
0 Comments
10 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
10,349
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
234
Comments
0
Likes
10
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • <number>
    Figure 1.1 illustrates how organizational behavior concepts and theories allow people to correctly understand, describe, and analyze the characteristics of individuals, groups, work situations, and the organization itself.
  • Organizational behavior can be examined at 3 levels: organizational, group, and individual.
    OB is particularly important to managers.
  • Organizational Behaviour Chapter # 2 Individual Behavior, Values and Personality

    1. 1. Individual Behavior Values and PersonalityIndividual Behavior Values and Personality • Employees Engagement – Extent of commitment to work Depends on employees ability & resources availability • Directly proportion to Productivity & inversely to turnover How to achieve this (one way) – As practiced by many Mangers to communicate to employees as role model Managers meets personally with employees frequently Top Mgmt is to teach company’s vision of customer serv. Giving opportunities to employees to socialize after work
    2. 2. Individual Behavior Values and PersonalityIndividual Behavior Values and Personality Employees Engagement - includes drivers of individual behavior that results in efficient performance results Concluding definition: “Employees emotional & cognitive (rational) motivation, ability to perform jobs, understanding of org. vision & their role in vision & belief that they have been given resources to do the jobs” – To achieve this is Managers responsibility Four Drivers of individual behavior and results directly proportional to employees performance: Motivation Ability Role Perception Situational Factors
    3. 3. Individual Behavior Values and PersonalityIndividual Behavior Values and Personality Motivation Ability Role Perceptions Behavior & Results Situational factors Individual Characteristics Values Personality Perceptions Emotions & Attitudes Stress MARS Model of Individual Behavior
    4. 4. Individual Behavior Values and PersonalityIndividual Behavior Values and Personality Motivation PPsychological processes that arouse & ensures goal-directed behavior Or The Forces within a person that affect his or her direction, intensity and persistence of voluntary behavior Does high motivation mean better job performance? Is money the only motivator?
    5. 5. Individual Behavior Values and PersonalityIndividual Behavior Values and Personality Theories of Motivation Content Theories – Identify internal factors influencing motivation • Maslow’s Need Hierarchy • Alderfer’s ERG • McClelland’s Need • Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Process Theories – Identify the process by which internal factors and cognitions influence motivation • Adam’s Equity • Vroom’s Expectancy • Goal Setting Theory
    6. 6. Individual Behavior Values and PersonalityIndividual Behavior Values and Personality AbilityAbility –– Both Natural aptitudes & learned capabilities required toBoth Natural aptitudes & learned capabilities required to successfully complete a tasksuccessfully complete a task AptitudesAptitudes –– Natural talents enables speedy leaning & better performanceNatural talents enables speedy leaning & better performance Learned capabilities – Skills and Knowledge that one actually acquiresLearned capabilities – Skills and Knowledge that one actually acquires Employee Competencies -Employee Competencies - Skills, Knowledge, Aptitudes, Values,Skills, Knowledge, Aptitudes, Values, Drives & other personal characteristics leading to superiorDrives & other personal characteristics leading to superior performanceperformance Difficult task for Managers is to find right person for the jobDifficult task for Managers is to find right person for the job Person – Job Matching :Person – Job Matching : Three Approaches used in Industry;Three Approaches used in Industry; Selecting competent person for jobSelecting competent person for job Training employees to develop required skillsTraining employees to develop required skills Redesigning jobs at company e.g PTCL exampleRedesigning jobs at company e.g PTCL example
    7. 7. Individual Behavior Values and PersonalityIndividual Behavior Values and Personality Role Perception–Three ways how employees perceive jobs Understanding assigned task–Consequences of Accountable Understanding relative importance of quality and quantity Using most preferred method of doing work - Alternatives E.G , Good Service provisioning by Warid “We Care” moto by employees Situational Factor - Conditions Beyond employees control that constraint or facilitate their behavior & performance – A challenge for Managers
    8. 8. Individual Behavior Values and PersonalityIndividual Behavior Values and Personality Types of Individual Behavior in Organizations Types of Work-Related Behavior Task Performance Maintaining Work Attendance Joining/Staying With the Organization Counter Productive Work Behavior Organizational Citizenship
    9. 9. Individual Behavior Values and PersonalityIndividual Behavior Values and Personality • Task Performance – Its goal directed individual controlled behavior & aimed at org. objectives. This behavior transforms Raw material in to goods and services. • Employees in any job have following few performance dimensions: - Cooperative working with clients and co-workers under stress - Training new staff - using man and material resources efficiently without error • Organizational Citizen ship – Employee behaviors that extends beyond normal job duties / Task Performance • Kenexa said “Engaged Employees will go the extra step, or maybe even the extra mile, to support the interest of the organization.” • Counter Productive Work Behavior (CWBs) – Voluntary behaviors that are potentially harmful to the organization’s effectiveness
    10. 10. Individual Behavior Values and PersonalityIndividual Behavior Values and Personality Five categories of CWBs – Abuse of others (Insult and nasty comments), Threats (Threatening harm), Work avoidance (tardiness), Work sabotage (doing work incorrectly) and Overt acts (theft) • Joining/staying With the Organization – Attracting & retaining talented people is challenge for Managers • OB experts identified low job satisfaction as main cause of turnover - Job Satisfaction – A person’s evaluation of his or her job & work context Appraisal of perceived job characteristics, work environment & emotional experiences at work - Manger’s need to review “ shock event “ like: Boss unfair decision Conflict with co-workers Irritants creating strong emotions for employee turnover
    11. 11. Individual Behavior Values and PersonalityIndividual Behavior Values and Personality Reasons for absenteeism: • Beyond employees control, (child ill, car break down etc.) • Less motivation • Job dissatisfaction • Work related stress • Presence of absenteeism trend as team norm Values at Work Place • Values: Stable, long lasting beliefs about what is important in a variety of situations, that guide our decisions and actions • Important because values tell us what we “aught” to do & who we are as individual and as a group member in organization • Values are socially desirable, so people claims to believe in values • Each person’s unique value systems based on & develops through Socialization from parents Religious Institutions Friends Personal Experience & society in which individual lives
