SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 111
Data CollectionData Collection
Techniques and ToolsTechniques and Tools
ARUN.MARUN.M
Senior LecturerSenior Lecturer
KVMCONKVMCON
Data
Data are observable and measurable facts
that provide information about the
phenomenon under study.
Data collection plan -why?
To yield accurate, valid
and meaningful data that
are maximally effective in
answering research
question.
Five ‘W’ of Data Collection
What data to Collect ?
Whom ?
Who ?
Where ?
When ?
How to collect data?
Primary Data
 are those which are
collected for
specific purpose
directly from the
field of enquiry and
original in nature.
 Such data are
published by
authorities who
themselves are
responsible for
their collection.
Example:
Documents
Creative
works
Interviews
Man-made
materials
Surveys
Secondary Data
 This is any source
cited for its second-
hand information
from a different
work.
 It also pertains on
the data which
have already
collected by other
person who entitled
to organize a data.
Example:
Unpublished
thesis and
dissertations
Manuscript
Books
Journals
SOU SOURCES OF INFORMATION
Primary SourcePrimary Source
•Data is collected by
researcher himself
•Data is gathered
through questionnaire,
interviews,
observations etc.
Secondary SourceSecondary Source
•Data collected,
compiled or
written by other
researchers eg. books,
journals, newspapers
•Any reference must
be acknowledged
Data collection methods
Ways of gathering information needed to address a
research problem.
 What data to be collected, (Problem and sub-
problems)
 who will collect the data (Training of data collectors)
 From whom the data will be collected
(Population/sample)
 When will the data be collected (Time period)
 From where the data will be collected (Setting)
SELECTION OF METHOD OF
DATA COLLECTION
Nature of the phenomenon
under study
Types of research subjects
 Types of research study
Purpose of research study
Size of the study sample
Distribution of the target
population
Time frame of the study
Literacy level of the subjects
Availability of resources and
manpower
Researchers knowledge and level
of competence
Data Collection MethodsData Collection Methods
InterviewInterview
An interview involves verbal communicationAn interview involves verbal communication
between the researcher and the subjectbetween the researcher and the subject
during which information is provided to theduring which information is provided to the
researcherresearcher
Effective way
of gathering
information
INTERVIEW
Involves verbal
and non-verbal
communications
Can be conducted
face to face, by telephone,
online or through mail
Interview Process
Prepare your interview schedule
Pre-interview introduction
Carrying the interview forward
Recording the interview
Developing Rapport
Closing the Interview
BENEFITSBENEFITS
 Provide in-depth and detailed informationProvide in-depth and detailed information
 Permits greater depth of responsePermits greater depth of response
 Data from illiterate subjectsData from illiterate subjects
 Higher responseHigher response
 Clarify misunderstandingsClarify misunderstandings
 Ask questions at different levelsAsk questions at different levels
 Helps to gather supplementary informationHelps to gather supplementary information
DrawbacksDrawbacks
 Time consumingTime consuming
 Cost affairsCost affairs
 Different interviewers may understand andDifferent interviewers may understand and
translate interviews in different ways.translate interviews in different ways.
 High degree chance for interview biasesHigh degree chance for interview biases
TYPESTYPES
Structured InterviewStructured Interview
(Standardized Interview , Directive Interview)(Standardized Interview , Directive Interview)
Structured interview refers to data collection inStructured interview refers to data collection in
which interviewer has an interview schedule inwhich interviewer has an interview schedule in
which the questions are listed in order in whichwhich the questions are listed in order in which
they are to be answered .they are to be answered .
Subjects are asked to respond to the sameSubjects are asked to respond to the same
questions, in the same order and with the samequestions, in the same order and with the same
set of response optionsset of response options
Unstructured InterviewUnstructured Interview
Nonstandardized Interview ,Nondirective interviewNonstandardized Interview ,Nondirective interview
Unstructured interview is a method wherein theUnstructured interview is a method wherein the
questions can be changed to meet the respondentsquestions can be changed to meet the respondents
intelligence, understanding, and beliefs.intelligence, understanding, and beliefs.
Interviewer encourages the respondent to talk freelyInterviewer encourages the respondent to talk freely
about the given topic with minimum prompting.about the given topic with minimum prompting.
No preplanned scheduleNo preplanned schedule
Semi-structured InterviewsSemi-structured Interviews
Is a flexible method that allows newIs a flexible method that allows new
questions to be brought up during thequestions to be brought up during the
interview , depending upon the situationinterview , depending upon the situation
during the interviewduring the interview
Indepth InterviewIndepth Interview
Is an intensive and investigative interviewIs an intensive and investigative interview
conducted and aimed at studying theconducted and aimed at studying the
respondents opinion and emotions on the basisrespondents opinion and emotions on the basis
of interview guide.of interview guide.
