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WASTE MINIMIZATION
Waste minimization is an important element of sustainable development, on environmental
protection and the reduction of production costs of waste through source reduction and recycling.
Accept full disposal of waste is an impractical goal, the practical approach is their minimization with
a reduction at source, including a good housekeeping, change of technology, use of different raw
materials and products, recycling both inside and outside the company.
Liquid, solid and gaseous fuels can be generated during production. Besides the environmental
impact, the production of waste represents a loss from the point of view of the process of raw
materials or products with related costs including those necessary to the processing of waste
generated. So the practice of waste minimization is seen not only as a means to fulfill specific
environmental obligations, but is also a major source of reduction of business costs.
The waste in a company may include:
• Liquid or solid waste from processes
• contaminated materials
• Off-specification products
• Accidental spillage
• Residue of processing machines
• Fugitive emissions
• Exhaust gas, waste water.
HIERARCHY OF MANAGEMENT PRACTICES
The hierarchy for the minimization is the following:
1. Elimination: complete elimination of waste
2. Source Reduction: The reduction or elimination of waste, usually in the company boundaries
through changes in industrial processes, procedures
3. Recycling: the use and re-use and recycling of waste
4. Treatment: the destruction, detoxification, neutralization of waste into less hazardous
substances
5. Contribution: the release of waste into the air,or in water in a controlled manner .
The practice of minimization does not include:
• The incineration, detoxification, heat treatment and chemical, biological decomposition,
stabilization, encapsulation
• Measures to dilute the waste
• Measures to transfer the pollution from one environment to another: for example scrubbing
transfers the pollution from air to water.
It 'clear that all emissions in air, in water, soil, as well as energy savings and that of raw materials
should be included in the waste minimization program.
BENEFITS
The minimization can be beneficial in two ways:
1. compliance with environmental regulations
2. revenue opportunities with:
• realization of economic benefits
• reduction of infringement proceedings
• promoting good public image
• improve employee health
• improved operational efficiency and therefore lower costs
Therefore, waste minimization should be assessed in the same way as business opportunities
It is clear that may be needed investment but this can be rewarded with:
• Reduced costs of monitoring and treatment of waste
• reduced transportation costs and reduced disposal costs
• Reduced space dedicated to waste and therefore more productive space
• reduced administrative costs of waste
• reduced costs for the identification and characterization of waste
• Reduced costs for more efficient use of raw materials and products
• Reduced costs for reduced risks of manipulating hazardous waste and therefore better health for
employees
• Reduced costs for legal procedures
• improving the efficiency and reliability of processes.
• Enhancement to stakeholders.
In a minimization program it is important that all potential benefits are taken into account.
Commitment of MANAGEMENT
It is essential to the success of minimization practice that management takes a leading role, this to
ensure that there are:
• A stated policy and an implementation strategy
• A commitment of management
• An appropriate allocation of economic resources
• An adequate allocation mechanism of the true cost of disposal
• A staff training program
• Strong encouragement for the implementation of the program mythologizing
It 'important that the processes of engineers are involved in first person in the activity of the
program.
BARRIERS TO BE OVERCOME
It must be said that there may be barriers to overcome in the program as economic barriers,
technical, regulatory, cultural.
SPECIFIC BARRIER MEASURES TO PREVENT THE BARRIER
The production costs increase:
• The costs of raw materials increased
• The production decreases
• New equipment is required
The economic evaluation should include:
• the pollution control costs
• waste management costs
• Potential lawsuits if there is no change
Higher investment costs compared to the waste
management costs
All the benefits even those less tangible to be
evaluated in the analysis of investment
profitability
Increased costs or the project is not profitable
even when you take into account intangible
benefits
Considerations must be taken if:
• The waste is particularly dangerous
• Particularly toxic
The minimization project looks favorable, but
the capital required are not available
It should be sought a financial assistance
Lack of adequate information engineering The company can refer to:
• Government agencies
• employers' associations
• Professional Institutions
• Consultants
• literature
Uncertainty regarding customer acceptance of
product quality
The company may review the needs and
requirements of customers.
