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Shyamoli textile Engineering college
B.Sc In Textile Engineering
Level-1,Term-1(session:2018-2019)
Machineries of Spinning Section
Blow Room
Carding Machine
Drawing Frame
Yarn mnfg
Lap Former
Comber
Simplex Machine
Ring Frame
Flow chart of carded yarn production:
Input Process/ Machine Output
Bale → Blow room → Lap
Lap → Carding m/c → Sliver
Sliver → Breaker Draw Frame → Sliver
Sliver → Finisher Draw Frame → Sliver
Sliver → Roving Frame
/Speed Frame/Simplex
→ Roving
Roving → Ring Frame → Yarn
Flow chart of combed yarn production:
Input Process/ Machine Output
Bale management
↓
Fibre → Blow room → Lap
Lap → Carding m/c → Sliver
Sliver → Pre comb drawing → Sliver
Sliver → Lap former → Lap
Lap → Combing → Sliver
Sliver → Post comb drawing → Sliver
Sliver → Simplex → Roving
Roving → Ring Frame → Yarn
FlowchartofRotoryarn:
Input Process/Machine Output
Balemanagement
↓
Fibre → Blowroom → Lap
Lap → Cardingm/c → Cardedsliver
Cardedsliver → Drawframe → Drawn sliver
Drawn sliver → Rotorspinning → Rotoryarn
Bale management:
Testing, sorting & mixing bales according to properties of fibre for producing
specific good quality yarn at minm cost is called “Bale management”.
Object of Bale management:
 An evening out of the quality characteristics of a yarn.
 A means of avoiding quality jumps.
A possibility of reducing costs, as result of an improved knowledge of the fibre
characteristics
Yarn mnfg
Mixing & Blending
Mixing: If different grade of same fibres are kept together, then it is called
mixing.
Types of mixing:
i) Volume mixing
ii)Wt. mixing.
iii)Hand stock mixing.
iv)Bin mixing.
v)Mixing by hopper.
vi)Lap mixing.
vii)Card mixing.
viii)Sliver mixing.
ix)Automatic mixing.
Blending: When different fibres of same or different grades are kept together,
then it is called blending.
Objects of blending:
 To achieve uniform quality.
 To improve processing performance.
 To reduce and control of production cost.
 To meet function and end used requirement.
 Aesthetic i.e. Fashion, texture, drape luster etc.
 To give the required characteristics to the end product.
 To achieve effects by carrying colour, fiber characteristics and soon.
Ginning:
The freshly picked cotton has seeds in it, this cotton is called seed cotton. The
treading is done in this condition also, but normally the treading is done after
separation of the fibres from their seed. So, the process, involves to separate the
cotton fibres from seeds is called ginning.
Objects of ginning:
 To separate fibres fully from its seeds.
 To collect seeds and waste together.
 To collect fibre without any faults.
 To separate whole fibre
Blow Room:
Blow Room consists of a number of machines used in succession to open and
clean the cotton fiber to the required degree.
40 to 70% trash is removed in this section.
Blow Room Section:
A section in which the supplied compressed bales are opened, cleaned and
blending or mixing to form uniforms lap of specific length is called Blow Room
section. The cleaning efficiency of blow room is 60 to 65%. This is the first section
of spinning line for spgn wt cotton yarn.
Yarn mnfg
Operation in Blow Room:
I. Opening:
a. To open the compressed bales of fibers &
b. To make the cotton tuft a small size as for as possible.
II. Cleaning: To remove the dirt, dust, broken seeds broken leafs, stalks and another
foreign materials from the fibers.
III. Bending or Mixing: To make good value of yarn and to decrease the production
cost by mixing different grade of fibers.
IV.Lap forming:
a. To transfer the opened and cleaned fibers into a sheet form of definite width and uniform
unit length which is called lap.
b. To roll the lap of predetermined length in a cylindrical shape around a lap pin.
c. To transfer the lap from the lap pin to a rod to suitable handle and feed it to subsequence
processing carding m/c
Yarn mnfg
Action in blow room:
The actions of the machines in any blow room range fall into one or more of four
main groups namely:
1. Action of opposite spike: (opening)
The action of opposite spikes is opening the cotton fiber. By this action, the large
pieces of cottons have been reduced in size.
2. Action of Air current: (Transport + Cleaning)
During processing, the movement of cotton from machines to machine is done by air
current. It also helps the separation of lint and trash.
3. Action of Beaters: (Cleaning & Opening)
Beaters are responsible for removing almost all of the impurity extracted in the blow
room. Beater also helps in opening of cotton fiber.
