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Writing a Research Proposal
AHMED ATTAR,AHMED ATTAR, MBBS, FRCPC, ABPN, FAAN, CERTIFIED
EPI. & BIOSTAT
Consultant Neurologist, King Abdul Aziz Medical City Western
Region
Director - Quality Management, KAMC-WR
Chairman - Medication Safety Program, KAMC-WR
Objectives
• At end of this session, participants are able
to:
– State and define the concept of writing a research
proposal
– Develop a research proposal
Jun 10, 2013 2WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
Do you like to Cook?
• Group exercise?
Jun 10, 2013 3
WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
What are the basic elements for
a yu mmy Dish?
• Title: ‫الحجازي‬ ‫السليق‬
• Statement of the problem
• Literature review
• Formulation of objectives
• Research methodology
• Utilization & dissemination of results
• Work plan
• Resources / budget
• References
Jun 10, 2013 4WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
Outline
• What is a research proposal?
• Why a research proposal?
• What are the basic elements of a research
proposal?
• What are the common mistakes in proposal
writing?
Jun 10, 2013 5
WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
What is a Research Proposal?
• A detailed plan of action for scientific inquiry
– what the researcher intends to do, how, why,
where, and when
Jun 10, 2013 6WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
Why a Research Proposal?
• An important documentation of your approach to
the research question/objectives
• Demonstrate scholarly abilities
• A reference document during execution and also
writing up the results of the study
• Needed document for research committees and
funding agencies approval
Jun 10, 2013 7WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
Jun 10, 2013
WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr.
Ahmed Attar 8
What are the basic elements for
a research proposal?
• Title
• Statement of the problem
• Literature review
• Formulation of objectives
• Research methodology
• Utilization & dissemination of results
• Work plan
• Resources / budget
• References
Jun 10, 2013 9WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
Title
• Concise
• Descriptive
Jun 10, 2013 10WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
Title
Jun 10, 2013
WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr.
Ahmed Attar 11
Jun 10, 2013 Lecture Title/Lecturer Name 12
Statement of the Problem
• “The problem statement describes the
context for the study and it also identifies the
general analysis approach”
(Wiersma, 1995, p.404)
• “A problem might be defined as the issue that
exists in the literature, theory, or practice that
leads to a need for the study”
(Creswell, 1994, p.50)
Jun 10, 2013 13WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
Logical Sequence of Presenting
Problem Statement
• Magnitude, frequency and distribution: Affected
geographical areas and population groups affected
by the problem. Ethnic and gender considerations.
• Probable causes of the problem: What is the current
knowledge of the problem and its causes? Is there
consensus? Is there controversy? Is there conclusive
evidence?
Jun 10, 2013 14WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
Logical Sequence of Presenting
Problem Statement
• Possible solutions: In what ways have solutions to
the problem been attempted? What has been
proposed? What are the results?
• Unanswered questions: What remains to be
answered? What areas have not been possible to
understand, determine, verify, or test?
Jun 10, 2013 15WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
Rationale and Hypothesis
– Good
• Clearly state the hypothesis or number of hypotheses
that will be addressed in the proposal.
• Give a rationale why this hypothesis is important to
investigate.
– Reject
• Avoid combining the two together. It could be
confusing to the reviewer.
• Too long of a hypothesis makes it hard to understand
the aim of the research.
Literature Review
• “The review of the literature provides the
background and context for the research
problem. It should establish the need for the
research and indicate that the writer is
knowledgeable about the area”
(Wiersma, 1995, p.406)
Jun 10, 2013 17WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
Literature Review
• It shares with the reader the results of other
studies that are closely related to the study
being reported
(Fraenkel &Wallen, 1990)
• It relates a study to the larger, ongoing
dialogue in the literature about a topic, filling
in gaps and extending prior studies
(Marshall & Rossman, 1989)
Jun 10, 2013 18WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
Literature Review
• It provides a framework for establishing the
importance of the study, as well as a
benchmark for comparing the results of a
study with other findings.