Focus Group InterviewFocus Group Interview
Where 8-12 members are brought togetherWhere 8-12 members are brought together
under the guidance of a trained interviewer tounder the guidance of a trained interviewer to
focus on a specific phenomenon to gain insightfocus on a specific phenomenon to gain insight
from the appropriate sample or targetfrom the appropriate sample or target
population.population.
Telephone InterviewTelephone Interview
ObservationObservation
 a method of collecting data regardinga method of collecting data regarding
occurrences or behaviors that can beoccurrences or behaviors that can be
observed through senses with or withoutobserved through senses with or without
mechanical devices.mechanical devices.
 can be used to gather a variety of informationcan be used to gather a variety of information
UsesUses
 To understand ongoing process or situationTo understand ongoing process or situation
 To gather data on individual behaviors orTo gather data on individual behaviors or
interactions between peopleinteractions between people
 To know about a physical setting.To know about a physical setting.
 Data collection where other methods are notData collection where other methods are not
possible.possible.
TypesTypes
 Structured ObservationStructured Observation
Researcher prepares a structured orResearcher prepares a structured or
semi-structured tool in advance to observe thesemi-structured tool in advance to observe the
phenomenon.phenomenon.
check listcheck list
rating scalerating scale
 Unstructured ObservationUnstructured Observation
Observation is made with minimally structuredObservation is made with minimally structured
and carried- out by using unstructured toolsand carried- out by using unstructured tools
Video recordingVideo recording
 Participant ObservationParticipant Observation
Observer may live or work in field andObserver may live or work in field and
actively participate in ongoing activities foractively participate in ongoing activities for
an extended periodan extended period
 Nonparticipant ObservationNonparticipant Observation
Observer works as an secret listener orObserver works as an secret listener or
observer , where an attempt is made to observeobserver , where an attempt is made to observe
people without interacting with them.people without interacting with them.
Planning For ObservationPlanning For Observation
 Focus DeterminationFocus Determination
 Data collection DesignData collection Design
 Site selectionSite selection
 Observer selectionObserver selection
 Observer trainingObserver training
 Appropriate observation timingsAppropriate observation timings
AdvantagesAdvantages
 Collects data so as when and where an activityCollects data so as when and where an activity
or event is happening.or event is happening.
 Does not believe in peoples ability orDoes not believe in peoples ability or
willingness to give informationwillingness to give information
 Directly allows to notice what people do ratherDirectly allows to notice what people do rather
than checking what people tell they didthan checking what people tell they did
DisadvantagesDisadvantages
 Observers biasObservers bias
 Hawthorne effectHawthorne effect
 Time consuming and expensiveTime consuming and expensive
QuestionnaireQuestionnaire
A questionnaire is a structured instrumentA questionnaire is a structured instrument
consisting of series of questions prepared by theconsisting of series of questions prepared by the
researcher that a research subject is asked toresearcher that a research subject is asked to
complete , to gather data from individuals aboutcomplete , to gather data from individuals about
knowledge, attitude, beliefs and feelingsknowledge, attitude, beliefs and feelings
Type of questionsType of questions
 Open format questionsOpen format questions
Those questions that provideThose questions that provide
opportunity for the respondents toopportunity for the respondents to
express their opinion in there own wayexpress their opinion in there own way..
 Closed format questionsClosed format questions
These questions offer a number ofThese questions offer a number of
alternative replies from which thealternative replies from which the
subject must choose the one that mostsubject must choose the one that most
likely matches the appropriate answer.likely matches the appropriate answer.
Subtypes Of Closed FormatSubtypes Of Closed Format
QuestionsQuestions
 Dichotomous QuestionsDichotomous Questions
These requires the respondents to makeThese requires the respondents to make
choices between two responses.choices between two responses.
eg Have you ever been hospitalisedeg Have you ever been hospitalised
yes/noyes/no
 Multiple Choice QuestionsMultiple Choice Questions
These requires the respondents to makeThese requires the respondents to make
choices between two or more alternativechoices between two or more alternative
responsesresponses
Eg which of the following disease is sexuallyEg which of the following disease is sexually
transmitted ?transmitted ?
a diabetes mellitusa diabetes mellitus b hypothyroidismb hypothyroidism
c syphilisc syphilis d hypertensiond hypertension
 Cafeteria QuestionsCafeteria Questions
These are special type of multiple choiceThese are special type of multiple choice
question that asks respondents to select a responsequestion that asks respondents to select a response
that mostly correspond to their viewsthat mostly correspond to their views
Eg what do you think about hormone replacementEg what do you think about hormone replacement
therapytherapy
a.a. Its dangerous should be avoidedIts dangerous should be avoided
b.b. One should be cautious while using itOne should be cautious while using it
c.c. I am uncertain about my viewI am uncertain about my view
 Rank Order QuestionsRank Order Questions
These questions that asks respondents to rankThese questions that asks respondents to rank
their responses from most favorable to leasttheir responses from most favorable to least
favorable.favorable.