Experimenting and testing new processes and
products
Improve quality control in production
• Modifications to cause the stop of the
processes
• New jobs do not work or can lead to the
production bottleneck
• The production does not have enough space
for the new equipment
• • Reduce the impact of staff involvement
design and production staff
• Use proven technologies well
• Conduct pilot tests to reduce the impact of
new processes
• Employee Reaction:
It has already been done and can not be done
• Ask for feedback to employees, training
• CULTURAL BARRIER
Problems may be caused by:
• Lack of responsibility and commitment of management
• Lack of awareness of the objectives of the company
• Individual and group resistance to change
• ineffective internal communication
• inflexible organizational structure
• Bureaucracy
These cultural barriers can be overcome through education and training of personnel at all levels
should be encouraged to participate in the minimization program.
An example of the training topics list can be:
• Company Policy
• Revision of laws and regulations
• Definition of waste
• description of the risks to the environment and health / safety
• Potential of generation of waste in the company
• Benefits of the minimization program
• Barriers to overcome and preventive measures
• Description of techniques for the minimization
• Methodology included: preparation, assessment, evaluation, reporting, implementation, review
and feedback
• Case studies of success
METHODOLOGY MINIMISATION
The methodology is based on:
1. set achievable goals
2. assessment phase
3. Data collection
4. organization of data
5. identification and ranking of waste
6. Site Inspection
7. identification of technical solutions to the minimization
8. technical evaluation of the solutions
9. Economic Assessment
10. change in operating costs
11. determination of the costs to be in accordance with the law
12. On the assessment report and on the evaluations
13. Implementation project
14. Audit results
15. feedback
16. re-evaluation of objectives (continuous improvement)
SETTING THE OBJECTIVES
The first step is to set realistic goals and a time schedule for implementation consisting with
company policy.
The objectives should be:
• flexible enough to adapt to practical situations
• periodically reviewed, building on the results achieved
• useful to the plant personnel
• clearly defined to plant personnel
• challenging to motivate people
ASSESSMENT PHASE
During the assessment phase the team should assess:
• the source, quantity, composition, risk, classification, properties of waste generated
• how the characteristics vary over time
• identify waste as: air emissions, liquid discharges into the sewer, discharged on the soil, solid
waste and liquid waste in drums
• handling costs, storage, treatment, transportation, disposal
• situations where some products can be recycled into the process
• opportunities for reuse, recycling of waste generated
• a list of options for the minimization
DATA COLLECTION:
It shows in the table list data to be collected
INFORMATION TOCOLLECT ASSESSMENT
Environmental information 1. analysis and characterization of waste
2. Analysis of water discharges
3. analysis of atmospheric emissions
4. requests for legislative compliance
5. emission limits
6. operating licenses
7. environmental audits
Projectdata 1. description of the processes
2. Flowchart
3. material and energy balances
4. Operation Manuals
5. specifications of equipment
6. P & I
7. lay out
8. isometric drawings
Informationonrawmaterial 1. Quality specifications of raw materials and
products
2. msds
3. inventory records
4. operarting sheets
5. Operating Procedures
6. scheduling production
Economicinformation 1. Handling and disposal costs
2. Treatment of wastewater Speeds
3. Utility costs
4. maintenance costs
5. Transportation and storage costs
Otherinformation 1. procedures
2. Employee
3. planning documents
4. personnel policy
ORGANIZATION OF DATA
The Process flow diagram is critical to the balance of matter and energy, this diagram should also
be used to specify the stream of waste. In any system or process you need to take track of how
raw materials are transformed into products, by-products and waste, effluents and emissions.
