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nitting
USES OF KNITTING
CLASSIFICATION OF KNITTING
KNITTING MACHINE
Yarns to fabric or
garments…
FLAT- BED KNITTING MACHINE
CIRCULAR KNITTING MACHINE
FASHION THEORY
Project Report On
Dezyne E’cole College
106/10 Civil Line Ajmer
Tel – 0145-2624679
www.dezyneecole.com
2016-2017
At
Dezyne E’cole College
Submitted To
Dezyne E’cole College
Towards The
Partial Fulfillment of
2nd year Fashion Design
By –
Nistha Chandela
Acknowledgement
I am Nistha Chandela, student of Fashion designing department of Dezyne E’cole
College would like to express my gratitude to each and every person who has
contributed in stimulating suggestions and encouragement which really helped me to
coordinate my project.
I also thank Dezyne E’cole College who provided insight and expertise that greatly
assisted the project. Also, A special thanks to m teachers, parents and colleagues who
have supported me at every step. Not to forget, the almighty who blessed me with good
health because of which I worked more efficiently and better.
Grade Sheet
Dezyne E’cole College
106/10 Civil Line Ajmer
Tel – 0145-2624679
www.dezyneecole.com
This project report of Ms. Nistha Chandela student of 2nd year Fashion
Design, degree has been checked and has been graded as
Thanking You
Principal
( Seal & Signature)
Knitting is a method by which thread or yarn may be turned into cloth or other
fine crafts. It is a fabrication process i.e. intermeshing series of loops of one or
more yarns or from a set of yarns.
Knitted fabric consists of consecutive rows of loop, called stitches. As each row
progresses, a new loop is pulled through an existing loop. The active stitches are
held on a needle until another loop can be passed through them. This process
eventually results in a final product, a garment.
Knitting may be done by hand or by machine.
Different yarns and knitting needles may be used to achieve different end
products by giving the final piece a different color, texture, weight and/or
integrity. Using needles of varying sharpness & thickness as well as different
varieties of yarn can also change the effect.
Knitted fabrics is the third major class of fabric, after woven and non-woven
fabrics.
K
N
I
T
T
I
N
G
WEAVING v/s KNITTING
Like weaving, knitting is a technique for producing a two-dimensional fabric
made from a one-dimensional yarn or thread.
In weaving threads are always straight, running parallel either lengthwise ( warp
threads) or crosswise (weft threads). By contrast, the yarn in knitted fabrics
follows a meandering path (a course), forming symmetric loops (also called
bights) symmetrically above and below the y than woven fabrics mean path of the
yarn. These meandering loops can be stretched easily in different directions,
which gives knitting much more elasticity than wove fabrics: depending on the
yarn and knitted pattern, knitted garments can stretch as much as 500%.
For comparison, woven garments stretch mainly along one direction (the bias)
and are not very elastic, unless they are woven from stretchable material such as
spandex. Knitted garments are often more form- fitting than woven garments,
since their elasticity allows them to follow the body’s curvature closely.
Thread used in weaving is usually much finer than the yarn used in knitting,
which can give the knitted fabric more bulk and less drape than a woven fabric.
CHARACTERISTICS
 Knitted fabric is unique in that it possesses a high order of elasticity and
recovery. It can be stretched to a considerable length and yet will gradually
return to its original shape or conformation.
Design patterns can be changed quickly to meet fashion need. Process is less
expensive and faster regardless of fabric width.
The knitted structure is porous. It allows the skin to breathe freely. Its elasticity
permits greater freedom of body movements.
Knitted fabrics have higher potential shrinkage than woven fabrics. The
accepted standard is 5% for knits.
Knits are less likely to wrinkle during use, care packing and storage.
Air permeability arising from its looped structure, imparts to it desirable and
appealing properties.
TYPES OF KNITTING
WEFT
KNITTIN
G
WARP
KNITTIN
G
Weft knits are constructed from one yarn
that is fed into knitting machine needles in
a horizontal direction. Also called Filling.
Warp knit fabrics are constructed with
yarn loops formed in a vertical or warp
direction.
Weft
Knitting
Single Jersey
Purl Stitch
Rib Stitch
Interlock Stitch
Warp
Knitting
Tricot Knits
Raschel Knits
Milanese
Stitch- bonding
WEFT KNITTING
 Weft or filling knits is the most common type use to produce textile knitted
products.
Weft knits are constructed from one yarn which is fed into a knitting machine in
a horizontal direction.
Weft knit may be knitted with multiple yarns to produce interesting pattern
design.
Needle with the help of cams, sinker make a new loop and passed it into
previously held loops.
Weft knitting is made using a single yarn.
It can be made by hand knitting or by machines.
Both flat bed and circular knitting machines can be used to make weft knit.