Eg what according to you is most important forEg what according to you is most important for
your lifeyour life
a. moneya. money b. educationb. education c. familyc. family d. healthd. health
 Contingency QuestionsContingency Questions
The questions that is asked further only if theThe questions that is asked further only if the
respondents gives a particular response torespondents gives a particular response to
previous questionprevious question
Eg are you stressed?Eg are you stressed?
a. noa. no b. yes, what are the reasons?b. yes, what are the reasons?
 Rating QuestionsRating Questions
These questions ask the respondents to judgeThese questions ask the respondents to judge
something along an ordered dimensionsomething along an ordered dimension
Eg how you rank educational quality in indiaEg how you rank educational quality in india
1 2 3 4
Good Fair Poor Very poor
 Importance QuestionsImportance Questions
In this respondents asked to rate the importantIn this respondents asked to rate the important
of a particular issue on a rating scaleof a particular issue on a rating scale
Eg exercising everyday is …………. for healthEg exercising everyday is …………. for health
1 2 3 4 5
Extremely
important
Very
important
Somewhat
important
Not very
important
Not at all
important
 Likert questionsLikert questions
Likert questions help to know how strong aLikert questions help to know how strong a
respondent agrees with a particular statement.respondent agrees with a particular statement.
 Eg Is this community a good place to raiseEg Is this community a good place to raise
children.children.
1 2 3 4 5
Strongly
Agree
Agree Uncertain Disagree Strongly
Disagree
 Bipolar questionsBipolar questions
Questions that have two extreme answers.Questions that have two extreme answers.
Respondents has to mark response betweenRespondents has to mark response between
two opposite ends of scaletwo opposite ends of scale
 Matrix questionsMatrix questions
Matrix questions include multiple questions,Matrix questions include multiple questions,
and identical response categories are assigned.and identical response categories are assigned.
Methods of questionnaireMethods of questionnaire
administrationadministration
 Personally administeredPersonally administered
 PostalPostal
 ElectronicElectronic
 PhonePhone
AdvantagesAdvantages
 Cost effectiveCost effective
 Easy to analyseEasy to analyse
 Requires less time and energy to administerRequires less time and energy to administer
 Reduce biasReduce bias
 Used for large sample sizeUsed for large sample size
 Less intrusive than phone or face to faceLess intrusive than phone or face to face
interview.interview.
DisadvantageDisadvantage
 Not suitable to allNot suitable to all
 Questionnaire sent by mail may be filled byQuestionnaire sent by mail may be filled by
someone else.someone else.
 Gives only superficial informationGives only superficial information
 Chances of misinterpretationChances of misinterpretation
 People can lie.People can lie.
Guidelines For Designing GoodGuidelines For Designing Good
QuestionnaireQuestionnaire
General pointsGeneral points
 Developed exactly in accordance with theDeveloped exactly in accordance with the
study objectivestudy objective
 Should begin with the instructions for theShould begin with the instructions for the
respondents to provide the responserespondents to provide the response
 Questionnaire should be concise, precise andQuestionnaire should be concise, precise and
brief because lengthy questionnaires may leadbrief because lengthy questionnaires may lead
to boredom among respondentsto boredom among respondents
 Questions outside the respondents experienceQuestions outside the respondents experience
should not be askedshould not be asked
 In asking questions about the past events tooIn asking questions about the past events too
much reliance should not be placed on themuch reliance should not be placed on the
respondents memory.respondents memory.
 Questions that are likely to lead to bias in theQuestions that are likely to lead to bias in the
respondents should be avoided.respondents should be avoided.