IDENTIFICATION AND RANKING OF WASTE
For a better classification of waste and their risks need to be considered:
• regulations and environmental laws
• treatment and disposal costs
• potential effects on safety (Hazop Studies)
• the hazardous properties of waste
• health hazards
• potential for waste reduction
• potential actions to reduce the consumption of raw materials
• potential reduction in utilities consumption
• potential reductions of bottleneck effect on production
• potential for economic rehabilitation of by-products
• match funding for waste minimization
INSPECTION OF SITE
Some suggestions can be given:
• prepare an agenda of things to be inspected
• scheduling the inspection in particular moments as the system stops, the start of system, the
changes of production
• monitor production during different rounds
• check modes of operation maintenance
• interviewing operators and shift managers
• observe the housekeeping
• verify the level of cooperation between different departments
• check for customers to buy, storage, disposal
• check the status of the tank farm maintenance status
IDENTIFICATION OF TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS
Good practice:
• attention to housekeeping
• implementation of quality systems
• regular audits of the materials purchased and used
• avoidance of over-ordering of materials
• Regular preventive maintenance
• waste segregation to avoid contamination
• Reduction in volume by filtration, membrane processes, vaporization, distillation, compacting
• elimination of precarious conditions at the tank farm
• improved procedures
• revaluation of the material shelf life
• introduction of training programs
• Production rescheduling to reduce plant cleaning phase
• attention to leaks from valves, seals
• attention from tanks loss
• attention to the losses during the transfer of intangibles
• careful not to over fill the tanks (presence of interlocks)
• reduction of contamination and the production of by-products
• the correct sequence of opening valves
technological changes
• introduction of new processes and equipment
• Improved automatic process control
• re piping design to reduce the amount of material downloaded during the starts and the stops
• installation of vapor recovery
• use of more efficient motors and inverters for energy saving
Changes in raw materials
• use of raw materials less hazardous
• increase in the purity of raw materials to remove traces of impurities and production of by-
products
EVALUATION OF TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS
The goal is to assess whether the technical solution is suitable for a company that adopts them.
You can ask a few questions:
• The solution is secure?
• improves the quality of the product?
• There 's space for the new equipment?
• new materials, equipment, procedures compatible with the company are compatible?
• Is It required additional work?
• are required major utilities consumption?
• How long does the system stop for the implementation of the changes?
• Are special skills required to staff?
• The seller provides sufficient after-sales service?
• The solution creates new environmental problems?
• What are the effects on operating procedures?
• What are the effects on others and on the outside?
ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT
The Technical/economical verification that can be considered:
• Payback Time
• Internal rate of return (IRR)
• net present value of the investment
CHANGE IN OPERATING COSTS
All cost reduction opportunities to be assessed as:
• Reduced treatment and disposal costs
• Less space needed for waste
• Minor quantities to be disposed of
• Lower transport costs
• Lower administrative costs
• Savings in the use of raw materials
• Savings in insurance costs
• Improvement of costs associated with product quality
• change of utilities costs
• change in production costs
• Reduction of maintenance costs
• increase in revenue in the sale of by-products
• consultancy costs
• change of the operating costs of the inventories of raw materials and finished products
DETERMINATION OF COST TO BE IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE LAW
Waste reduction should be made to be in compliance with environmental requirements, but it must
be said that even an advantage on the company's profitability.
ON THE ASSESSMENT REPORT
The report predicts:
• objectives and targets
• Environmental requirements
• Main results of the assessment
• Technical and economic feasibility
• priorities and recommendations
• review of the main assumptions made to arrive at the conclusion
IMPEMENTATION PROJECT
Projects that only require changes in procedures and changes in the use of raw materials ranging
should be done soon ,Those involving investment can be regarded as all investments in the
company.
AUDIT OF RESULTS
The company must make audit periods to verify the implementation of the minimization program
and its effectiveness.
FEEDBACK
The feedback consists of the collection of data to verify that the project goes well according to the
stated objectives.
RE-EVALUATION OF GOALS
Periodically the program should be reviewed to include:
• changes in the use of raw materials and finished products
• increase in the cost of waste management
• new laws
• new technologies
• incidents / accidents / spills / emergencies
These elements shall be revised periodically to re-evaluate the objectives and policy of the
company
Another way to reduce waste production is to follow the principles of green chemistry that are
shown below:
of
When developing a new process the following actions can be taken :
A.Alternative feedstocks that are both renewable and less toxic to human health and
to the environment.
B. Use of innocuous reagents that are inherently less hazardous and are catalytic.
C. Employment of natural processes—biosynthesis, biocatalysis, and biotech-based chemical
transformations for both efficiency and selectivity.
D. Use of alternative solvents that reduce potential harm to the environment and serve as
alternatives to currently used volatile organic solvents, chlorinated solvents, and other
hazardous chemicals.
