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WHY IS THIS SO HARD?
Understanding the challenges that inhibit design
Adam Connor
aconnor@madpow.com
@adamconnor
Magga Dora Ragnarsdottir
maggadora@madpow.com
@maggadora
aconnor@madpow.ne
t
@adamconnor
maggadora@madpow.
net
@maggadora
#madpow
THE CHALLENGE
Design is gaining momentum
aconnor@madpow.ne
t
@adamconnor
maggadora@madpow.
net
@maggadora
#madpow
aconnor@madpow.ne
t
@adamconnor
maggadora@madpow.
net
@maggadora
#madpow
aconnor@madpow.ne
t
@adamconnor
maggadora@madpow.
net
@maggadora
#madpow
Organizational Shifts
• Designers centralized or decentralized
• i.e. each team hires their own designers vs one central group
of designers that does work for the whole organization
• Chief Design/Experience Officers
• Innovation Centers
• Centers of excellence
THE CHALLENGE
What they’ve tried
aconnor@madpow.ne
t
@adamconnor
maggadora@madpow.
net
@maggadora
#madpow
Building volume and skills
• Lots of hiring
• Training / Bootcamps
Building shared resources
• Design Systems / Pattern libraries
Process changes
• Design thinking
• Agile / Lean /…
THE CHALLENGE
What they’ve tried
aconnor@madpow.ne
t
@adamconnor
maggadora@madpow.
net
@maggadora
#madpow
All of these efforts make sense, and they’re all
effective to some extent.
Yet we still find and hear frustrations around
getting design to "stick.”
THE CHALLENGE
What we also see with our clients
aconnor@madpow.ne
t
@adamconnor
maggadora@madpow.
net
@maggadora
#madpow
• Have not (accurately) identified the aspects of their organization
that support or contradict design
• Are trying to make changes and don’t consider the implications for
the rest of the organization
• Are trying to make changes at too large a scale
• Are trying to change people/units faster than they’re able to
THE CHALLENGE
Why doesn’t this work?
aconnor@madpow.ne
t
@adamconnor
maggadora@madpow.
net
@maggadora
#madpow
• Belief gap
• Behavior gap
• Influence gap
THE CHALLENGE
Three gaps
THE BELIEF GAP
Design is more than just roles, tools and activities.
Behind those roles, activities and tools are
beliefs about what we’re trying to do and why.
THE BELIEF GAP
Design is more than just roles, tools and activities.
Behind those roles, activities and tools are
beliefs about what we’re trying to do and why.
THE BELIEF GAP
Beliefs
THE BELIEF GAP
The Culture Model
Beliefs
Values
THE BELIEF GAP
The Culture Model
Beliefs
Values
Behaviors
THE BELIEF GAP
The Culture Model
Beliefs
Values
Behaviors
Rituals
THE BELIEF GAP
The Culture Model
Beliefs
Values
Behaviors
Rituals
Artifacts
THE BELIEF GAP
The Culture Model
Beliefs
Values
Behaviors
Rituals
Artifacts
THE BELIEF GAP
The Culture Model
• Inflexibility: People’s understanding of design lacks a
connection to the “why” behind it.
THE BELIEF GAP
How It Presents
• Inflexibility: People’s understanding of design lacks a
connection to the “why” behind it.
• Conflict: There are beliefs work counter to those
inherent in design.
THE BELIEF GAP
How It Presents
• Assess the culture, or more specifically the underlying
beliefs currently influencing your org.
• Make sure you’re clear on the beliefs that you’re trying
to infuse. Can you clearly articulate them?
THE BELIEF GAP
Addressing The Gap
If the gap lies in inflexibility and people not understanding
the beliefs behind the techniques and tools they’re using…
• As you introduce process, techniques, tools etc. include discussion about
the thinking and reasoning behind them.
• Expose people to a variety of tools. Find opportunities for them to try them
all and give them chances to think through and choose on their own.