4. Action of regulating motion: (Uniform output)
The action of regulating motion gives the uniform output of cotton fiber by
the help of swing door and swing paddle
 Electrical photocell
 Air pressure syatem
Flow Chart of Blow Room
(Conventional)
Hopper bale opener
↓
Ultra cleaner or step cleaner
↓
Vertical or twine opener or cleaner
↓
Hopper feeder-1
↓
Porcupine opener
↓
Hopper feeder-2
↓
Scutcher
Flow Chart of Blow Room (Modern)
Bale plucker
↓
Metal detector
↓
Uniclean
↓
Unimix
↓
Uniflex
↓
Vision shield
↓
Condenser
↓
Chute feed
↓
Carding
Yarn mnfg
Yarn mnfg
Yarn mnfg
Carding: Heart of Spg :
Carding may be defined as the reduction of an entangled mass of fibres to a
filmy web by working betn two closely spaced, relatively moving surface
clothed with sharp wire points. The carding is the heart of the spgn mill & well
carded is half-spun-demonstrate the immense significance of carding for the
final result of the spgn operation. The importance of carding is still greater
where new spgn systems are concerned.
Object:/ function:/ Task of carding:
1. Opening to individual fibers : The blow room only opens the raw
material to flocks where as the card opens it to the stage of
individual fibres. This enables the elimination of impurities and good
performance of the other operation.
Yarn mnfg
2. Elimination of Impurities and dust: Elimination of foreign matter occurs mainly
in the region of the taker in. In addition to free dust, which can be directly
sucked away as in the blow room, the card also removes a large proportion of
the micro particles. The card is a good dust removing m/c.
3. Disentangling of neps: The card reduces the no of neps from the blow room.
Actually neps are not eliminated at the card, they are mostly opened out. An
improvement in disentangling of neps is obtained by: closer spacing between
the clothing; sharper clothing; optimal speeds of the taken- in; low doffer
speeds, lower through put.
4. Elimination of short fibers: Short fibers can only be eliminated if they are
pressed into the clothing. Elimination of short fibers in the card must be viewed
in proportion, actually very small, fewer than, 1% short fibers.
5. Fiber blending: The card is the only m/c to process individual fibers. In
formation of the web and with repeated rotation of the fibers on the main
cylinder, intimate fiber with fiber mixing is achieved.
6. Fiber orientation: It is often attribute the effect of parallelizing. The card
can be given the task of creating partial longitudinal orientation of the
fibers.
7. Sliver formation: To deposit the fiber material, to transport it and process
it further , an appropriate product must be formed.
So carding is called ” Heart of spinning”
Draw frame
Drawing: It is a process of yarn manufacturing in which the sliver is enlongated
when passing through pairs of rollers, each pair faster than the previous one.
This permits combination of several slivers and drawing and enlongating them to
straighten and to create greater uniformity.
Objects of drawing:
I) To straighten the fibres in the slivers.
II)To make them lie is a manner parallel to their neighbours and to the sliver axis.
III)To improve the uniformity and evenness of the slivers.
IV)To reduce weight per unit length of sliver.
V)To reduce irregularities of fibre by doubling and drafting.
VI)To remove dust from sliver.
VII)To make perfect blending of the sliver.
Yarn mnfg
Necessity of draw frame:
To parallisation of fibre and blending carded→ Carded sliver.
In carded sliver, fibre present in hook form i.e. trailing hooks and leading
hooks.
To parallel those hook, draw frame is used.
Majority of the fibre hooks in a carded sliver are trailing while
leading hooks are comparatively less. Trailing hooks are also known
Mazor hooks. While leading hooks are known as Minor hooks.
Tasks of draw frame:
I) Equalizing.
II)Parallelizing.
III)Blending.
IV)Dust removal.
I) Equalizing: One of the main tasks of the draw frame is improving evenness
over short, medium and especially long terms. Carded slivers fed to the draw
frame have degree of unevenness that can not be tolerated in practice and
slivers from the comber contain the ‘infamous’ piecing. It is obscured by draw
frame.
Equalizing is always performed by a first process, namely doubling and can
optionally also be performed by a second process, namely autolevelling. The
draft and the doublings often have the same value and lie in the range of 6 to 8
II) Parallelizing: To obtain an optimal value for strength in the yarn
characteristics, the fibres must be arranged parallel in the fibre strand. The draw
frame has the task of creating this parallel arrangement. It fulfils the task by way of
the draft, since every drafting step leads to straightening of the fibres.
III) Blending: In addition to the equalizing effect, doubling also provides a degree
of compensation of raw material variation by blending. This result is exploited in
particular in the production of blended yarns comprising cotton/synthetic or
synthetic/synthetic blends.
IV) Dust removal: Dust is steadily becoming a great problem both in processing
and for personnel involved. It is therefore important to remove dust to the greatest
practical extent at every possible points within the overall process. Dust removal
can only be carried out to a significant degree when there are high levels of
fibre/fibre or fibre/metal friction since a large friction the smallest particles(dust)
adhere relatively strongly to the fibres.