 Clear and simpleClear and simple
 Open ended questions should be avoidedOpen ended questions should be avoided
 Avoid questions with difficult conceptsAvoid questions with difficult concepts
 Controversial and ambiguous questions shouldControversial and ambiguous questions should
be avoidedbe avoided
 Structure of the questionnaire should be inStructure of the questionnaire should be in
according to the form in which the responses areaccording to the form in which the responses are
to be recordedto be recorded
 A mailed questionnaire should be accompaniedA mailed questionnaire should be accompanied
by introduction to the study, purpose andby introduction to the study, purpose and
directions to fill the questionnaire.directions to fill the questionnaire.
 Abrupt ending of the questions and questionnaireAbrupt ending of the questions and questionnaire
should be avoided.should be avoided.
Sequence Of QuestionsSequence Of Questions
 There should be logical sequence of theThere should be logical sequence of the
questions in the questionnaire.questions in the questionnaire.
 Researcher has to make sure that the answer toResearcher has to make sure that the answer to
a question is not derived from a previousa question is not derived from a previous
question.question.
 Flow of question from general to specificFlow of question from general to specific
 Flow of question from least to most sensitive.Flow of question from least to most sensitive.
 The questionnaire should generally start withThe questionnaire should generally start with
demographic profiles of the subjects anddemographic profiles of the subjects and
followed by specific questions according to thefollowed by specific questions according to the
objectives of the study.objectives of the study.
Question ConstructionQuestion Construction
 Use statements that can be interpreted in sameUse statements that can be interpreted in same
way by all subjectsway by all subjects
 Use statements that persons have differentUse statements that persons have different
opinions and may give different answersopinions and may give different answers
 Use only one aspect of construct in which youUse only one aspect of construct in which you
are interestedare interested
 Avoid asking double-barrelled questionsAvoid asking double-barrelled questions
containing two distinct ideas or conceptcontaining two distinct ideas or concept
 Avoid leading, loaded , ambitious and longAvoid leading, loaded , ambitious and long
questionsquestions
 Avoid negative questionsAvoid negative questions
 Use positive statementsUse positive statements
 Assumptions should not be made aboutAssumptions should not be made about
respondentrespondent
 Comprehensive and clear wording should be usedComprehensive and clear wording should be used
 Use correct spelling, grammar and punctuation.Use correct spelling, grammar and punctuation.
Rating scalesRating scales
 Rating scales refers to scales with a set ofRating scales refers to scales with a set of
opinion , which describes varying degreeopinion , which describes varying degree
of attitude being observed.of attitude being observed.
TypesTypes
 Graphic Rating ScaleGraphic Rating Scale
In this scale the performance is printedIn this scale the performance is printed
horizontally at various points from lowest tohorizontally at various points from lowest to
highest. It includes the numerical point .It ishighest. It includes the numerical point .It is
anchored by two extremes to respondents foranchored by two extremes to respondents for
evaluation of a concept or object.evaluation of a concept or object.
Eg – How much are you satisfied with noise controlEg – How much are you satisfied with noise control
in your wardin your ward
LeastLeast MostMost
 Descriptive Rating ScaleDescriptive Rating Scale
Do not use number , but divide theDo not use number , but divide the
assessment into series of verbal phrases toassessment into series of verbal phrases to
indicate the level of performance.indicate the level of performance.
Eg Judge the level of performance in causalityEg Judge the level of performance in causality
level of clinical performancelevel of clinical performance
Nursing
personne
l in the
ward
Very
active
Active Moderat
ely
Active
Passive
Anandu
Arun
Nithin
 Numerical Rating ScaleNumerical Rating Scale
Divides the evaluation criteria into a fixedDivides the evaluation criteria into a fixed
number of points, but defines only numbers atnumber of points, but defines only numbers at
the extremes. In these scales, each statement isthe extremes. In these scales, each statement is
generally assigned a numerical score ranginggenerally assigned a numerical score ranging
from 1-10 or even more.from 1-10 or even more.
Eg pain assessment numerical scaleEg pain assessment numerical scale
no painno pain 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 worst pain2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 worst pain
 Comparative Rating ScaleComparative Rating Scale
The researcher makes a judgment about anThe researcher makes a judgment about an
attribute of a person by comparing it with thatattribute of a person by comparing it with that
of a similar other person.of a similar other person.
AdvantagesAdvantages
 Easy to measure and score the measuredEasy to measure and score the measured
attributes.attributes.
 Has a wide range of application in nursingHas a wide range of application in nursing
researchresearch
 Easily used for a large group.Easily used for a large group.
 Used for assessment of interests, attitudes, andUsed for assessment of interests, attitudes, and
personal characteristics.personal characteristics.
 Used to evaluate performance and skills.Used to evaluate performance and skills.
 Are adaptable and flexible research instruments.Are adaptable and flexible research instruments.