• It frames the problem earlier identified.
Jun 10, 2013 19WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
Questions and/or Hypothesis
• Questions:
– Normative or census type research
– Most often used in qualitative inquiry
• Hypothesis:
– Theoretical research and are typically used only in
quantitative inquiry
Jun 10, 2013 20WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
Questions and/or Hypothesis
• A research question poses a relationship
between two or more variables but phrases
the relationship as a question; and a
hypothesis represents a declarative statement
of the relations between two or more
variables.
(Kerlinger, 1979; Krathwohl, 1988)
Jun 10, 2013 21WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
Formulation of Research
Objectives
• The OBJECTIVES of a research project
summarizes what is to be achieved by the
study.
• Objectives should be closely related to the
statement of the problem.
Jun 10, 2013 22WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
Formulation of Research
Objectives
• General objective: states what researchers
expect to achieve by the study in general
terms.
• Specific objectives: smaller, logically
connected parts of general objective. They are
the specific aspects of the topic that you want
to study
Jun 10, 2013 23WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
Importance of Research
Objectives
• To Focus the study (narrowing it down to
essentials);
• To Avoid the collection of data which are not
strictly necessary for understanding and
solving the problem we have identified; and
• To Organize the study in clearly defined parts
or phases.
Jun 10, 2013 24WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
Details of Research Proposal
• Goals and/or Objectives of Research
• This is usually one paragraph telling the reviewer
everything they need to know about this research proposal.
• This provides the opportunity to gain the reviewers interest
and excitement about this proposal.
• It should contain the background on why this research is
important, hypothesis, and objectives.
• Should state the innovation of this proposal.
• Finally it should in a clear statement demonstrate why this
project is significant and what impact it will have.
Details of Research Proposal
• Reject
– No goal or objective statement at the start of the
proposal.
– Too technical and condensed will make it hard to
read and understand.
– Too short will not give the reviewer the needed
information to understand the proposal.
– Too long will make the reviewer skip to the
background and makes the reviewer search for
what is important.
Research Methodology
• “The methods or procedures section is really
the heart of the research proposal. The
activities should be described with as much
detail as possible, and the continuity between
them should be apparent”
(Wiersma, 1995, p.409)
Jun 10, 2013 27WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
Research Methodology
• Sampling
• Instrumentation
• Data collection
• Data analysis
• Ethical Issues
Jun 10, 2013 28WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
Sampling
• The key reason for being concerned with
sampling is that of validity – the extent to
which the interpretations of the results of the
study follow from the study itself and the
extent to which results may be generalized to
other situations with other people.
(Shavelson, 1988)
Jun 10, 2013 29WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
Instrumentation
• Outline the instruments you propose to use:
– surveys
– scales
– interview protocols
– observation grids
Jun 10, 2013 30WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
Data Collection
• Outline the general plan for collection the
data
– Survey administration, interview or observation
procedures
– Explicit statement covering field controls
Jun 10, 2013 31WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
Data Analysis
• Specify the procedures (e.g., ANOVA,
MANCOVA, Case study).
• Indicate briefly any analytic tools (e.g., SAS,
SPSS)
• Provide a well thought-out rationale
Jun 10, 2013 32WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
Ethical Issues
• Relevant to and the methods by which the
patient/subject’s interests will be
safeguarded.
Jun 10, 2013 33WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
Utilization & Dissemination of
Results
• This describes the type of knowledge
expected to be obtained upon completion of
the project and the intended application of
the results.
• It indicates the strategy for disseminating and
implementing the research.
Jun 10, 2013 34WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
Work Plan
• Include the major phases of the project:
– estimate when you will start each stage of the
work, and how long it will take.