E. Safer chemical design—with principles of toxicology to minimize intrinsic hazards while
maintaining needed functionality.
F. Development of alternative reaction conditions that increase selectivity and enable easier
separations.
G. Minimization of energy consumption.
ALFREDO RUGGIERO
Reference :waste minimization a practical guide-Barry Crittenden-Icheme

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WASTE MINIMIZATION

  • 1. WASTE MINIMIZATION Waste minimization is an important element of sustainable development, on environmental protection and the reduction of production costs of waste through source reduction and recycling. Accept full disposal of waste is an impractical goal, the practical approach is their minimization with a reduction at source, including a good housekeeping, change of technology, use of different raw materials and products, recycling both inside and outside the company. Liquid, solid and gaseous fuels can be generated during production. Besides the environmental impact, the production of waste represents a loss from the point of view of the process of raw materials or products with related costs including those necessary to the processing of waste generated. So the practice of waste minimization is seen not only as a means to fulfill specific environmental obligations, but is also a major source of reduction of business costs. The waste in a company may include: • Liquid or solid waste from processes • contaminated materials • Off-specification products • Accidental spillage • Residue of processing machines • Fugitive emissions • Exhaust gas, waste water. HIERARCHY OF MANAGEMENT PRACTICES The hierarchy for the minimization is the following: 1. Elimination: complete elimination of waste 2. Source Reduction: The reduction or elimination of waste, usually in the company boundaries through changes in industrial processes, procedures 3. Recycling: the use and re-use and recycling of waste 4. Treatment: the destruction, detoxification, neutralization of waste into less hazardous substances 5. Contribution: the release of waste into the air,or in water in a controlled manner . The practice of minimization does not include: • The incineration, detoxification, heat treatment and chemical, biological decomposition, stabilization, encapsulation • Measures to dilute the waste • Measures to transfer the pollution from one environment to another: for example scrubbing transfers the pollution from air to water. It 'clear that all emissions in air, in water, soil, as well as energy savings and that of raw materials should be included in the waste minimization program. BENEFITS The minimization can be beneficial in two ways: 1. compliance with environmental regulations
  • 2. 2. revenue opportunities with: • realization of economic benefits • reduction of infringement proceedings • promoting good public image • improve employee health • improved operational efficiency and therefore lower costs Therefore, waste minimization should be assessed in the same way as business opportunities It is clear that may be needed investment but this can be rewarded with: • Reduced costs of monitoring and treatment of waste • reduced transportation costs and reduced disposal costs • Reduced space dedicated to waste and therefore more productive space • reduced administrative costs of waste • reduced costs for the identification and characterization of waste • Reduced costs for more efficient use of raw materials and products • Reduced costs for reduced risks of manipulating hazardous waste and therefore better health for employees • Reduced costs for legal procedures • improving the efficiency and reliability of processes. • Enhancement to stakeholders. In a minimization program it is important that all potential benefits are taken into account. Commitment of MANAGEMENT It is essential to the success of minimization practice that management takes a leading role, this to ensure that there are: • A stated policy and an implementation strategy • A commitment of management • An appropriate allocation of economic resources • An adequate allocation mechanism of the true cost of disposal • A staff training program • Strong encouragement for the implementation of the program mythologizing It 'important that the processes of engineers are involved in first person in the activity of the program. BARRIERS TO BE OVERCOME It must be said that there may be barriers to overcome in the program as economic barriers, technical, regulatory, cultural.