The draw frame is therefore a good dust removing m/c; on high performance
draw frame equipped with appropriate suction removal systems, more than 80% of
the incoming dust is extracted
Yarn mnfg
Yarn mnfg

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Yarn mnfg

  • 1. Shyamoli textile Engineering college B.Sc In Textile Engineering Level-1,Term-1(session:2018-2019)
  • 2. Machineries of Spinning Section Blow Room
  • 10. Flow chart of carded yarn production: Input Process/ Machine Output Bale → Blow room → Lap Lap → Carding m/c → Sliver Sliver → Breaker Draw Frame → Sliver Sliver → Finisher Draw Frame → Sliver Sliver → Roving Frame /Speed Frame/Simplex → Roving Roving → Ring Frame → Yarn
  • 11. Flow chart of combed yarn production: Input Process/ Machine Output Bale management ↓ Fibre → Blow room → Lap Lap → Carding m/c → Sliver Sliver → Pre comb drawing → Sliver Sliver → Lap former → Lap Lap → Combing → Sliver Sliver → Post comb drawing → Sliver Sliver → Simplex → Roving Roving → Ring Frame → Yarn
  • 12. FlowchartofRotoryarn: Input Process/Machine Output Balemanagement ↓ Fibre → Blowroom → Lap Lap → Cardingm/c → Cardedsliver Cardedsliver → Drawframe → Drawn sliver Drawn sliver → Rotorspinning → Rotoryarn
  • 13. Bale management: Testing, sorting & mixing bales according to properties of fibre for producing specific good quality yarn at minm cost is called “Bale management”. Object of Bale management:  An evening out of the quality characteristics of a yarn.  A means of avoiding quality jumps. A possibility of reducing costs, as result of an improved knowledge of the fibre characteristics
  • 15. Mixing & Blending Mixing: If different grade of same fibres are kept together, then it is called mixing. Types of mixing: i) Volume mixing ii)Wt. mixing. iii)Hand stock mixing. iv)Bin mixing. v)Mixing by hopper. vi)Lap mixing. vii)Card mixing. viii)Sliver mixing. ix)Automatic mixing.
  • 16. Blending: When different fibres of same or different grades are kept together, then it is called blending. Objects of blending:  To achieve uniform quality.  To improve processing performance.  To reduce and control of production cost.  To meet function and end used requirement.  Aesthetic i.e. Fashion, texture, drape luster etc.  To give the required characteristics to the end product.  To achieve effects by carrying colour, fiber characteristics and soon.
  • 17. Ginning: The freshly picked cotton has seeds in it, this cotton is called seed cotton. The treading is done in this condition also, but normally the treading is done after separation of the fibres from their seed. So, the process, involves to separate the cotton fibres from seeds is called ginning. Objects of ginning:  To separate fibres fully from its seeds.  To collect seeds and waste together.  To collect fibre without any faults.  To separate whole fibre
  • 18. Blow Room: Blow Room consists of a number of machines used in succession to open and clean the cotton fiber to the required degree. 40 to 70% trash is removed in this section. Blow Room Section: A section in which the supplied compressed bales are opened, cleaned and blending or mixing to form uniforms lap of specific length is called Blow Room section. The cleaning efficiency of blow room is 60 to 65%. This is the first section of spinning line for spgn wt cotton yarn.
  • 20. Operation in Blow Room: I. Opening: a. To open the compressed bales of fibers & b. To make the cotton tuft a small size as for as possible. II. Cleaning: To remove the dirt, dust, broken seeds broken leafs, stalks and another foreign materials from the fibers. III. Bending or Mixing: To make good value of yarn and to decrease the production cost by mixing different grade of fibers. IV.Lap forming: a. To transfer the opened and cleaned fibers into a sheet form of definite width and uniform unit length which is called lap. b. To roll the lap of predetermined length in a cylindrical shape around a lap pin. c. To transfer the lap from the lap pin to a rod to suitable handle and feed it to subsequence processing carding m/c
  • 22. Action in blow room: The actions of the machines in any blow room range fall into one or more of four main groups namely: 1. Action of opposite spike: (opening) The action of opposite spikes is opening the cotton fiber. By this action, the large pieces of cottons have been reduced in size. 2. Action of Air current: (Transport + Cleaning) During processing, the movement of cotton from machines to machine is done by air current. It also helps the separation of lint and trash. 3. Action of Beaters: (Cleaning & Opening) Beaters are responsible for removing almost all of the impurity extracted in the blow room. Beater also helps in opening of cotton fiber.