Jun 10, 2013 35WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
Gantt Chart
Jun 10, 2013 36WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
Example of a Gantt Chart
Tasks to be performed Person assigned June Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
1. Finalized research
proposal
Research team 
2. Train research
assistants and pretest
instrument
Principal invest. and
research team

3. Data collection Research team  
4. Prepare for data entry Hire one statistician 
5. Data cleaning and
preliminary analysis
Principal invest. and
statistician
 
5. Data analysis and
report writing
Principal invest. and
local authorities
 
6. Finalize report Research team 
7. Discuss
recommendations/ plan
of action
Research team/MOH
and local authorities
 
7. Presentation and
dissemination
Research team/Policy
maker MOH

Budget and Resources
• Access to special systems or computers
• specialized computer algorithms
• Itemized Budget
• Budget Narrative
Jun 10, 2013 37WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
References
• List all references cited in the proposal. Make
sure these references are:
– Up-to-date
– Relevant
– Original source
Jun 10, 2013 38WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
What are the common mistakes
in proposal writing?
• Failure to:
– Provide the proper context to frame the research
question
– Delimit the boundary conditions
– Cite landmark studies
– Accurately present the theoretical and empirical
contributions by other researchers
– Stay focused on the research question
Jun 10, 2013 39WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
What are the common mistakes
in proposal writing?
• Failure to develop a coherent and persuasive
argument
• Too much detail on minor issues, but not
enough detail on major issues
• Too many citation lapses and incorrect
references
• Sloppy writing
Jun 10, 2013 40WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
Avoid the following crticisms
• Not an original data
• Rationale is weak
• Uncertain outcomes
• Writing is vague
• Proposal is unfocused
• Problem is not important
Jun 10, 2013 41
WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
Research Proposal Submittal
Form
Jun 10, 2013 42WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
Outlines of Study Proposal for
Observational Studies
Jun 10, 2013 43WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
Outlines of Study Proposal for
Observational Studies
Jun 10, 2013 44WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
Outlines of Study Proposal for
Observational Studies
Jun 10, 2013 45WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
Jun 10, 2013 54WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
Thank You

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Writing research proposal

  • 1. Writing a Research Proposal AHMED ATTAR,AHMED ATTAR, MBBS, FRCPC, ABPN, FAAN, CERTIFIED EPI. & BIOSTAT Consultant Neurologist, King Abdul Aziz Medical City Western Region Director - Quality Management, KAMC-WR Chairman - Medication Safety Program, KAMC-WR
  • 2. Objectives • At end of this session, participants are able to: – State and define the concept of writing a research proposal – Develop a research proposal Jun 10, 2013 2WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  • 3. Do you like to Cook? • Group exercise? Jun 10, 2013 3 WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  • 4. What are the basic elements for a yu mmy Dish? • Title: ‫الحجازي‬ ‫السليق‬ • Statement of the problem • Literature review • Formulation of objectives • Research methodology • Utilization & dissemination of results • Work plan • Resources / budget • References Jun 10, 2013 4WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  • 5. Outline • What is a research proposal? • Why a research proposal? • What are the basic elements of a research proposal? • What are the common mistakes in proposal writing? Jun 10, 2013 5 WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  • 6. What is a Research Proposal? • A detailed plan of action for scientific inquiry – what the researcher intends to do, how, why, where, and when Jun 10, 2013 6WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  • 7. Why a Research Proposal? • An important documentation of your approach to the research question/objectives • Demonstrate scholarly abilities • A reference document during execution and also writing up the results of the study • Needed document for research committees and funding agencies approval Jun 10, 2013 7WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  • 8. Jun 10, 2013 WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar 8
  • 9. What are the basic elements for a research proposal? • Title • Statement of the problem • Literature review • Formulation of objectives • Research methodology • Utilization & dissemination of results • Work plan • Resources / budget • References Jun 10, 2013 9WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  • 10. Title • Concise • Descriptive Jun 10, 2013 10WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  • 11. Title Jun 10, 2013 WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar 11