Few types or technique used to manufacture weft knit structure are Single
jersey, Purl, Interlock and Rib.
Characteristics of weft knitting:-
 The fabric has high elasticity and stretch.
The loops of yarn trap air which retains body heat to keep us warm.
The right and wrong sides of the fabric look different the fabrics can lose shape
easily.
Creases fall out easily.
The fabric can unravel and ladder easily.
Weft knitted fabrics curl up the edges when they are not.
SINGLE JERSEY STITCH
 Plain jersey fabric is the simplest weft knitted structure.
Jersey knits have flat vertical lines on the front and dominant horizontal ribs on
the back of the fabric.
Characteristics
 Stretch crosswise and lengthwise, stretches more in the crosswise.
Tend to run or ladder if stitch breaks.
Fabric less stable and curls when cut.
End uses:-
 Used for making sweaters, terry robes, t-shirts, men’s underwear and dresses.
Used from making hosiery and pantyhose.
Also used for making fully fashion garments. .
PURL STITCH
 A simple purl fabric looks like the back of jersey knit on the both side of the
fabric.
Purl fabrics are made on knitting machines called purl knit machine or links
machines.
Characteristics
 The production process of purl knit is slow.
Both side similar appearance.
Good stretch in all direction but stretches out of shape easily.
Thicker than jersey knits and does not curl on edges.
End uses
 Used for making infant and children’s wear.
Used for making sweaters and scarves.
Used for doing fancy garment parts.
RIB STITCH
 Rib fabric is a double jersey knitted fabric with vertical rows (wales) of loops.
Simplest rib fabric is 1 x 1 rib having alternate wales knitted to the front and
back.
The ribs tend to close up to create a double faced fabric, which has the same
appearance on both sides.
Rib knits fabrics are produced with the knitting machines having two sets of
needle, normally positioned at rights angle to each other.
Characteristics
 Its reversible fabric.
More elastic and more thicker than jersey knits.
More stretch crosswise than length wise and edges do not curl.
More expensive to produce.
End uses
 Used for making collars and cuffs and necklines.
Used for doing bottom edges of sweaters
Used for making double knits jackets, knit hats and men’s hosiery.
INTERLOCK STITCH
Interlock stitch knit are variations in rib stitch knits.
Interlock is produce on a cylinder and dial circular weft knitting machine, with
alternate long and short needles opposite to each other on cylindrical and dial.
Characteristics
 Its is a reversible fabric.
It is heavier and thicker as compare to rib and it does not curl at the edges.
It is a good insulator.
Costlier fabric.
End uses
 Used for making skirt, blouses and t-shirts.
Used as an outerwear fabric for making dresses.
WARP KNITTING
 Warp knitted fabric is produced from a set of warp yarn. It is parallel knitted
to each other down the length of the fabric.
More resistant to laddering than weft knits.
TRICOT KNITS
 The right side of the fabric has fine lengthwise ribs while the reverse has
crosswise ribs.
A soft and ‘drapery’ texture with some lengthwise stretch and almost no
crosswise stretch.
Tricot fabric is soft, wrinkle resistant.
Tricot is very common fabric for making lingerie.
RASCHEL KNITS
Raschel knits are produced from spun or filament yarns of different weights and
types.
Made out of conventional or novelty yarn which allows for interesting textures
and designs to be created.
It is coarser than other warp knit fabrics.
Used for making lace fabric and trimmings.
STITCH- BONDING KNITS
Stitch- Bonding is a special form of warp knitting and is commonly used for the
production of composite materials and technical textiles.
Fabrics produced with this process offer the potential of using, “sensitive fiber
materials such as glass and carbon with only little damage, non-crimp fiber
orientation and variable distance between threads”.
The advantage of includes its high productivity rate and the scope it offers foe
functional design of textiles, such as fiber – reinforced plastics.
Being used in fields as wind energy generation and aviation.
MILANESE KNITS
It is made from two sets of yarn knitted diagonally, which results in the face
fabric having a fine vertical rib and the reverse having a diagonal structure.
Milanese fabric is superior to tricot in smoothness, elasticity, regularity of
structure & friction resistance.
It is stronger, more stable, smoother and more expensive than tricot.
Types of knitting
machine
Flat knitting
machine
Circular knitting
machine
KNITTING MACHINES
knitting
knitting
knitting
knitting
TYPES OF
CIRCULAR KNITS
SINGLE KNIT
MACHINE
DOUBLE KNIT
MACHINE
SINGLE KNIT MACHINES
In these machines needles are fixed on cylinder.
Sinker are fixed on sinker ring.
Needles knit with the help of sinkers.
DOUBLE KNIT MACHINES
In double knit machine needles are fixed on dial as well as on cylinders.
There is no sinkers on this machine.
