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YARN
DEFINITION:
The word yarn or thread is used in common parlance to cover all
the linear textile structures. Yarns can be either “single” or
“folded”.
“A yarn is an assemblage of fibres or filaments having a
substantial length and relatively small cross section, with or
without twist, being the end product of a spinning and
winding process”
YARNS
SINGLE YARNS ASSEMBLED YARNS FOLDED YARNS
SPUN YARNS FILAMENT YARNS
FANCY YARNS
FANCY YARNS
ROTOR YARNS
RING YARNS
WORSTED YARNS
SEMI-WORSTED YARNS
WOOLLEN YARNS
FLAT FILAMENT YARNS
TEXTURED FILAMENT YARNS
BICOMPONENT TAPE OR SPLIT FILM YARNS
CLASSIFICATION OF YARNS
Yarn may be any of the following
 Number of fibers twisted together
 Number of filaments without twist
 Number of filaments twisted with more/less twist
 Single filament
 One or more strips cut by length of a sheet of
material of natural/ synthetic or any polymer
TERMS
SPUN YARNS are made by mechanical assembly and twisting together
(spinning) of Staple fibres such as cotton, flax,
wool, broken or cut man-made fibres.
FILAMENT YARNS are made by the assembly of continuous filaments,
made from silk or man-made fibres
A MULTI FILAMENT YARN is a filament yarn made from multiple
filaments, assembled with or without twist.
A MONO FILAMENT YARN consists of only a single continuous filament
from man-made source.
Two or more yarns which are wound side by side on to same package,
but without twisting around each other, are called ASSEMBLED
YARNS.
FOLDED OR PLIED YARNS are yarns made by twisting together
Two or more single (and/or folded) yarns of the same or different types.
Ex: 2 Ply (two singles)
CORDS OR CABLED YARNS are yarns made by twisting together
Two or more ply or folded yarns of the same or different types.
Ex: 2,3 Ply Cord
Twist Direction
Twists or turns per inch
Twist Factor (K)
Properties of Spun, Filament and Combination Yarns:
100%Spun Yarns: Warmth, Softness, Light Weight
Ideal for T-Shirts, Sweaters and
Blankets
100%Filament Yarns: Smoother, Finer and Lustrous
Ideal for linings
Combination of spun and filament Yarns: Durable,
Easy care, Comfortable
Suitable for more applications
Twist
 The purpose of twist is to hold the staple
fibers together
 The twist could be used in different ways to
embed different qualities to the yarn
 A yarn that is twist balanced will not tend to
curl
 The direction of twist is also important for
further designing as this can be used well by
designers
Yarn twist parameters:
Amount of twist is designated as TPI –turns per inch, which
Affects appearance and durability of the yarns.
Spun yarn: Low twist Soft twist yarns flexible
(2 to 12 tpi) ex: Knitting fluffier
soft
High Twist Hard twist yarns smooth
(20 to 30 tpi) ex: weaving firm
stronger
Filament yarns: Usually low twist Pebbly and harsh surface
(1/2 to 1 tpi) Crepe fil. with crepe twist
Twist and Bulkiness
 The bulkier the yarn, lesser the twist.
 Finer the yarn higher the twist.
 Bulkier yarn needs lesser twist and so it has
lesser strength.
 Finer yarn has more twists and strong.
 But when the twist is increased after particular
point the strength is reduced due to the
breakage of the fibers.
Blends / Mixtures
 A blend is a combination of two materials at
fiber stage.
 A mix is two materials put together at a later
stage as strands.
 The texture we get is different from each of
them.
 The design value of these are high.
PolyesterCotton
Polyester Cotton
67%33%
Material-BlendingMaterial-Blending
Chief Value Cotton (CVC) /Cotton RichChief Value Cotton (CVC) /Cotton Rich
Polyester (40%)+Cotton(60%)
 Cotton
• Comfort, Soft handle
 Polyester
• Crease resistance, Easy care
Polyester Cotton (PC)Polyester Cotton (PC)
Polyester (67%) and Cotton (33%)
 Cotton
• comfortable to wear
• greater strength
 Polyester
• Resistance from creases, Quick dry
Need
 The need for blends or mixes are.
 Cost.
 Different quality that each fiber offers.
 More effective usage of the materials.
 The necessity of different and in between qualities
and both the qualities.