• Provide additional support, not oversight, as teams work to use new tools
and techniques on their own.
THE BELIEF GAP
Addressing The Gap
If the gap lies in conflicting beliefs…
• Take stock of how far apart they are. Are they counter to each other? Or
are they competing?
• Work to understand the conflicting view and the value in it.
• Determine if you’re alone in recognizing and wanting to address the
conflict.
• You can rarely change beliefs directly. Beliefs are built over time based on
experiences.
THE BELIEF GAP
Addressing The Gap
THE BEHAVIOR GAP
aconnor@madpow.ne
t
@adamconnor
maggadora@madpow.
net
@maggadora
#madpow
We’re trying to establish new patterns of behaviors
– new ways that teams will explore opportunities
and make decisions.
The same over-focus on process, activities, tools,
etc. that can lead to gaps in the beliefs behind
these behaviors can lead to a gap in the behaviors
themselves.
THE BEHAVIOR GAP
aconnor@madpow.ne
t
@adamconnor
maggadora@madpow.
net
@maggadora
#madpow
People understand the process (the activities, techniques,
tools, etc.) they could/should use – but revert to how
they’ve always done things.
THE BEHAVIOR GAP
How It Presents
aconnor@madpow.ne
t
@adamconnor
maggadora@madpow.
net
@maggadora
#madpow
THE BEHAVIOR GAP
Key Behaviors
Design (Thinking)
How does the company leverage design and design
techniques?
aconnor@madpow.ne
t
@adamconnor
maggadora@madpow.
net
@maggadora
#madpow
THE BEHAVIOR GAP
Key Behaviors
Collaboration
How well do teams collaborate on efforts (across
departments, products, etc.)?
aconnor@madpow.ne
t
@adamconnor
maggadora@madpow.
net
@maggadora
#madpow
THE BEHAVIOR GAP
Key Behaviors
Leadership & Vision
Has a shared, clear vision for the product, service, or
organization been established and communicated?
aconnor@madpow.ne
t
@adamconnor
maggadora@madpow.
net
@maggadora
#madpow
THE BEHAVIOR GAP
Key Behaviors
Product* Management
How well do teams/managers make decisions in alignment
with the vision/strategy?
aconnor@madpow.ne
t
@adamconnor
maggadora@madpow.
net
@maggadora
#madpow
THE BEHAVIOR GAP
Key Behaviors
Production
How capable is the organization of creating the
products/services that they’ve envisioned?
aconnor@madpow.ne
t
@adamconnor
maggadora@madpow.
net
@maggadora
#madpow
THE BEHAVIOR GAP
Key Behaviors
Learning
How able is the organization to continuously learn more
about their users and use new insights to make decisions?
aconnor@madpow.ne
t
@adamconnor
maggadora@madpow.
net
@maggadora
#madpow
THE BEHAVIOR GAP
Key Behaviors
Experience
How is the team managing and coordinating experiences
for their products and services?
aconnor@madpow.ne
t
@adamconnor
maggadora@madpow.
net
@maggadora
#madpow
Just as before we need to take stock of the behaviors we’re
trying to establish and those that our teams are exhibiting
and determine:
• Have you provided the right support needed for the
behaviors we’re after?
• Are there additional behaviors we haven’t accounted
for?
• Are their behaviors that conflict those we’re after?
How do we change behavior?
THE BEHAVIOR GAP
Addressing The Gap
aconnor@madpow.ne
t
@adamconnor
maggadora@madpow.
net
@maggadora
#madpow
THE BEHAVIOR GAP
Capability
Motivation
Opportunity
Behavior
COM-B Model For Understanding Behavior – Michie et al
Addressing The Gap
aconnor@madpow.ne
t
@adamconnor
maggadora@madpow.
net
@maggadora
#madpow
Just like when we design for experiences, we can’t force a
behavior to happen. So what can we change?