This machine is used to knit interlock, rib and double jerseys.
knitting
knitting
DOUBLE KNIT JACQUARD
KNITTING MACHINES
JACQUARD KNITTING
MACHINE
JACQUARD FABRIC
WARP KNITTED FABRIC
knitting
knitting
knitting
THANK YOU

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knitting

  • 1. nitting USES OF KNITTING CLASSIFICATION OF KNITTING KNITTING MACHINE Yarns to fabric or garments… FLAT- BED KNITTING MACHINE CIRCULAR KNITTING MACHINE
  • 2. FASHION THEORY Project Report On Dezyne E’cole College 106/10 Civil Line Ajmer Tel – 0145-2624679 www.dezyneecole.com 2016-2017 At Dezyne E’cole College Submitted To Dezyne E’cole College Towards The Partial Fulfillment of 2nd year Fashion Design By – Nistha Chandela
  • 3. Acknowledgement I am Nistha Chandela, student of Fashion designing department of Dezyne E’cole College would like to express my gratitude to each and every person who has contributed in stimulating suggestions and encouragement which really helped me to coordinate my project. I also thank Dezyne E’cole College who provided insight and expertise that greatly assisted the project. Also, A special thanks to m teachers, parents and colleagues who have supported me at every step. Not to forget, the almighty who blessed me with good health because of which I worked more efficiently and better.
  • 4. Grade Sheet Dezyne E’cole College 106/10 Civil Line Ajmer Tel – 0145-2624679 www.dezyneecole.com This project report of Ms. Nistha Chandela student of 2nd year Fashion Design, degree has been checked and has been graded as Thanking You Principal ( Seal & Signature)
  • 5. Knitting is a method by which thread or yarn may be turned into cloth or other fine crafts. It is a fabrication process i.e. intermeshing series of loops of one or more yarns or from a set of yarns. Knitted fabric consists of consecutive rows of loop, called stitches. As each row progresses, a new loop is pulled through an existing loop. The active stitches are held on a needle until another loop can be passed through them. This process eventually results in a final product, a garment. Knitting may be done by hand or by machine. Different yarns and knitting needles may be used to achieve different end products by giving the final piece a different color, texture, weight and/or integrity. Using needles of varying sharpness & thickness as well as different varieties of yarn can also change the effect. Knitted fabrics is the third major class of fabric, after woven and non-woven fabrics. K N I T T I N G
  • 6. WEAVING v/s KNITTING Like weaving, knitting is a technique for producing a two-dimensional fabric made from a one-dimensional yarn or thread. In weaving threads are always straight, running parallel either lengthwise ( warp threads) or crosswise (weft threads). By contrast, the yarn in knitted fabrics follows a meandering path (a course), forming symmetric loops (also called bights) symmetrically above and below the y than woven fabrics mean path of the yarn. These meandering loops can be stretched easily in different directions, which gives knitting much more elasticity than wove fabrics: depending on the yarn and knitted pattern, knitted garments can stretch as much as 500%. For comparison, woven garments stretch mainly along one direction (the bias) and are not very elastic, unless they are woven from stretchable material such as spandex. Knitted garments are often more form- fitting than woven garments, since their elasticity allows them to follow the body’s curvature closely. Thread used in weaving is usually much finer than the yarn used in knitting, which can give the knitted fabric more bulk and less drape than a woven fabric.
  • 7. CHARACTERISTICS  Knitted fabric is unique in that it possesses a high order of elasticity and recovery. It can be stretched to a considerable length and yet will gradually return to its original shape or conformation. Design patterns can be changed quickly to meet fashion need. Process is less expensive and faster regardless of fabric width. The knitted structure is porous. It allows the skin to breathe freely. Its elasticity permits greater freedom of body movements. Knitted fabrics have higher potential shrinkage than woven fabrics. The accepted standard is 5% for knits. Knits are less likely to wrinkle during use, care packing and storage. Air permeability arising from its looped structure, imparts to it desirable and appealing properties.
  • 8. TYPES OF KNITTING WEFT KNITTIN G WARP KNITTIN G Weft knits are constructed from one yarn that is fed into knitting machine needles in a horizontal direction. Also called Filling. Warp knit fabrics are constructed with yarn loops formed in a vertical or warp direction.
  • 9. Weft Knitting Single Jersey Purl Stitch Rib Stitch Interlock Stitch Warp Knitting Tricot Knits Raschel Knits Milanese Stitch- bonding
  • 10. WEFT KNITTING  Weft or filling knits is the most common type use to produce textile knitted products. Weft knits are constructed from one yarn which is fed into a knitting machine in a horizontal direction. Weft knit may be knitted with multiple yarns to produce interesting pattern design. Needle with the help of cams, sinker make a new loop and passed it into previously held loops. Weft knitting is made using a single yarn. It can be made by hand knitting or by machines. Both flat bed and circular knitting machines can be used to make weft knit. Few types or technique used to manufacture weft knit structure are Single jersey, Purl, Interlock and Rib.