  • 12. Jun 10, 2013 Lecture Title/Lecturer Name 12
  • 13. Statement of the Problem • “The problem statement describes the context for the study and it also identifies the general analysis approach” (Wiersma, 1995, p.404) • “A problem might be defined as the issue that exists in the literature, theory, or practice that leads to a need for the study” (Creswell, 1994, p.50) Jun 10, 2013 13WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  • 14. Logical Sequence of Presenting Problem Statement • Magnitude, frequency and distribution: Affected geographical areas and population groups affected by the problem. Ethnic and gender considerations. • Probable causes of the problem: What is the current knowledge of the problem and its causes? Is there consensus? Is there controversy? Is there conclusive evidence? Jun 10, 2013 14WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  • 15. Logical Sequence of Presenting Problem Statement • Possible solutions: In what ways have solutions to the problem been attempted? What has been proposed? What are the results? • Unanswered questions: What remains to be answered? What areas have not been possible to understand, determine, verify, or test? Jun 10, 2013 15WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  • 16. Rationale and Hypothesis – Good • Clearly state the hypothesis or number of hypotheses that will be addressed in the proposal. • Give a rationale why this hypothesis is important to investigate. – Reject • Avoid combining the two together. It could be confusing to the reviewer. • Too long of a hypothesis makes it hard to understand the aim of the research.
  • 17. Literature Review • “The review of the literature provides the background and context for the research problem. It should establish the need for the research and indicate that the writer is knowledgeable about the area” (Wiersma, 1995, p.406) Jun 10, 2013 17WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  • 18. Literature Review • It shares with the reader the results of other studies that are closely related to the study being reported (Fraenkel &Wallen, 1990) • It relates a study to the larger, ongoing dialogue in the literature about a topic, filling in gaps and extending prior studies (Marshall & Rossman, 1989) Jun 10, 2013 18WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  • 19. Literature Review • It provides a framework for establishing the importance of the study, as well as a benchmark for comparing the results of a study with other findings. • It frames the problem earlier identified. Jun 10, 2013 19WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  • 20. Questions and/or Hypothesis • Questions: – Normative or census type research – Most often used in qualitative inquiry • Hypothesis: – Theoretical research and are typically used only in quantitative inquiry Jun 10, 2013 20WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  • 21. Questions and/or Hypothesis • A research question poses a relationship between two or more variables but phrases the relationship as a question; and a hypothesis represents a declarative statement of the relations between two or more variables. (Kerlinger, 1979; Krathwohl, 1988) Jun 10, 2013 21WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  • 22. Formulation of Research Objectives • The OBJECTIVES of a research project summarizes what is to be achieved by the study. • Objectives should be closely related to the statement of the problem. Jun 10, 2013 22WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  • 23. Formulation of Research Objectives • General objective: states what researchers expect to achieve by the study in general terms. • Specific objectives: smaller, logically connected parts of general objective. They are the specific aspects of the topic that you want to study Jun 10, 2013 23WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  • 24. Importance of Research Objectives • To Focus the study (narrowing it down to essentials); • To Avoid the collection of data which are not strictly necessary for understanding and solving the problem we have identified; and • To Organize the study in clearly defined parts or phases. Jun 10, 2013 24WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  • 25. Details of Research Proposal • Goals and/or Objectives of Research • This is usually one paragraph telling the reviewer everything they need to know about this research proposal. • This provides the opportunity to gain the reviewers interest and excitement about this proposal. • It should contain the background on why this research is important, hypothesis, and objectives. • Should state the innovation of this proposal. • Finally it should in a clear statement demonstrate why this project is significant and what impact it will have.
  • 26. Details of Research Proposal • Reject – No goal or objective statement at the start of the proposal. – Too technical and condensed will make it hard to read and understand. – Too short will not give the reviewer the needed information to understand the proposal. – Too long will make the reviewer skip to the background and makes the reviewer search for what is important.