THE BEHAVIOR GAP
Addressing The Gap
Beliefs
Values
Behaviors
Rituals
Artifacts
aconnor@madpow.ne
t
@adamconnor
maggadora@madpow.
net
@maggadora
#madpow
Just like when we design for experiences, we can’t force a
behavior to happen. So what can we change?
THE BEHAVIOR GAP
Addressing The Gap
Beliefs
Values
Behaviors
Rituals
Artifacts
Skills & Knowledge
Tools & Materials
Structure & Roles
Communication & Language
Environment
Policies & Processes
Incentives & Metrics
These are our levers. We can “pull” on these things in combinations to drive the
behaviors we seek and – over time – grow and reinforce the beliefs behind
them.
aconnor@madpow.ne
t
@adamconnor
maggadora@madpow.
net
@maggadora
#madpow
THE BEHAVIOR GAP
Addressing The Gap
Capability
Motivation
Opportunity
Behavior
COM-B Model For Understanding Behavior – Michie et al
aconnor@madpow.ne
t
@adamconnor
maggadora@madpow.
net
@maggadora
#madpow
THE BEHAVIOR GAP
Addressing The Gap
Capability
Motivation
Opportunity
Behavior
COM-B Model For Understanding Behavior – Michie et al
Skills & Knowledge
Tools & Materials
Communication & Language
Structure & Roles
Policies & Processes
Environment
Incentives & Metrics
Structure & Roles
THE INFLUENCE GAP
aconnor@madpow.ne
t
@adamconnor
maggadora@madpow.
net
@maggadora
#madpow
Identify the people you can get on board
Understand your ability to influence these people
Communicate based on what they are ready to hear
INFLUENCE GAP
Influence
aconnor@madpow.ne
t
@adamconnor
maggadora@madpow.
net
@maggadora
#madpow
Not aligning change efforts and information with a level
that others can understand and act on.
Not identifying partners and audiences for our change
efforts in ways that build momentum.
INFLUENCE GAP
How it presents
aconnor@madpow.ne
t
@adamconnor
maggadora@madpow.
net
@maggadora
#madpow
Con-
templation
Preparation
Action
Maintenance
Relapse
Pre-
contemplatio
n
INFLUENCE GAP
Model of change
aconnor@madpow.ne
t
@adamconnor
maggadora@madpow.
net
@maggadora
#madpow
Con-
templation
Preparation
Action
Maintenance
Relapse
Pre-
contemplatio
n
INFLUENCE GAP
Model of change
aconnor@madpow.ne
t
@adamconnor
maggadora@madpow.
net
@maggadora
#madpow
Con-
templation
Preparation
Action
Maintenance
Relapse
Pre-
contemplatio
n
INFLUENCE GAP
Model of change
aconnor@madpow.ne
t
@adamconnor
maggadora@madpow.
net
@maggadora
#madpow
Con-
templation
Preparation
Action
Maintenance
Relapse
Pre-
contemplatio
n
INFLUENCE GAP
Model of change
aconnor@madpow.ne
t
@adamconnor
maggadora@madpow.
net
@maggadora
#madpow
Con-
templation
Preparation
Action
Maintenance
Relapse
Pre-
contemplatio
n
INFLUENCE GAP
Model of change
aconnor@madpow.ne
t
@adamconnor
maggadora@madpow.
net
@maggadora
#madpow
Con-
templation
Preparation
Action
Maintenance
Relapse
Pre-
contemplatio
n
INFLUENCE GAP
Model of change
aconnor@madpow.ne
t
@adamconnor
maggadora@madpow.
net
@maggadora
#madpow
Con-
templation
Preparation
Action
Maintenance
Relapse
Pre-
contemplatio
n
INFLUENCE GAP
Model of change
aconnor@madpow.ne
t
@adamconnor
maggadora@madpow.
