Content analysis20 07-12


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Content Analysis

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  • Content analysis has been defined as a systematic, replicable technique for compressing many words of text into fewer content categories based on explicit rules of coding (Berelson, 1952; GAO, 1996; Krippendorff, 1980; and Weber, 1990). Holsti (1969) offers a broad definition of content analysis as, "any technique for making inferences by objectively and systematically identifying specified characteristics of messages" (p. 14). Under Holsti’s definition, the technique of content analysis is not restricted to the domain of textual analysis, but may be applied to other areas such as coding student drawings (Wheelock, Haney, & Bebell, 2000), or coding of actions observed in videotaped studies (Stigler, Gonzales, Kawanaka, Knoll, & Serrano, 1999). In order to allow for replication, however, the technique can only be applied to data that are durable in nature. Analysisis one such quantitative method –a multipurpose method developed specifically for investigating a broad spectrumof problems in which the contents of communication serve as a basis of inference. Example: word usage rates, word counts, etc.
  • It was first used as a method for analysing hymns, newspaper and magazine. In nursing, it is mostly used in psychiatry, gerontological and public studies. It allows the researcher to test theoritical issues to enhance understanding of the data. It is assumed that when classified into the same categories, words, phrases, and the like share the same meaning (Cavanage 1997)
  • These three definitions illustrate that qualitative content analysis emphasizes anintegrated view of speech/texts and their specific contexts. Qualitative content analysisgoes beyond merely counting words or extracting objective content from texts to examinemeanings, themes and patterns that may be manifest or latent in a particular text. It allowsresearchers to understand social reality in a subjective but scientific manner.
  • The term of concept and category are chosen on different way. For example, if the researcher want to develop a theory, it is recommended that the term of concept be used as a proxy for category. However, the term of category is mostly used in literature.
  • It is determined by the propose of the study.If there is not enough former knowledge about the phenomenon or if this knowledge is fragmented, the inductive approach is recommended. (Zlauri & Kyngas 2005)
  • An approach based on inductive data moves from specific to the general, so that particular instances are observed and then combined into a larger whole ot general statement (Chinn &Kramer 1999)A deductive approach is based on an earlier theory or model and therefore it moves from the general to the specific (Burns & Grove 2005)
  • Both inductive and deductive content analysis involvePreparation phaseOrganising phaseReporting phaseDespite this, there are no
  • A unit of meaning can consist of more than one sentence and contain several meaning.On that account, using it as a unit of analysis makes the analysis process difficult and challenging.On the other hand, an analysis unit that is too narrow, for example one word, may result in fragmentation. (Graneheim & Lundman 2004)
  • Graneheim and Lundman (2004) pointed out that the most suitable unit of analysis is whole interviews or observational protocols that are large enough to be considered as a whole and small enough to be kept in mind as a context for meaning unit during the analysis process.
  • There has been some debate as to whether hidden meanings found in document can be analysed because their analysis usually involves interpretation.
  • Researcher comes to a decision, through interpretation, as to which things to put in the same category.
  • This may involves testing categories, concepts, models or hypothesis.
  • Exemplification การยกตัวอย่าง การให้ตัวอย่าง
  • In structured matrix, aspects that do not fit the categorisation frame can be used to create their own concepts, based on the principles of inductive content analysis. Deductive content analysis has been used for example in studies of patients’ readiness for dietary change, self care of older people, and mental health care (Backman & Hentinen 2001)
  • Content analysis20 07-12

    1. 1. Content analysis
    2. 2. Qualitative content analysis has been defined as: • “a research method for the subjective interpretation of the content of text data through the systematic classification process of coding and identifying themes or patterns” (Hsieh & Shannon, 2005, p.1278),
    3. 3. • Content analysis is a method of analysing written, verbal or visual communication messages (Cole 1988)• Content analysis as a research method is a systematic and objective means of description and quantifying phenomena (Downe- Wamboldt 1992) It is also recognised as a method of analysing documents.