  • 27. Research Methodology • “The methods or procedures section is really the heart of the research proposal. The activities should be described with as much detail as possible, and the continuity between them should be apparent” (Wiersma, 1995, p.409) Jun 10, 2013 27WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  • 28. Research Methodology • Sampling • Instrumentation • Data collection • Data analysis • Ethical Issues Jun 10, 2013 28WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  • 29. Sampling • The key reason for being concerned with sampling is that of validity – the extent to which the interpretations of the results of the study follow from the study itself and the extent to which results may be generalized to other situations with other people. (Shavelson, 1988) Jun 10, 2013 29WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  • 30. Instrumentation • Outline the instruments you propose to use: – surveys – scales – interview protocols – observation grids Jun 10, 2013 30WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  • 31. Data Collection • Outline the general plan for collection the data – Survey administration, interview or observation procedures – Explicit statement covering field controls Jun 10, 2013 31WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  • 32. Data Analysis • Specify the procedures (e.g., ANOVA, MANCOVA, Case study). • Indicate briefly any analytic tools (e.g., SAS, SPSS) • Provide a well thought-out rationale Jun 10, 2013 32WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  • 33. Ethical Issues • Relevant to and the methods by which the patient/subject’s interests will be safeguarded. Jun 10, 2013 33WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  • 34. Utilization & Dissemination of Results • This describes the type of knowledge expected to be obtained upon completion of the project and the intended application of the results. • It indicates the strategy for disseminating and implementing the research. Jun 10, 2013 34WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  • 35. Work Plan • Include the major phases of the project: – estimate when you will start each stage of the work, and how long it will take. Jun 10, 2013 35WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  • 36. Gantt Chart Jun 10, 2013 36WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar Example of a Gantt Chart Tasks to be performed Person assigned June Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1. Finalized research proposal Research team  2. Train research assistants and pretest instrument Principal invest. and research team  3. Data collection Research team   4. Prepare for data entry Hire one statistician  5. Data cleaning and preliminary analysis Principal invest. and statistician   5. Data analysis and report writing Principal invest. and local authorities   6. Finalize report Research team  7. Discuss recommendations/ plan of action Research team/MOH and local authorities   7. Presentation and dissemination Research team/Policy maker MOH 
  • 37. Budget and Resources • Access to special systems or computers • specialized computer algorithms • Itemized Budget • Budget Narrative Jun 10, 2013 37WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  • 38. References • List all references cited in the proposal. Make sure these references are: – Up-to-date – Relevant – Original source Jun 10, 2013 38WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  • 39. What are the common mistakes in proposal writing? • Failure to: – Provide the proper context to frame the research question – Delimit the boundary conditions – Cite landmark studies – Accurately present the theoretical and empirical contributions by other researchers – Stay focused on the research question Jun 10, 2013 39WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  • 40. What are the common mistakes in proposal writing? • Failure to develop a coherent and persuasive argument • Too much detail on minor issues, but not enough detail on major issues • Too many citation lapses and incorrect references • Sloppy writing Jun 10, 2013 40WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  • 41. Avoid the following crticisms • Not an original data • Rationale is weak • Uncertain outcomes • Writing is vague • Proposal is unfocused • Problem is not important Jun 10, 2013 41 WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  • 42. Research Proposal Submittal Form Jun 10, 2013 42WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  • 43. Outlines of Study Proposal for Observational Studies Jun 10, 2013 43WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  • 44. Outlines of Study Proposal for Observational Studies Jun 10, 2013 44WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
  • 45. Outlines of Study Proposal for Observational Studies Jun 10, 2013 45WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar
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  • 54. Jun 10, 2013 54WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL / Dr. Ahmed Attar Thank You

Editor's Notes

  1. There is no specific format for a research proposal. Presentation of proposals may vary according to the style and preference of each investigator.