net
@maggadora
#madpow
Con-
templation
Preparation
Action
Maintenance
Relapse
Pre-
contemplatio
n
INFLUENCE GAP
Model of change
Create awareness
and change in
values and beliefs
Persuade and
motivate
Educate
Facilitate
Reinforce change,
reminder
communications
Identify
what causes old
behavior to remerge
• Everybody can influence culture
DIRECT INFLUENCE
PARTIAL INFLUENCE
VIRAL INFLUENCE
aconnor@madpow.ne
t
@adamconnor
maggadora@madpow.
net
@maggadora
#madpow
By building this map and listening for where people are
in the change model, we can understand
• Who we can influence
• How we formalize the message to them
• When to include them
Armed with that information you can have a strategy
forward.
INFLUENCE GAP
Addressing the gap
aconnor@madpow.ne
t
@adamconnor
maggadora@madpow.
net
@maggadora
#madpow
No matter what your position is, you have the ability
to influence the behaviors (and by extension, beliefs)
of those around you.
The simplest way to begin is to look for opportunities to
build trust and ask questions.
INFLUENCE GAP
Everybody can influence culture
aconnor@madpow.ne
t
@adamconnor
maggadora@madpow.
net
@maggadora
#madpow
• Design DOES have more attention on it than ever before.
• We have a wide variety of tactics for strengthening design
capacity within our organizations.
• By understanding culture and how change is adopted we can
better understand:
• How to to combine tactics
• When to use them
• And who to use them with
• We can approach our efforts as we would a design challenge.
CLOSING
In Summary
ANY QUESTIONS?
Adam Connor
aconnor@madpow.com
@aconnor
Magga Dora Ragnarsdottir
maggadora@madpow.com
@maggadora

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Why is this so hard? Understanding Design Challenges - Adam Connor & Magga Dora Ragnarsdottir, 2017

Editor's Notes

  1. Adam Lots of hiring and organizational efforts to try to capitalize. §  Why? (Do we need to answer this? §  “Each of you probably has been through this for very different reasons but between being a hype, design thinking has shown itself to be instrumental in creating products and services that people gravitate towards (slide: DMI graph of index of design cos vs other companies) Lots of talk about “Experience/design lead” organizations Some reasons we could cite: Multiple channel offerings – need for consistency in appearance and experience Larger organizations, multiple teams – need for consistency to reduce rework/increase reuse Competition – making their offerings more competitive Digitization – transforming their organization to be more digital in nature, revisiting their offering and production approach with the eye of modernizing them Innovation – Design “thinking” is now a part of the curriculum in many MBA programs
  2. Adam
  3. Adam
  4. Magga Dora What have they been trying? We often see companies that start bottom up. Teams start allocating budget to design and hire to fit their needs. Designers spring up all over the organization and there is little coordination Other companies try the top down approach. Make a big splash about hiring a C-level person to promptly start building out innovation centers to disrupt the business or centers of excellence where all the design lives. Often what we see in this case is that the design resources become a bottle neck for the whole production.
  5. Adam
  6. Adam Whether it be groups that feel like they’ve hit a wall. Attempts that seem to be going well for a little while before people go back to their previous ways Or attempts that really never seem to gain traction at all. So if these tactics make sense in one way or another, what is it that’s holding them back?
  7. Magga Dora There are many reasons for why this doesn’t work. A few we would like to mention here – and you could potentially measure up to your own experiences and give us a shout out if you recognize are The organization…. Aspects of the organization that support/contradict design: Processes/structures Mindset/culture Incentives What it means to integrate design Who is involved What skills are needed What effect it will have on how work is done (process / structure / responsibilities / roles) What effect it will have on the product / service that will be “designed” (changing features, changing scope, changing audience, changing needs that are addressed…..) Being “ready” Not understanding/knowing what design is Not understanding that there are issues design can help with Not ready to change how they work Don’t see value in design (for them / for the organization / for the product/service / for the customers) Level of comfort with with open communication Level of comfort with with ambiguity Behavior Ignoring beliefs and trying to implement design as a skillset
  8. Adam
  9. Magga Dora
  10. Magga Dora Design is not just about sprinkling the word ‘experience’ into people’s titles, buying truckloads of post-its and telling everybody to workshop.