    12. 12. Individual Behavior Values and PersonalityIndividual Behavior Values and Personality • Group of people might hold the same or similar values these shared values called team, department or organizational values • At times are induced by the executives in line with goals of org. • Values shared across society are cultural values Two major types of corporate values: Espoused – Values that we say we use e.g environmentalism, creativity & politeness, its irrespective whether they really value it Enacted – Values that we actually relay on to guide our decisions & actions, these values are apparent to be in use like judging an individual by his/her behavior Values categorized into dozens of types and these comprehensively Short listed by Schwartz model – Defines ten broader domains of values further divides it to two bipolar dimensions
    13. 13. Individual Behavior Values and PersonalityIndividual Behavior Values and Personality Self-transcendence Conservation Openness To change Self-enhancement Universalism Benevolence Self-direction Tradition Conformity Achievement Security Power Stimulation Hedonism Schwartz’s Values Circumplex
    14. 14. Individual Behavior Values and PersonalityIndividual Behavior Values and Personality • Openness To change – Extent to which a person is motivated to persue innovative ways it includes: - Self direction – Independent thought and action - Stimulation – Excitement and challenge • Conservation – Extent to which a person is motivated to preserve status quo it includes: - Conformity – Adherence to social norms and expectations - Security – Safety and stability - Tradition – Moderation and preservation of status quo • Self enhancement – How much a person is motivated by self interest it includes: - Values of achievement – Pursuit of personal success
    15. 15. Individual Behavior Values and PersonalityIndividual Behavior Values and Personality Self – transcendence – Motivation to promote welfare of others, it Includes: - Values of Benevolence – Concern for other’s in one’s life - Universalism – Concern for welfare of all people Values and individual behavior _ Stabilizes employees & keeps them moving collectively in same direction _ Beacon and core part of leadership for managers during difficulties Disconnect exists between personal values and individual behavior Values appear as abstract concepts, e.g benevolence not practiced Values influences Managers decisions three conditions are met: -Conscious Awareness about a value e.g telling employees for ben. - Presence of logical reason for practicing value e.g Logical reason for being benevolent
    16. 16. Individual Behavior Values and PersonalityIndividual Behavior Values and Personality - Work environments to encourage or discourage values- consistent behavior e.g, at times employees behaving at work place against their personal values Values Congruence – A situation wherein two or more entities have similar value systems e.g, An individual and organization values matches called person-organization values congruence Values across cultures – Meetings time targets in USA/West and Asia it is outcome of two values: . Individualism. Extent to which a person values independence and personal uniqueness – People value personal freedom, self sufficiency, control over their own lives & appreciation of unique values that distinguish them from others
    17. 17. Individual Behavior Values and PersonalityIndividual Behavior Values and Personality . Collectivism. Extent to which people value duty to groups to which they belong and to group harmony. - It lies in conservation of values (security, tradition & conformity) - Both Appears as inversely proportion, but actually are not. - Power Distance. Extent to which people accept unequal distribution of power in a society or organization OR - Obedience to authority & comfortably receiving commands from superiors without consultation or debate e.g, Opposite in Asia than advanced countries - Uncertainty Avoidance – Degree to which people tolerate ambiguity and uncertainty
    18. 18. Individual Behavior Values and PersonalityIndividual Behavior Values and Personality A must for a successful Manager. Achievement nurturing orientation – A competitive versus cooperative view of relations with other people Ethics – Study of moral principles or values that determine whether actions are right or wrong and outcomes are good or bad Three Ethical Principles for Managers: - Utilitarianism – Consequential Principle, choosing option providing highest degree of satisfaction to those affected Problem for managers – Difficult to evaluate the benefits or costs of many Decisions, Resolved by applying better analytical/ logical skills & experience - Individual Rights (Legal and Human rights included) – Every one is entitled to act in a certain way, e.g freedom of movement, physical security, freedom of speech and fair trial
    19. 19. Individual Behavior Values and PersonalityIndividual Behavior Values and Personality - Distributive Justice. Individuals fulfilling prerequisites have equality in benefits and workload/burden, inequalities acceptable where it benefits the least well off people Personality. Relatively stable pattern of Behaviors & consistent internal states that explains a persons’ behavioral tendencies Why to study personality – Like ethical, cultural and personal values individual’s personality also have stable nature and it effects employee behavior in organization Internal states of individual – Represents thoughts, values and genetic Characteristics impacting their behavior
    20. 20. Individual Behavior Values and PersonalityIndividual Behavior Values and Personality Five Personality Dimensions Careful, dependable, Self – disciplined, low conscientiousness results in attitudes like carelessness, less thorough, disorganized and irresponsible Courteous, good-natured, empathic, caring, people with low agreeableness, tend to be uncooperative, short- tempered and irritable Anxious, hostile, depressed, people with low neuroticism (high emotional stability), behaves having secure feeling and acts calmly. Sensitive , flexible, creative, curious. Absence of this results more resistant to change, less open to ideas and more fixed in their ways. Outgoing, talkative, sociable, assertive Conscientiousness Agreeableness Neuroticism Openness to experience Extroversion
    21. 21. Individual Behavior Values and PersonalityIndividual Behavior Values and Personality Extroversion – A “big five” personality dimension that characterizes people who are outgoing, talkative, social able and assertive Introversion – A “ big five” personality dimension that characterizes people who are quiet, shy and cautious

    ×