  • 11. Characteristics of weft knitting:-  The fabric has high elasticity and stretch. The loops of yarn trap air which retains body heat to keep us warm. The right and wrong sides of the fabric look different the fabrics can lose shape easily. Creases fall out easily. The fabric can unravel and ladder easily. Weft knitted fabrics curl up the edges when they are not.
  • 12. SINGLE JERSEY STITCH  Plain jersey fabric is the simplest weft knitted structure. Jersey knits have flat vertical lines on the front and dominant horizontal ribs on the back of the fabric.
  • 13. Characteristics  Stretch crosswise and lengthwise, stretches more in the crosswise. Tend to run or ladder if stitch breaks. Fabric less stable and curls when cut. End uses:-  Used for making sweaters, terry robes, t-shirts, men’s underwear and dresses. Used from making hosiery and pantyhose. Also used for making fully fashion garments. .
  • 14. PURL STITCH  A simple purl fabric looks like the back of jersey knit on the both side of the fabric. Purl fabrics are made on knitting machines called purl knit machine or links machines.
  • 15. Characteristics  The production process of purl knit is slow. Both side similar appearance. Good stretch in all direction but stretches out of shape easily. Thicker than jersey knits and does not curl on edges. End uses  Used for making infant and children’s wear. Used for making sweaters and scarves. Used for doing fancy garment parts.
  • 16. RIB STITCH  Rib fabric is a double jersey knitted fabric with vertical rows (wales) of loops. Simplest rib fabric is 1 x 1 rib having alternate wales knitted to the front and back. The ribs tend to close up to create a double faced fabric, which has the same appearance on both sides. Rib knits fabrics are produced with the knitting machines having two sets of needle, normally positioned at rights angle to each other.
  • 17. Characteristics  Its reversible fabric. More elastic and more thicker than jersey knits. More stretch crosswise than length wise and edges do not curl. More expensive to produce. End uses  Used for making collars and cuffs and necklines. Used for doing bottom edges of sweaters Used for making double knits jackets, knit hats and men’s hosiery.
  • 18. INTERLOCK STITCH Interlock stitch knit are variations in rib stitch knits. Interlock is produce on a cylinder and dial circular weft knitting machine, with alternate long and short needles opposite to each other on cylindrical and dial.
  • 19. Characteristics  Its is a reversible fabric. It is heavier and thicker as compare to rib and it does not curl at the edges. It is a good insulator. Costlier fabric. End uses  Used for making skirt, blouses and t-shirts. Used as an outerwear fabric for making dresses.
  • 20. WARP KNITTING  Warp knitted fabric is produced from a set of warp yarn. It is parallel knitted to each other down the length of the fabric. More resistant to laddering than weft knits.
  • 21. TRICOT KNITS  The right side of the fabric has fine lengthwise ribs while the reverse has crosswise ribs. A soft and ‘drapery’ texture with some lengthwise stretch and almost no crosswise stretch. Tricot fabric is soft, wrinkle resistant. Tricot is very common fabric for making lingerie.
  • 22. RASCHEL KNITS Raschel knits are produced from spun or filament yarns of different weights and types. Made out of conventional or novelty yarn which allows for interesting textures and designs to be created. It is coarser than other warp knit fabrics. Used for making lace fabric and trimmings.
  • 23. STITCH- BONDING KNITS Stitch- Bonding is a special form of warp knitting and is commonly used for the production of composite materials and technical textiles. Fabrics produced with this process offer the potential of using, “sensitive fiber materials such as glass and carbon with only little damage, non-crimp fiber orientation and variable distance between threads”. The advantage of includes its high productivity rate and the scope it offers foe functional design of textiles, such as fiber – reinforced plastics. Being used in fields as wind energy generation and aviation.
  • 24. MILANESE KNITS It is made from two sets of yarn knitted diagonally, which results in the face fabric having a fine vertical rib and the reverse having a diagonal structure. Milanese fabric is superior to tricot in smoothness, elasticity, regularity of structure & friction resistance. It is stronger, more stable, smoother and more expensive than tricot.
  • 25. Types of knitting machine Flat knitting machine Circular knitting machine KNITTING MACHINES
  • 30. TYPES OF CIRCULAR KNITS SINGLE KNIT MACHINE DOUBLE KNIT MACHINE
  • 31. SINGLE KNIT MACHINES In these machines needles are fixed on cylinder. Sinker are fixed on sinker ring. Needles knit with the help of sinkers.
  • 32. DOUBLE KNIT MACHINES In double knit machine needles are fixed on dial as well as on cylinders. There is no sinkers on this machine. This machine is used to knit interlock, rib and double jerseys.