  11. Magga Dora These are just ways to get at what we need. We need to get useful information out of our audience, we need to be able to collaborate effectively cross functionally, we need to sketch, iterate, learn When all the focus is on the color of the post-its then we have stumbled upon the belief gap.
  12. Adam
  13. Adam
  14. Adam
  15. Adam
  16. Adam
  17. Adam
  18. Magga Dora People’s understanding of design (or even just a part of the design process) lacks a connection to the “why” behind it, leaving them inflexible to use a tool other than the one they’ve learned. (Contextual Awareness) Adam Provide Example. User wants are not the same as user needs - find the actual problem
  19. Adam There are beliefs (conscious or otherwise) that conflict to some degree with the beliefs/values inherent in design causing teams to struggle to connect activities or even be willing to accept them Magga Dora Provide Example ·         Great design is iterative. It leverages continuous learning and never truly ends.
  20. Adam
  21. Magga Dora The trick here is not to just give the team a hammer. As we know, if all you have is a hammer, then everything starts looking like a nail… If you demonstrate the variety of tools, and you talk about what goal each tool is useful to to reach, then people will not get hung up on the tool themselves, but start to internalize the goals they want to reach and the ways that you can get at them.
  22. Adam
  23. Magga Dora
  24. Magga Dora As we have touched upon before, the way to get at nudging / changing beliefs is through behavior. We change the way people behave, give them the right context and that will lead to a shift in belief. Because if we overfocus on the behavior then it is just too easy to fall back on the old, familiar, style of doing things. Especially if the new behaviors are not in synch with the current belief system.
  25. Adam Efforts focus so much on the design process that the many related (supported?) behaviors that are needed for an organization to succeed with it are overlooked.
  26. Magga Dora When people want to integrate design into their organization this is inevitably where they start. They focus how the company today leverages design and design techniques and where they want to be and then they start working towards that goal by training and hiring. That’s always the first conversation. However, this is just a little part of the behaviors that need to be assessed and potentially changed in order to support design and make use of design techniques.
  27. Magga Dora When we work with companies we need to understand their capability for collaboration, their history with collaboration. This is important because we cannot overemphasize the cross-functional nature of design and design techniques. Are people open to collaborating between departments, units, silos even? Are they encouraged to do that or is that something that the company discourages by a complex hierarchical or incentive structure? Also leadership within the teams, design or otherwise If that basic behavior cannot be changed then we cannot integrate design to its full capacity.
  28. Adam
  29. Adam
  30. Adam
  31. Magga Dora On a related note – design is all about how we learn incrementally, listen to our audience, learn from previous attempts. How open is the company to do that? Do we see people declaring that since they’ve been a product manager for 25 years they don’t need to talk to the end-user? How does the company deal with failure? If there is a penalty for failure, then immediately people are not willing to learn incrementally. They are forced to hedge their bets and effectively take higher risks. If that is the belief that is expressed in their behavior, an organization is not ready for integrating design on an organization level.
  32. Magga Dora On a related note – design is all about how we learn incrementally, listen to our audience, learn from previous attempts. How open is the company to do that? Do we see people declaring that since they’ve been a product manager for 25 years they don’t need to talk to the end-user? How does the company deal with failure? If there is a penalty for failure, then immediately people are not willing to learn incrementally. They are forced to hedge their bets and effectively take higher risks. If that is the belief that is expressed in their behavior, an organization is not ready for integrating design on an organization level.