  2. A research proposal is a detailed plan of action for scientific inquiry. It clearly and systematically presents the research problem, indicates the significance of the problem, and delineates the specific methods and procedures that will be used to answer the research question or test the research hypotheses. It also provides a timetable or outline for conducting the study and details the estimated cost of the investigation. It is written as a preliminary step in the research process. It synthesizes current knowledge, indicates gaps in knowledge, and specifies a plan to address the problem.
  3. To convince others that you have: A good knowledge of the existing work and existing debates and have formulated specific questions which you wish to explore. A research idea which will lead to the creation of new knowledge and understanding.
  4. There is no specific format for a research proposal. Presentation of proposals may vary according to the style and preference of each investigator.
  5. This is the first impression the reader gets. Reviewer should be able to understand from the title the intentions of the research. This is often difficult to write and will probably have to be revised throughout the research preparation phase. It must reveal the precise topic under study, without being too wordy. Often the titles are stated in terms of a functional relationship, because such titles clearly indicate the independent and dependent variables.
  6. It is important in a proposal that the problem stand out – that the reader can easily recognize it. A problem statement should be presented within a context, and the context should be provided and briefly explained, including a discussion of the conceptual or theoretical framework in which it is embedded. Clearly and succinctly identify and explain the problem within the framework of the theory or line of inquiry that undergirds the study. This is of major importance and requires careful attention.
  7. Effective problem statements answer the question “ Why does this research need to be conducted”
  8. The problem statement should make a convincing argument that there is not sufficient knowledge available to explain the problem and its determine possible solutions, or it should make a convincing argument for the need to test what is known and taken as fact if it is called into question by new findings or conditions.
  9. Demonstrate to the reader that you have a comprehensive grasp of the field and are aware of recent substantive and methodological developments.
  10. Recent or historically significant research studies Always refer to the original source Discuss how the literature applies, show the weaknesses in the design, discuss how you would avoid similar problems How is your idea different/better?
  11. In a proposal, the literature review is generally brief and to the point. The literature selected should be pertinent and relevant. Select and reference only the more appropriate citations. Make key points clearly and succinctly.
  12. Census type of research – (How many of them are there? Is there a relationship between them?). They are most often used in qualitative inquiry, although their use in quantitative inquiry is becoming more prominent. Hypothesis are relevant to theoretical research and are typically used only in quantitative inquiry. Hypothesis must be ground in theoretical framework.
  13. Declarative statement that identifies the predicted relationship between 2 or more variables Testability Based on sound scientific theory/rationale
  14. Specific objectives should systematically address the various aspects of the problem and the key factors that are assumed to influence or cause the problem. They should specify what we will do in our study, where and for what purpose .
  15. Properly formulated, specific objectives will facilitate the development of our research methodology and will help to orient the collection, analysis, interpretation and utilization of data.
  16. Indicate the methodological steps you will take to answer every question or to test every hypothesis.
  17. Contain subsections.
  18. The key word in sampling is representative. One must ask “How representative is the sample of the survey population (the group from which the sample is selected) and how representative is the survey population of the target population (the target group to which we wish to generalize?)
  19. If instruments have previously been used, identify previous studies and findings related to reliability and validity. If instruments have not previously been used, outline procedures you will follow to develop and test their reliability and validity. In a latter case, a pilot study is nearly essential.
  20. If coding procedures are to be used, describe in reasonable detail. Provide a well thought-out rationale for your decision to use the design, methodology, and analyses you have selected.
  21. They include patient study information and confidentiality, methods of monitoring and possible adverse side effects.
  22. What knowledge and information will be obtained? What is the ultimate purpose that the knowledge obtained from the study will serve? How will the results be disseminated? How will the results be used and who will be the beneficiaries?
  23. Many projects fail because they could not be carried out within the set time limit. Hence, working out a time schedule is essential.
  24. This part is usually an appendix.
  25. No private communications or forums (material cannot be accessed or verified) Do not cite support for common knowledge.