  • 3. SPECIFIC BARRIER MEASURES TO PREVENT THE BARRIER The production costs increase: • The costs of raw materials increased • The production decreases • New equipment is required The economic evaluation should include: • the pollution control costs • waste management costs • Potential lawsuits if there is no change Higher investment costs compared to the waste management costs All the benefits even those less tangible to be evaluated in the analysis of investment profitability Increased costs or the project is not profitable even when you take into account intangible benefits Considerations must be taken if: • The waste is particularly dangerous • Particularly toxic The minimization project looks favorable, but the capital required are not available It should be sought a financial assistance Lack of adequate information engineering The company can refer to: • Government agencies • employers' associations • Professional Institutions • Consultants • literature Uncertainty regarding customer acceptance of product quality The company may review the needs and requirements of customers. Experimenting and testing new processes and products Improve quality control in production • Modifications to cause the stop of the processes • New jobs do not work or can lead to the production bottleneck • The production does not have enough space for the new equipment • • Reduce the impact of staff involvement design and production staff • Use proven technologies well • Conduct pilot tests to reduce the impact of new processes • Employee Reaction: It has already been done and can not be done • Ask for feedback to employees, training • CULTURAL BARRIER Problems may be caused by: • Lack of responsibility and commitment of management • Lack of awareness of the objectives of the company • Individual and group resistance to change • ineffective internal communication • inflexible organizational structure • Bureaucracy These cultural barriers can be overcome through education and training of personnel at all levels should be encouraged to participate in the minimization program. An example of the training topics list can be: • Company Policy • Revision of laws and regulations • Definition of waste • description of the risks to the environment and health / safety • Potential of generation of waste in the company
  • 4. • Benefits of the minimization program • Barriers to overcome and preventive measures • Description of techniques for the minimization • Methodology included: preparation, assessment, evaluation, reporting, implementation, review and feedback • Case studies of success METHODOLOGY MINIMISATION The methodology is based on: 1. set achievable goals 2. assessment phase 3. Data collection 4. organization of data 5. identification and ranking of waste 6. Site Inspection 7. identification of technical solutions to the minimization 8. technical evaluation of the solutions 9. Economic Assessment 10. change in operating costs 11. determination of the costs to be in accordance with the law 12. On the assessment report and on the evaluations 13. Implementation project 14. Audit results 15. feedback 16. re-evaluation of objectives (continuous improvement) SETTING THE OBJECTIVES The first step is to set realistic goals and a time schedule for implementation consisting with company policy. The objectives should be: • flexible enough to adapt to practical situations • periodically reviewed, building on the results achieved • useful to the plant personnel • clearly defined to plant personnel • challenging to motivate people ASSESSMENT PHASE During the assessment phase the team should assess: • the source, quantity, composition, risk, classification, properties of waste generated • how the characteristics vary over time • identify waste as: air emissions, liquid discharges into the sewer, discharged on the soil, solid waste and liquid waste in drums • handling costs, storage, treatment, transportation, disposal • situations where some products can be recycled into the process • opportunities for reuse, recycling of waste generated • a list of options for the minimization
  • 5. DATA COLLECTION: It shows in the table list data to be collected INFORMATION TOCOLLECT ASSESSMENT Environmental information 1. analysis and characterization of waste 2. Analysis of water discharges 3. analysis of atmospheric emissions 4. requests for legislative compliance 5. emission limits 6. operating licenses 7. environmental audits Projectdata 1. description of the processes 2. Flowchart 3. material and energy balances 4. Operation Manuals 5. specifications of equipment 6. P & I 7. lay out 8. isometric drawings Informationonrawmaterial 1. Quality specifications of raw materials and products 2. msds 3. inventory records 4. operarting sheets 5. Operating Procedures 6. scheduling production Economicinformation 1. Handling and disposal costs 2. Treatment of wastewater Speeds 3. Utility costs 4. maintenance costs 5. Transportation and storage costs Otherinformation 1. procedures 2. Employee 3. planning documents 4. personnel policy ORGANIZATION OF DATA The Process flow diagram is critical to the balance of matter and energy, this diagram should also be used to specify the stream of waste. In any system or process you need to take track of how raw materials are transformed into products, by-products and waste, effluents and emissions. IDENTIFICATION AND RANKING OF WASTE For a better classification of waste and their risks need to be considered: • regulations and environmental laws