    4. 4. • Content analysis is a research method used for making replicable and valid inferences from data to their context, with the purpose of providing knowledge, a representation of facts , new insights, and a practical guide to action. (Krippendorff 1980)
    5. 5. • “any qualitative data reduction and sense- making effort that takes a volume of qualitative material and attempts to identify core consistencies and meanings” (Patton, 2002, p.453).
    6. 6. • “an approach of empirical, methodological controlled analysis of texts within their context of communication, following content analytic rules and step by step models, without rash quantification” (Mayring, 2000, p.2), and
    7. 7. The aim of using content analysis• To attain a condensed and broad description of phenomenon.• The outcome of the analysis is concepts or categories describing the phenomenon.
    8. 8. Two approaches• Content analysis can be used both quantitative and qualitative data.• It can also be used in an inductive and deductive way. (Elo & Kyngas 2007)
    9. 9. • The categories are derived from the data in inductive content analysis.• Deductive content analysis is utilised when the structure of analysis is operationalised on the basis of previous knowledge and the propose of the study is theory testing . (Kyngas & Vanhanen 1999)
    10. 10. Inductive approachSpecific General Deductive approach General Specific
    11. 11. The Critics Debate• Morgan (1993) argued that the method found its critics in the quantitative field, who considered it to be a simplistic technique that did not lend itself to detailed statistical analysis, while others considered that content analysis was not adequately qualitative in nature.
    12. 12. • Thus, the differentiation of content analysis was limited to classifying it primarily as a qualitative vs. quantitative research method (Hsieh & Shannon 2005)• Weber (1990) mentioned that it is possible to attain the simplistic results by adopting any method, if the skills of analysis are lacking.• Whilst, Neundorf (2002) argued the truth is that this method is as easy or difficult as the researcher determines it to be.
    13. 13. Content analysis process Preparation phase Elo and Kyngas 2007 Selecting the unit of analysis Making sense of data and whole Developing Organising phase structured analysisOpen coding matrice DevelopingCoding sheet Analysis Matrice Data coding Grouping Data gathering according the by content categoriesCategorisation Hypothesis testingAbstraction correspondence Reporting phase comparison to earlier studies etc. Model, conceptual system, conceptual map or categories
    14. 14. Preparation phase• Start with selecting the unit of analysis• This can be a word or a theme• Deciding on what to analyse in what detail• Sampling considerations are vital factors before selecting the unit of analysis (cavanage 1997)• The sample must be representative of the universe from which it is drawn (Duncan 1989)• Probability or judgment sampling is necessary when a document is too large to be analysed in its entirety (GAO 1996)
    15. 15. • The unit of analysis can also be a letter, word, sentence, portion of pages or words, the number of participants in discussion or the time used for discussion depending on the research question (Polir & Beck 2004)
    16. 16. • When starting the analysis, the researcher must decide whether to analyse only the manifest content or latent content.• The aim of latent content is to notice silence, sighs, laughter, posture, etc. (burns & Grove 2005)
    17. 17. When reading the dataThe questions are:• Who is telling you?• Where is this happening?• When did it happen?• What is happening?• Why does it happens?
    18. 18. Inductive Content analysis• This means the researcher are organising the qualitative data, and this process includes… 1. Open coding 2. Creating categories 3. Abstraction
    19. 19. Step model of inductive category development (MAYRING 2000) [11]
    20. 20. Open coding• It means that notes and headings are written in the text while reading it.For exampleThe patient who suffered fromMalaria can results in high fever Cold symptoms with chilling .
    21. 21. • After open coding, the lists of categories are grouped under higher headings.• The aim of grouping data is to reduce the number of categories by collapsing those are similar or different into broader higher order categories.• The propose of generating higher categories is to provide a means of describing the phenomenon, and to enhance understanding and generate knowledge (Cavanagh 1977)
    22. 22. Generating abstract/ theme• Abstract means formulating a general description of the research topic through generating categories (Polit and Beck 2004).• Each category is named by using content- characteristic words.