DisadvantagesDisadvantages
 It is difficult to fix up rating about manyIt is difficult to fix up rating about many
aspects of an individual.aspects of an individual.
 Misuse can result in decrease in objectivity.Misuse can result in decrease in objectivity.
Likert scalesLikert scales
 named after the psychologist Rensis Likertnamed after the psychologist Rensis Likert
 used to assess attitude or opinion of subjects regardingused to assess attitude or opinion of subjects regarding
some phenomenonsome phenomenon
 consists of several declarative statements that express aconsists of several declarative statements that express a
view point on a topicview point on a topic
 Respondents are asked to indicate the degree to whichRespondents are asked to indicate the degree to which
they agree or disagree with the opinionthey agree or disagree with the opinion
 The number of responses may range from four to sevenThe number of responses may range from four to seven
 Values are placed on each response, with a value ofValues are placed on each response, with a value of oneone
on the most negative response and a value of five on theon the most negative response and a value of five on the
most positive responsivemost positive responsive on a five point scaleon a five point scale ..
DefinitionDefinition
Likert scale is a composite measureLikert scale is a composite measure
of attitude that involve summation of scores onof attitude that involve summation of scores on
set of items to which respondents are asked toset of items to which respondents are asked to
indicate their degree of agreement orindicate their degree of agreement or
disagreement.disagreement.
Direct-
ion of
scoring*
Items
SA A U D SD
+
_
_
+
+
1. I like to give care to patients
with HIV/AIDS
2. AIDS is a punishment from God
3.Immoral people develop AIDS
4.AIDS patients are to be treated
like any other patients
5. AIDS patients rights are to be
protected.
 Agreement with positively worded items andAgreement with positively worded items and
disagreement with negatively worded items aredisagreement with negatively worded items are
assigned scores.assigned scores.
 Thus a higher score indicates higher degree ofThus a higher score indicates higher degree of
agreement.agreement.
 A person’s total score is determined by addingA person’s total score is determined by adding
together individual item scorestogether individual item scores
 The summation feature of such scales makes itThe summation feature of such scales makes it
possible to make fine discriminations amongpossible to make fine discriminations among
people with different viewpointspeople with different viewpoints
UsesUses
 Used to measure the attitudes, values and feelingsUsed to measure the attitudes, values and feelings
of the people about specific concepts such asof the people about specific concepts such as
situations, people, places, objects, programmes,situations, people, places, objects, programmes,
practices, policies and so on.practices, policies and so on.
 It may also be used to assess the opinions of theIt may also be used to assess the opinions of the
respondents about a particular abstract concept.respondents about a particular abstract concept.
 It collects the opinions of people with variousIt collects the opinions of people with various
attitudes, emotions, and feelings towards aattitudes, emotions, and feelings towards a
particular concept.particular concept.
AdvantagesAdvantages
 Relatively easy to construct.Relatively easy to construct.
 More reliable and valid tool to measure theMore reliable and valid tool to measure the
psychosocial variables.psychosocial variables.
 It is less time consuming during constructionIt is less time consuming during construction
and administration.and administration.
DisadvantagesDisadvantages
 Respondents may feel forced to answer theRespondents may feel forced to answer the
questions.questions.
 Feeling of the respondents may not be fullyFeeling of the respondents may not be fully
assessed due to researchers preplannedassessed due to researchers preplanned
statements and categories.statements and categories.
 Casual approach of respondents in these scalesCasual approach of respondents in these scales
may provide misleading data.may provide misleading data.
Semantic Differential ScaleSemantic Differential Scale
 consists of two opposite adjectives with a 7-consists of two opposite adjectives with a 7-
point scale between thempoint scale between them
 The respondents are asked to rate a conceptThe respondents are asked to rate a concept
by selecting one point on the scale that bestby selecting one point on the scale that best
describes his or her view of the conceptdescribes his or her view of the concept
 The values for the scale are summed toThe values for the scale are summed to
obtain one score for each subjectobtain one score for each subject..
DefinitionDefinition
Semantic differential scale is a type ofSemantic differential scale is a type of
rating scale designed to measure therating scale designed to measure the
connotative meaning of objects, events andconnotative meaning of objects, events and
concepts.concepts.