Design Values
 The design values of such blended and mixed
yarn can be explored to give an innovative look
to the textile
 More innovative processes can be explored
 The design can happen from yarn stage.
 Fancy yarns are explorations of the prior said
attributes such as
 Twist
 Bulkiness
 Color
 Material
 Blends and Mixes
 Material(conventional/non-conventional)
Fancy Yarns
Physical properties and performance characteristics
of different yarn types:
Yarn type General yarn properties
Staple yarns Excellent Handle
Good covering power
• Carded cotton Good comfort rating
• Combed cotton Reasonable strength
• Woollen Reasonable uniformity
• Worsted
• Linen
Yarn type General yarn properties
Continuous filament yarns Excellent uniformity
Excellent strength
•Natural Can be very fine
•Non-synthetic Fair handle
•Synthetic Poor covering power
High bulk yarns
Light weight
• Staple Good covering power
• Continulous filament Good loftiness and fullness
Stretch yarns
High stetchability
Continuous filament Good handle
Covering power
Special end use:
•Tyre cord Purely functional
•Rubber Designed to satisfy a specific-
•Core yarn set of conditions
•Cabled
•Split film yarn
Novelty yarns:
Excellent decorative features
•Fancy yarns
•Metallic
Variables in yarn production
Type of fibre or filament
Dimensional and physical characteristics of the fibre/filament
Mechanical properties of the fibre / filament
General properties
Yarn production systems
Components of the yarn and percentages
Linear density and level of twist
Yarn construction
Texturisation and method of texturisation
Yarn types & Characteristics
 Spun - carded, combed
 Long staple spng - Worsted, Spun Silk
 Filament - Mono & Multifilament
 Doubled yarn - single & 2-ply
 Stronger, Uniform, blending
 Yarn twist - S & Z, TPI, High Twist, Knit yarns.
 Stretch yarns - Lycra, Mechanical
 Slub Yarns, Lurex
Spinning
 Plucking & Cleaning
 Blow room
 Carding
 Combing
 Draw frame
 Simplex
 Ring frame Yarn
SPUN YARN MANUFACTURINGSPUN YARN MANUFACTURING
Ring spinning:Ring spinning:
Blow room process:Blow room process: sorting, opening, separating,sorting, opening, separating,
cleaning, and blending of fibrescleaning, and blending of fibres
CardingCarding:: intensive cleaning through individualization ofintensive cleaning through individualization of
fibresfibres
DrawingDrawing:: alignment of fibres through doubling andalignment of fibres through doubling and
drafting of fibresdrafting of fibres
CombingCombing:: micro cleaning and alignment of fibres throughmicro cleaning and alignment of fibres through
parallelizationparallelization
RovingRoving:: attenuating drawn sliversattenuating drawn slivers
Spinning:Spinning: twisting drafted roving in to yarntwisting drafted roving in to yarn
Plucking.Plucking.
At this stage
cotton bales are
manually
opened and are
put in Pluckers
are machines
which mix the
cotton and
separate the
bales into
smaller
denominations.
The separated
cotton is then
transferred into
the Blow Room.
Blow RoomBlow Room
The Blow Room is a
facility, which is
primarily used for the
Cleaning, Mixing and
Opening of cotton for
yarn production.
Cotton is processed
through various stages
in this area through
different machines and
the main objective is to
refine the cotton being
used in yarn
production.
Carding DepartmentCarding Department
Carding DepartmentCarding Department
The main function
of this
department is to
transform the
cotton into Sliver.
The main
objective here is
to maintain the
uniformity,
alignment and
stretch ability of
the fiber as per
the desired
standards
Combing
Combing
 The main
function of this
department is to
transform the
cotton Sliver in
to more fine and
inject the raw
material and
also putting
short fiber to get
more longer
fiber for
durability.
Draw Frame
 The function of the
Draw Frame is to
create a roving
consistent in size
over its entire
length. The draw
frame blends
multiple roving into
one fiber.
 The draw frame
results in strong,
uniform roving of a
size that can be
easily managed at
the spinner
SimplexSimplex
Simplex is the
process of
shaping the
Sliver into
Roving. The main
processes
involved are
Grafting, Twisting
and Winding the
sliver and
shaping it like a
thin rope.