    23. 23. Sub-category Generic category Main category Headache Physical symptoms Stomachache Vomiting Stress Emotional problems Treats from Studying depress PhD Expensive fee Economic effects living expense Low income
    24. 24. Deductive Content Analysis• Deductive content analysis is often adopted when the researcher tends to retest existing data in a new context (Catanzaro 1988).
    25. 25. Step model of deductive category application (MAYRING 2000) [14]
    26. 26. When deductive content analysis starts,• The next step is to develop a categorisation matrix, and to code the data according to the categories. Dependence Worries Sadness Guilt What kind of mental well-being treats does Diabetes have for teenagers An example from a categorisation matrix
    27. 27. Dependence WorriesWhat kind of mental Dependence on parents Worries about futurewell-being treats does Dependence on insulin Worries about health conditionsDiabetes have for teenagers Dependence on nurses Worries about future occupation Dependence on physicians Worries about getting family Dependences on eating habit Worries about energy Dependence on fashion Worries about image An example of coding the data to the categorisation matrix
    28. 28. • After a categorisation matrix has been developed, all the data are reviewed for content and coded for correspondence with or exemplification of identified categories (Polit & Beck 2004)• Deductive content analysis can ne used either a structured or unconstrained matrix depending n the aim of the study
    29. 29. Different propose of study• In unconstrained matrix, different categories are created within its bounds, following the principles of inductive content analysis.• In structured matrix, only aspects that the matrix of analysis are chosen from the data that fit the categorisation frame or alternatively, to choose those that do not(Patton 1990).
    30. 30. Trustworthiness• Sufficient detail and clear understanding for the reader can result in the validity of the result.• Element of the validity in content analysis are universal to any qualitative research design.• Creating categories is both empirical and conceptual challenge, as categories must be conceptually and empirically grounded (Dey 1993).
    31. 31. • Successful content analysis requires that the researcher can analyse and simplify the data from categories that reflect the subject of study in reliable manner (Kyngas and Vanhanen 1999)• How well categories cover the data can promote creditability (Graneheim and Lundman 2004).• To increase reliability of the study, it is necessary to demonstrate the links between the data and results.• Appendices and tables may be useful to present the links and the results.
    32. 32. • To felicitate transferability, the researcher should give a clear description of the context, selection and characteristic of participants, data collection and process of analysis.• Demonstration is needed of the reliability of the finding and interpretations to enable someone else to follow the process and procedures of the inquiry.
    33. 33. • Authentic citations can be used to increase the trustworthiness of the research and to point out the readers from where and kind of original data were formulated (Patton 1990).• The internal validity of content analysis can be assessed as face validity or by using agreement coefficients (Weber 1990).
    34. 34. • There are various way to seek the agreement• Co-researcher could come up with alternative interpretation (Peer validation).• The use of panel expert to support concept production or coding issues is required to content validation.
    35. 35. ReferencesBackman K. & Hentinen M. (2001) Factors associated with the self care of home-dweelingelderly. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Science 15, 195-202.Backman K. & Kyngas H. (1998) Challengers of the grounded theory approach to a noviceresearcher. Hoitotiede 10, 263-270.Cavanagh S. (1997) Content Analysis: concept, method and applications. Nurse Researcher 4,5-16.Cole F.L. (1988) Content analysis process and application. Clinical Nurse Specialist 2(1),53-57.Day I. (1993) Qualitative data analysis. A User-Friendly Guide for social Scientist. Routledge,LondonElo S. & Kyngas H. (2007) The qualitative content analysis process. Research Methodology 2(1),104-115.GAO (1996) Content analysis a Methodology for Structuring and Analysing Written Material.Programme Evaluation and Methodology Division, United States General Accounting Office,Washington.Graneheim U.H. & Lundman B. (2004) Qualitative content analysis in nursing research:concept, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness. Nurse Education Today 5, 282-293.