  • 23. 4. Action of regulating motion: (Uniform output) The action of regulating motion gives the uniform output of cotton fiber by the help of swing door and swing paddle  Electrical photocell  Air pressure syatem
  • 24. Flow Chart of Blow Room (Conventional) Hopper bale opener ↓ Ultra cleaner or step cleaner ↓ Vertical or twine opener or cleaner ↓ Hopper feeder-1 ↓ Porcupine opener ↓ Hopper feeder-2 ↓ Scutcher Flow Chart of Blow Room (Modern) Bale plucker ↓ Metal detector ↓ Uniclean ↓ Unimix ↓ Uniflex ↓ Vision shield ↓ Condenser ↓ Chute feed ↓ Carding
  • 28. Carding: Heart of Spg : Carding may be defined as the reduction of an entangled mass of fibres to a filmy web by working betn two closely spaced, relatively moving surface clothed with sharp wire points. The carding is the heart of the spgn mill & well carded is half-spun-demonstrate the immense significance of carding for the final result of the spgn operation. The importance of carding is still greater where new spgn systems are concerned. Object:/ function:/ Task of carding: 1. Opening to individual fibers : The blow room only opens the raw material to flocks where as the card opens it to the stage of individual fibres. This enables the elimination of impurities and good performance of the other operation.
  • 30. 2. Elimination of Impurities and dust: Elimination of foreign matter occurs mainly in the region of the taker in. In addition to free dust, which can be directly sucked away as in the blow room, the card also removes a large proportion of the micro particles. The card is a good dust removing m/c. 3. Disentangling of neps: The card reduces the no of neps from the blow room. Actually neps are not eliminated at the card, they are mostly opened out. An improvement in disentangling of neps is obtained by: closer spacing between the clothing; sharper clothing; optimal speeds of the taken- in; low doffer speeds, lower through put. 4. Elimination of short fibers: Short fibers can only be eliminated if they are pressed into the clothing. Elimination of short fibers in the card must be viewed in proportion, actually very small, fewer than, 1% short fibers. 5. Fiber blending: The card is the only m/c to process individual fibers. In formation of the web and with repeated rotation of the fibers on the main cylinder, intimate fiber with fiber mixing is achieved.
  • 31. 6. Fiber orientation: It is often attribute the effect of parallelizing. The card can be given the task of creating partial longitudinal orientation of the fibers. 7. Sliver formation: To deposit the fiber material, to transport it and process it further , an appropriate product must be formed. So carding is called ” Heart of spinning”
  • 32. Draw frame Drawing: It is a process of yarn manufacturing in which the sliver is enlongated when passing through pairs of rollers, each pair faster than the previous one. This permits combination of several slivers and drawing and enlongating them to straighten and to create greater uniformity. Objects of drawing: I) To straighten the fibres in the slivers. II)To make them lie is a manner parallel to their neighbours and to the sliver axis. III)To improve the uniformity and evenness of the slivers. IV)To reduce weight per unit length of sliver. V)To reduce irregularities of fibre by doubling and drafting. VI)To remove dust from sliver. VII)To make perfect blending of the sliver.
  • 34. Necessity of draw frame: To parallisation of fibre and blending carded→ Carded sliver. In carded sliver, fibre present in hook form i.e. trailing hooks and leading hooks. To parallel those hook, draw frame is used. Majority of the fibre hooks in a carded sliver are trailing while leading hooks are comparatively less. Trailing hooks are also known Mazor hooks. While leading hooks are known as Minor hooks.
  • 35. Tasks of draw frame: I) Equalizing. II)Parallelizing. III)Blending. IV)Dust removal. I) Equalizing: One of the main tasks of the draw frame is improving evenness over short, medium and especially long terms. Carded slivers fed to the draw frame have degree of unevenness that can not be tolerated in practice and slivers from the comber contain the ‘infamous’ piecing. It is obscured by draw frame. Equalizing is always performed by a first process, namely doubling and can optionally also be performed by a second process, namely autolevelling. The draft and the doublings often have the same value and lie in the range of 6 to 8
  • 36. II) Parallelizing: To obtain an optimal value for strength in the yarn characteristics, the fibres must be arranged parallel in the fibre strand. The draw frame has the task of creating this parallel arrangement. It fulfils the task by way of the draft, since every drafting step leads to straightening of the fibres. III) Blending: In addition to the equalizing effect, doubling also provides a degree of compensation of raw material variation by blending. This result is exploited in particular in the production of blended yarns comprising cotton/synthetic or synthetic/synthetic blends.
  • 37. IV) Dust removal: Dust is steadily becoming a great problem both in processing and for personnel involved. It is therefore important to remove dust to the greatest practical extent at every possible points within the overall process. Dust removal can only be carried out to a significant degree when there are high levels of fibre/fibre or fibre/metal friction since a large friction the smallest particles(dust) adhere relatively strongly to the fibres. The draw frame is therefore a good dust removing m/c; on high performance draw frame equipped with appropriate suction removal systems, more than 80% of the incoming dust is extracted