Example of a Semantic DifferentialExample of a Semantic Differential
Male NurseMale Nurse
Competent ___7*___6___5___4____3____2____1__ incompetentCompetent ___7*___6___5___4____3____2____1__ incompetent
Cold ___1____2___3___4____5____6____7 WarmCold ___1____2___3___4____5____6____7 Warm
BadBad ________________________________ Good________________________________ Good
Responsible ________________________________ irresponsibleResponsible ________________________________ irresponsible
Successful ________________________________ UnsuccessfulSuccessful ________________________________ Unsuccessful
Important ________________________________ unimportantImportant ________________________________ unimportant
AdvantagesAdvantages
 A convenient method to assess the beliefs,A convenient method to assess the beliefs,
attitudes, and values in quantitative form.attitudes, and values in quantitative form.
 Easy to administerEasy to administer
 Provide reasonable valid and reliableProvide reasonable valid and reliable
quantitative data.quantitative data.
DisadvantagesDisadvantages
 It is difficult to select the relevant concepts,It is difficult to select the relevant concepts,
which are appropriate for any givenwhich are appropriate for any given
investigation.investigation.
 It is time consuming to find the appropriateIt is time consuming to find the appropriate
adjective pairs.adjective pairs.
Visual analogue ScalesVisual analogue Scales
 used to assess perception of stimuli such as pain,used to assess perception of stimuli such as pain,
sleep quality, anxiety, severity of symptoms etc.sleep quality, anxiety, severity of symptoms etc.
 consists of a linear scale, anchored by two words orconsists of a linear scale, anchored by two words or
phrasesphrases
 The subject is asked to place a mark through a lineThe subject is asked to place a mark through a line
to indicate the intensity of the stimulus.to indicate the intensity of the stimulus.
 The distance between the mark and the left of theThe distance between the mark and the left of the
scale is considered as the value of the stimuliscale is considered as the value of the stimuli
DefinitionDefinition
 Visual analogous scale is a tool used to help aVisual analogous scale is a tool used to help a
person rate the intensity of certain sensationsperson rate the intensity of certain sensations
and feelings, such as pain.and feelings, such as pain.
For example, the visual analogue scale forFor example, the visual analogue scale for
pain is a straight line with no pain at one end thepain is a straight line with no pain at one end the
worst pain imaginable at the other end, Aworst pain imaginable at the other end, A
patient marks a point on the line that matchespatient marks a point on the line that matches
the amount of pain he or she feels.the amount of pain he or she feels.
Example of a Visual analogue scaleExample of a Visual analogue scale
No ____________________________________No ____________________________________ Pain as badPain as bad
painpain as it can be.as it can be.
AdvantagesAdvantages
 It is a reliable and valid tool to measure theIt is a reliable and valid tool to measure the
intensity of certain sensations and feelings.intensity of certain sensations and feelings.
 The quantitative assessment is highlyThe quantitative assessment is highly
subjective phenomenon is possible by thissubjective phenomenon is possible by this
scale.scale.
 This scale is of most value when looking atThis scale is of most value when looking at
changes within individual.changes within individual.
DisadvantagesDisadvantages
 This scale cannot be used for comparingThis scale cannot be used for comparing
results across a group of individuals at theresults across a group of individuals at the
same time.same time.
 In measuring pain, the scale does not affordIn measuring pain, the scale does not afford
the patient an opportunity to record increasesthe patient an opportunity to record increases
in pain, thereby creating a bias in favour ofin pain, thereby creating a bias in favour of
treatment.treatment.
 In measuring pain or such sensations, theIn measuring pain or such sensations, the
reliability of this scale is low owing to thereliability of this scale is low owing to the
patient's need to recall their initial painpatient's need to recall their initial pain
severity.severity.
BIOPHYSIOLOGICALBIOPHYSIOLOGICAL
METHODSMETHODS
Involves the collection of
biophysiological data from the subjects by
using specialized equipments to determine
determine physical and biological statistics of
subjects
PURPOSESPURPOSES
 To study basic physiological process
basic physiological processes that
are relevant to nursing care.
eg A study of the person related to
biophysiological reactions during
period of stress.
 To study physiological outcome ofTo study physiological outcome of
nursing carenursing care
Used in studies exploring and
documenting the ways in which
nursing actions affect patients
biophysiologic outcome.
Eg Effect of tepid and cold
sponging on core body temperature
of patient
 To evaluate nursing interventionsTo evaluate nursing interventions
Involve a new intervention being
tested usually in comparison with
standard method of care.
eg A study to assess the effect of
music on heartbeat rate and blood
pressure of cardiac surgery patients..
 To study correlation ofTo study correlation of
physiological functioning inphysiological functioning in
patients with health problemspatients with health problems
Used for comparison of
physiological functioning of
patients with several health
problems.