  33. Magga Dora So once we have understood these different factors about the organization, we understand the work that is ahead of us. We have taken stock on the behaviors and beliefs we want to change. But how do we change behavior
  34. Adam
  35. Magga Dora As we know full well as designers we can’t make our users do anything, but we can facilitate the process so that they are likely to do something. Same applies here – we want people to internalize the reasons for why we do design and how it works, and we lead that horse to water, but how to make it drink. The key is in the belief model. As you can see there are things we can directly change and given the right context we can shift those beliefs.
  36. Magga Dora To do that we have multiple levers that we can pull. In an organizational setting we can build skills and knowledge, we can give tools and materials – this is what everybody reaches for. Often these come with organizational shifts, like we have talked about earlier with new roles and new structures that should facilitate the designer’s access to the table. But less frequently people reach for the other levers. There is much to be said about how we communicate this and talk to each other. There is also a real potential to affect behavior by just changing the environment to facilitate collaboration and communication within the teams. Open spaces, war rooms, white boards to name a few. Policies and processes are of course important for any behavior change – especially when we find that they clash. If a design process in one part of the organization is supposed to interact with a totally different kind of process somewhere else (say a waterfall project management process) sparks will fly. Lastly, we look at incentives and their twin brother metrics (cause you can’t incentivize what you can’t measure). Often we see business units incentivized for customer contact (number of new sign-ups, increase in sales…) but the development unit is incentivized by sticking to budget and delivering on time. If the incentives are encouraging behavior that runs counter to the behavior expected by design, incentives win.
  37. Adam
  38. Adam
  39. Magga Dora
  40. Magga Dora You can’t work it alone, design isn’t a solo, it’s an orchestra piece – so to speak. You need to get them to march in rhythm to the same beat. So the influence gap describes three important questions the people get wrong. Influence gap: Trying to push to far to fast, either by trying to get your organization to jump too many levels too fast or by not recognizing the types of influence you have on people.
  41. Adam Influence gap: Trying to push to far to fast, either by trying to get your organization to jump too many levels too fast or by not recognizing the types of influence you have on people.
  42. Magga Dora A way to understand how you communicate the proposed change you want to make you need to understand the relationship of the people you are talking to with regards to the problems you want to solve and the solution you are proposing. A fantastic way of describing how people respond to change is the trans-theoretical model of change that puts people in different stages. The first one is being totally unaware of a problem and the need to change. People that are in this stage won’t benefit from learning new skills – they don’t know why they would ever use them.
  43. Adam
  44. Magga Dora Once people are aware of the problem and they are ready to be introduced to the notion that they could do something about it. Here is where you would start introducing new skills and behaviors to facilitate that.
  45. Adam
  46. Magga Dora Addressing the problem feels like victory but we all know that every time a smoker puts out a cigarette he’s quitting. It’s not pulling up the next one that’s the trick. So you need to be on your toes and help people maintain the behavior. Don’t just do one project with the new approach, follow through with more. Revisit and update and adjust and keep them at it.
  47. Adam
  48. Magga Dora And as you probably realized by now, this is not a one-and-done. People will fall back on their old ways, remember, people are like water – they will always flow the easy path. And then you have to explain why that is a problem (pre-contemplation) and get them in to the cycle again. But each time they go through the cycle again they will become smoother, more internalized and each cycle will take less time.
  49. Magga Dora This slide is out of order… belongs with the address the gap? Or skip? Or include it in the buildout?
  50. Adam
  51. Adam
  52. Adam
  53. Adam
  54. Adam
  55. Magga Dora This mapping is the basis for all your planning.
  56. Magga Dora Just to pre-empt something that has crossed the mind of some of our listeners it is our strong belief that you can affect change no matter what your position is. Sure, if you’re C-level you can immediately have a huge impact. But even if you are the only UX in the village, or if you are a middle manager in a multi-silo-ed organization you can affect change. There are opportunities all around you to build trust, ask questions, introduce new approaches, point to issues that need to be fixed.
  57. Adam
  58. Pictures What process would you recommend …. Top down/bottom up/middle out