Ring frameRing frame
This is function where
the yarn is finally
produced. The Roving
are put on the
machines used here
and passing the roving
through the machine
produces yarns. The
main objective of the
machines here is again
Grafting, Twisting and
Winding. Once the
cotton thread is
produced it is collected
in the form of Bobbin.
yarns
yarns
yarns
yarns

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yarns

  • 1.
  • 2. YARN DEFINITION: The word yarn or thread is used in common parlance to cover all the linear textile structures. Yarns can be either “single” or “folded”. “A yarn is an assemblage of fibres or filaments having a substantial length and relatively small cross section, with or without twist, being the end product of a spinning and winding process”
  • 3. YARNS SINGLE YARNS ASSEMBLED YARNS FOLDED YARNS SPUN YARNS FILAMENT YARNS FANCY YARNS FANCY YARNS ROTOR YARNS RING YARNS WORSTED YARNS SEMI-WORSTED YARNS WOOLLEN YARNS FLAT FILAMENT YARNS TEXTURED FILAMENT YARNS BICOMPONENT TAPE OR SPLIT FILM YARNS CLASSIFICATION OF YARNS
  • 4. Yarn may be any of the following  Number of fibers twisted together  Number of filaments without twist  Number of filaments twisted with more/less twist  Single filament  One or more strips cut by length of a sheet of material of natural/ synthetic or any polymer
  • 5. TERMS SPUN YARNS are made by mechanical assembly and twisting together (spinning) of Staple fibres such as cotton, flax, wool, broken or cut man-made fibres. FILAMENT YARNS are made by the assembly of continuous filaments, made from silk or man-made fibres A MULTI FILAMENT YARN is a filament yarn made from multiple filaments, assembled with or without twist. A MONO FILAMENT YARN consists of only a single continuous filament from man-made source.
  • 6. Two or more yarns which are wound side by side on to same package, but without twisting around each other, are called ASSEMBLED YARNS. FOLDED OR PLIED YARNS are yarns made by twisting together Two or more single (and/or folded) yarns of the same or different types. Ex: 2 Ply (two singles) CORDS OR CABLED YARNS are yarns made by twisting together Two or more ply or folded yarns of the same or different types. Ex: 2,3 Ply Cord
  • 7. Twist Direction Twists or turns per inch Twist Factor (K)
  • 8. Properties of Spun, Filament and Combination Yarns: 100%Spun Yarns: Warmth, Softness, Light Weight Ideal for T-Shirts, Sweaters and Blankets 100%Filament Yarns: Smoother, Finer and Lustrous Ideal for linings Combination of spun and filament Yarns: Durable, Easy care, Comfortable Suitable for more applications
  • 9. Twist  The purpose of twist is to hold the staple fibers together  The twist could be used in different ways to embed different qualities to the yarn  A yarn that is twist balanced will not tend to curl  The direction of twist is also important for further designing as this can be used well by designers
  • 10. Yarn twist parameters: Amount of twist is designated as TPI –turns per inch, which Affects appearance and durability of the yarns. Spun yarn: Low twist Soft twist yarns flexible (2 to 12 tpi) ex: Knitting fluffier soft High Twist Hard twist yarns smooth (20 to 30 tpi) ex: weaving firm stronger Filament yarns: Usually low twist Pebbly and harsh surface (1/2 to 1 tpi) Crepe fil. with crepe twist
  • 11. Twist and Bulkiness  The bulkier the yarn, lesser the twist.  Finer the yarn higher the twist.  Bulkier yarn needs lesser twist and so it has lesser strength.  Finer yarn has more twists and strong.  But when the twist is increased after particular point the strength is reduced due to the breakage of the fibers.
  • 12. Blends / Mixtures  A blend is a combination of two materials at fiber stage.  A mix is two materials put together at a later stage as strands.  The texture we get is different from each of them.  The design value of these are high.
  • 14.
  • 15. Chief Value Cotton (CVC) /Cotton RichChief Value Cotton (CVC) /Cotton Rich Polyester (40%)+Cotton(60%)  Cotton • Comfort, Soft handle  Polyester • Crease resistance, Easy care
  • 16. Polyester Cotton (PC)Polyester Cotton (PC) Polyester (67%) and Cotton (33%)  Cotton • comfortable to wear • greater strength  Polyester • Resistance from creases, Quick dry
  • 17. Need  The need for blends or mixes are.  Cost.  Different quality that each fiber offers.  More effective usage of the materials.  The necessity of different and in between qualities and both the qualities.