  • 6. • treatment and disposal costs • potential effects on safety (Hazop Studies) • the hazardous properties of waste • health hazards • potential for waste reduction • potential actions to reduce the consumption of raw materials • potential reduction in utilities consumption • potential reductions of bottleneck effect on production • potential for economic rehabilitation of by-products • match funding for waste minimization INSPECTION OF SITE Some suggestions can be given: • prepare an agenda of things to be inspected • scheduling the inspection in particular moments as the system stops, the start of system, the changes of production • monitor production during different rounds • check modes of operation maintenance • interviewing operators and shift managers • observe the housekeeping • verify the level of cooperation between different departments • check for customers to buy, storage, disposal • check the status of the tank farm maintenance status IDENTIFICATION OF TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS Good practice: • attention to housekeeping • implementation of quality systems • regular audits of the materials purchased and used • avoidance of over-ordering of materials • Regular preventive maintenance • waste segregation to avoid contamination • Reduction in volume by filtration, membrane processes, vaporization, distillation, compacting • elimination of precarious conditions at the tank farm • improved procedures • revaluation of the material shelf life • introduction of training programs • Production rescheduling to reduce plant cleaning phase • attention to leaks from valves, seals • attention from tanks loss • attention to the losses during the transfer of intangibles • careful not to over fill the tanks (presence of interlocks) • reduction of contamination and the production of by-products • the correct sequence of opening valves
  • 7. technological changes • introduction of new processes and equipment • Improved automatic process control • re piping design to reduce the amount of material downloaded during the starts and the stops • installation of vapor recovery • use of more efficient motors and inverters for energy saving Changes in raw materials • use of raw materials less hazardous • increase in the purity of raw materials to remove traces of impurities and production of by- products EVALUATION OF TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS The goal is to assess whether the technical solution is suitable for a company that adopts them. You can ask a few questions: • The solution is secure? • improves the quality of the product? • There 's space for the new equipment? • new materials, equipment, procedures compatible with the company are compatible? • Is It required additional work? • are required major utilities consumption? • How long does the system stop for the implementation of the changes? • Are special skills required to staff? • The seller provides sufficient after-sales service? • The solution creates new environmental problems? • What are the effects on operating procedures? • What are the effects on others and on the outside? ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT The Technical/economical verification that can be considered: • Payback Time • Internal rate of return (IRR) • net present value of the investment CHANGE IN OPERATING COSTS All cost reduction opportunities to be assessed as: • Reduced treatment and disposal costs • Less space needed for waste • Minor quantities to be disposed of • Lower transport costs • Lower administrative costs • Savings in the use of raw materials
  • 8. • Savings in insurance costs • Improvement of costs associated with product quality • change of utilities costs • change in production costs • Reduction of maintenance costs • increase in revenue in the sale of by-products • consultancy costs • change of the operating costs of the inventories of raw materials and finished products DETERMINATION OF COST TO BE IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE LAW Waste reduction should be made to be in compliance with environmental requirements, but it must be said that even an advantage on the company's profitability. ON THE ASSESSMENT REPORT The report predicts: • objectives and targets • Environmental requirements • Main results of the assessment • Technical and economic feasibility • priorities and recommendations • review of the main assumptions made to arrive at the conclusion IMPEMENTATION PROJECT Projects that only require changes in procedures and changes in the use of raw materials ranging should be done soon ,Those involving investment can be regarded as all investments in the company. AUDIT OF RESULTS The company must make audit periods to verify the implementation of the minimization program and its effectiveness. FEEDBACK The feedback consists of the collection of data to verify that the project goes well according to the stated objectives. RE-EVALUATION OF GOALS Periodically the program should be reviewed to include: • changes in the use of raw materials and finished products • increase in the cost of waste management • new laws
  • 9. • new technologies • incidents / accidents / spills / emergencies These elements shall be revised periodically to re-evaluate the objectives and policy of the company Another way to reduce waste production is to follow the principles of green chemistry that are shown below: of When developing a new process the following actions can be taken : A.Alternative feedstocks that are both renewable and less toxic to human health and to the environment. B. Use of innocuous reagents that are inherently less hazardous and are catalytic. C. Employment of natural processes—biosynthesis, biocatalysis, and biotech-based chemical transformations for both efficiency and selectivity. D. Use of alternative solvents that reduce potential harm to the environment and serve as
  • 10. alternatives to currently used volatile organic solvents, chlorinated solvents, and other hazardous chemicals. E. Safer chemical design—with principles of toxicology to minimize intrinsic hazards while maintaining needed functionality. F. Development of alternative reaction conditions that increase selectivity and enable easier separations. G. Minimization of energy consumption. ALFREDO RUGGIERO Reference :waste minimization a practical guide-Barry Crittenden-Icheme