TYPESTYPES
In vivoIn vivo
 Performed directly to measure process
occurring internally with in the organism
In vitroIn vitro
 Physiological processes are measured and
analyzed outside the organism
ADVANTAGESADVANTAGES
 More accurate and less error
 More objective in nature
 Provide valid measure for targeted variable
 Easy access to most of the instruments
DISADVANTAGESDISADVANTAGES
 Very expensive
 Requires significant amount of training and
experience
 Instruments may cause fear and anxiety
 Health risk for the subjects
PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUEPROJECTIVE TECHNIQUE
Are methods for measuring psychological
attributes by providing respondents with
unstructured stimuli to which they respond
 Ex: Value, attitude, personality etc
Q - SortsQ - Sorts
Is a technique in which the participants are
provided with pre written cards with words,
phrases and statements and asked to arrange
these cards in order along with a specific
bipolar dimension
ReliabilityReliability
Reliability is the degree of consistency andReliability is the degree of consistency and
accuracy with which an instrument measuresaccuracy with which an instrument measures
the attribute for which it is designed.the attribute for which it is designed.
Factors that depends to measureFactors that depends to measure
reliabilityreliability
 StabilityStability
The stability aspect of reliability means aThe stability aspect of reliability means a
research instrument provides same resultsresearch instrument provides same results
when it is consecutively used for two or morewhen it is consecutively used for two or more
times. Stability is estimated to make sure thattimes. Stability is estimated to make sure that
research instrument is constant in providingresearch instrument is constant in providing
similar results with repeated administration.similar results with repeated administration.
 Internal consistencyInternal consistency
Internal consistency ensures that all theInternal consistency ensures that all the
subparts of the research instrument measure thesubparts of the research instrument measure the
same characteristic.same characteristic.
E.g.- A patients satisfaction measurement scaleE.g.- A patients satisfaction measurement scale
developed to measure the patients satisfactiondeveloped to measure the patients satisfaction
with nursing care must include all the subpartswith nursing care must include all the subparts
related to the measurement of satisfaction withrelated to the measurement of satisfaction with
nursing care only, including a subpart related tonursing care only, including a subpart related to
patients satisfaction with health care would bepatients satisfaction with health care would be
inappropriate in the scale.inappropriate in the scale.
 EquivalenceEquivalence
In this aspect of reliability it is done forIn this aspect of reliability it is done for
testing the reliability of a tool. In this twotesting the reliability of a tool. In this two
different observers observe a singledifferent observers observe a single
phenomenon simultaneously andphenomenon simultaneously and
independently.independently.
ValidityValidity
Validity refers to which an instrumentValidity refers to which an instrument
measures what it is suppose to measuringmeasures what it is suppose to measuring
Types Of ValidityTypes Of Validity
 Face ValidityFace Validity
Overall look of a instrument regarding itsOverall look of a instrument regarding its
appropriateness to measure a particularappropriateness to measure a particular
phenomenon.phenomenon.
In simple words this aspect of validity refers toIn simple words this aspect of validity refers to
the face value and the outlook of anthe face value and the outlook of an
instrument.instrument.
 Content ValidityContent Validity
It is concerned with scope of coverage ofIt is concerned with scope of coverage of
content area to be measured.content area to be measured.
 Criterion validityCriterion validity
In this validity is a relationship betweenIn this validity is a relationship between
measurements of the instrument with somemeasurements of the instrument with some
external criteria.external criteria.
 Construct validityConstruct validity
Construct validity is the key criterion forConstruct validity is the key criterion for
assessing the quality of a study. A construct isassessing the quality of a study. A construct is
founded in this type of validity.founded in this type of validity.
Construct validity requires an assessmentConstruct validity requires an assessment
of how well an instrument measures aof how well an instrument measures a
theoretical construct.theoretical construct.
PILOT STUDYPILOT STUDY
A pilot study is referred to a small scaleA pilot study is referred to a small scale
preliminary tryout of the method to be used inpreliminary tryout of the method to be used in
the large research study, which acquaints thethe large research study, which acquaints the
researcher with problems that can be correctedresearcher with problems that can be corrected
in proportion for the large research study or isin proportion for the large research study or is
done to provide the researcher with andone to provide the researcher with an
opportunity to try out the procedure, methodsopportunity to try out the procedure, methods
and tool of data collection.and tool of data collection.
PurposesPurposes
 To study the feasibility and practicability ofTo study the feasibility and practicability of
the research study.the research study.
 To assess the availability of the study subjects.To assess the availability of the study subjects.
 To assess the validity and reliability of theTo assess the validity and reliability of the
research tool.research tool.