  • 18. Design Values  The design values of such blended and mixed yarn can be explored to give an innovative look to the textile  More innovative processes can be explored  The design can happen from yarn stage.
  • 19.  Fancy yarns are explorations of the prior said attributes such as  Twist  Bulkiness  Color  Material  Blends and Mixes  Material(conventional/non-conventional) Fancy Yarns
  • 20. Physical properties and performance characteristics of different yarn types: Yarn type General yarn properties Staple yarns Excellent Handle Good covering power • Carded cotton Good comfort rating • Combed cotton Reasonable strength • Woollen Reasonable uniformity • Worsted • Linen
  • 21. Yarn type General yarn properties Continuous filament yarns Excellent uniformity Excellent strength •Natural Can be very fine •Non-synthetic Fair handle •Synthetic Poor covering power High bulk yarns Light weight • Staple Good covering power • Continulous filament Good loftiness and fullness
  • 22. Stretch yarns High stetchability Continuous filament Good handle Covering power Special end use: •Tyre cord Purely functional •Rubber Designed to satisfy a specific- •Core yarn set of conditions •Cabled •Split film yarn Novelty yarns: Excellent decorative features •Fancy yarns •Metallic
  • 23. Variables in yarn production Type of fibre or filament Dimensional and physical characteristics of the fibre/filament Mechanical properties of the fibre / filament General properties Yarn production systems Components of the yarn and percentages Linear density and level of twist Yarn construction Texturisation and method of texturisation
  • 24. Yarn types & Characteristics  Spun - carded, combed  Long staple spng - Worsted, Spun Silk  Filament - Mono & Multifilament  Doubled yarn - single & 2-ply  Stronger, Uniform, blending  Yarn twist - S & Z, TPI, High Twist, Knit yarns.  Stretch yarns - Lycra, Mechanical  Slub Yarns, Lurex
  • 25. Spinning  Plucking & Cleaning  Blow room  Carding  Combing  Draw frame  Simplex  Ring frame Yarn
  • 26.
  • 27. SPUN YARN MANUFACTURINGSPUN YARN MANUFACTURING Ring spinning:Ring spinning: Blow room process:Blow room process: sorting, opening, separating,sorting, opening, separating, cleaning, and blending of fibrescleaning, and blending of fibres CardingCarding:: intensive cleaning through individualization ofintensive cleaning through individualization of fibresfibres DrawingDrawing:: alignment of fibres through doubling andalignment of fibres through doubling and drafting of fibresdrafting of fibres CombingCombing:: micro cleaning and alignment of fibres throughmicro cleaning and alignment of fibres through parallelizationparallelization RovingRoving:: attenuating drawn sliversattenuating drawn slivers Spinning:Spinning: twisting drafted roving in to yarntwisting drafted roving in to yarn
  • 28. Plucking.Plucking. At this stage cotton bales are manually opened and are put in Pluckers are machines which mix the cotton and separate the bales into smaller denominations. The separated cotton is then transferred into the Blow Room.
  • 29. Blow RoomBlow Room The Blow Room is a facility, which is primarily used for the Cleaning, Mixing and Opening of cotton for yarn production. Cotton is processed through various stages in this area through different machines and the main objective is to refine the cotton being used in yarn production.
  • 30.
  • 31.
  • 33.
  • 34. Carding DepartmentCarding Department The main function of this department is to transform the cotton into Sliver. The main objective here is to maintain the uniformity, alignment and stretch ability of the fiber as per the desired standards
  • 36.
  • 37. Combing  The main function of this department is to transform the cotton Sliver in to more fine and inject the raw material and also putting short fiber to get more longer fiber for durability.
  • 38.
  • 39.
  • 40.
  • 41. Draw Frame  The function of the Draw Frame is to create a roving consistent in size over its entire length. The draw frame blends multiple roving into one fiber.  The draw frame results in strong, uniform roving of a size that can be easily managed at the spinner
  • 42. SimplexSimplex Simplex is the process of shaping the Sliver into Roving. The main processes involved are Grafting, Twisting and Winding the sliver and shaping it like a thin rope.
  • 43.
  • 44.
  • 45. Ring frameRing frame This is function where the yarn is finally produced. The Roving are put on the machines used here and passing the roving through the machine produces yarns. The main objective of the machines here is again Grafting, Twisting and Winding. Once the cotton thread is produced it is collected in the form of Bobbin.