 To ensure the appropriateness of methods andTo ensure the appropriateness of methods and
procedures of data collection.procedures of data collection.
 To understand the study variables and otherTo understand the study variables and other
variables.variables.
 To estimate the actual and potential problemsTo estimate the actual and potential problems
researcher may encounter during the actualresearcher may encounter during the actual
large research study.large research study.
 To refine methodologyTo refine methodology
 To plan for data analysis and interpretation forTo plan for data analysis and interpretation for
the final larger research study.the final larger research study.
Bio-physiologic MethodsBio-physiologic Methods
 most reliable and valid of measurementsmost reliable and valid of measurements
 Techniques like direct observation, self-report,Techniques like direct observation, self-report,
paper and pencil scalespaper and pencil scales
 specialized equipments and instruments ( details ofspecialized equipments and instruments ( details of
the exact procedures followed and specificthe exact procedures followed and specific
description of the equipment used)description of the equipment used)
 Comparison of physiologic measures withComparison of physiologic measures with
psychological phenomena possiblepsychological phenomena possible
 Risk of false-positive and false-negative test resultsRisk of false-positive and false-negative test results
Self- reportsSelf- reports
 Collecting information directly from theCollecting information directly from the
subjects by questioning themsubjects by questioning them
 Human beings can communicate whatHuman beings can communicate what
they think, feel or believe through thisthey think, feel or believe through this
method.method.
 Efficient in gathering data which areEfficient in gathering data which are
difficult to get by other meansdifficult to get by other means
Self-report….Self-report….limitationslimitations
 concern about the validity and accuracy ofconcern about the validity and accuracy of
the information.the information.
 The researcher cannot guarantee that whatThe researcher cannot guarantee that what
people say is exactly what they think or feelpeople say is exactly what they think or feel
especially if the data are embarrassing or onespecially if the data are embarrassing or on
socially undesirable matterssocially undesirable matters
Self-report: techniquesSelf-report: techniques
 InterviewInterview
 administration of questionnaire oradministration of questionnaire or
other instrumentsother instruments
 projective techniquesprojective techniques
The most common
data collection instrument
Survey
Questionnaire
Useful to collect
quantitative and qualitative
information
Should contain 3 elements:
1. Introduction – to explain the objectives
2. Instructions – must be clear, simple language & short
3. User-friendly – avoid difficult or ambiguous questions
Types of survey questionaire:
1. Open-ended Questions
– Free-response
(Text Open End)
– Fill-in relevant
information
2. Close-ended Questions
– Dichotomous question
– Multiple-choice
– Cafeteria question
– Rank Order Question
– Contingency question
– Rating Questions
Steps To An Effective Survey Questionnaire
Prepare your survey questions
(Formulate & choose types of questions, order them, write instructions, make copies)
Select your respondents/sampling
Random/Selected
Administer the survey questionnaire
(date, venue, time )
Analyze and interpret data collected
Tabulate data collected
(Statistical analysis-frequency/mean/correlation/% )
Characteristics of ResearchCharacteristics of Research
InstrumentsInstruments
 Validity refers to the degree to which anValidity refers to the degree to which an
instrument measures what it is intended toinstrument measures what it is intended to
measure.measure.
 Validity of an instrument is a determination ofValidity of an instrument is a determination of
how well it reflects the abstract concept beinghow well it reflects the abstract concept being
examinedexamined
 Validation of a tool is an ongoing process.Validation of a tool is an ongoing process.
 Content ValidityContent Validity
 Content validity is concerned with theContent validity is concerned with the
sampling adequacy of the content area beingsampling adequacy of the content area being
measured. Content validation requires themeasured. Content validation requires the
systematic investigation of an instrument tosystematic investigation of an instrument to
determine whether its items adequately sampledetermine whether its items adequately sample
the domain being measured and whether theythe domain being measured and whether they
are constructed in the most appropriate formare constructed in the most appropriate form
 Criterion related ValidityCriterion related Validity
 Criterion related validity refers to the degree to whichCriterion related validity refers to the degree to which
scores on the test are correlated with some externalscores on the test are correlated with some external
criterioncriterion
 concurrentconcurrent validityvalidity refers to an instrument’s ability torefers to an instrument’s ability to
distinguish individuals who differ on a presentdistinguish individuals who differ on a present
criterion andcriterion and predictive validitypredictive validity refers to the adequacyrefers to the adequacy
of an instrument in predicting the performance orof an instrument in predicting the performance or
behaviour of individuals on some future criteria.behaviour of individuals on some future criteria.
 Construct validityConstruct validity
 Construct validity requires an assessment ofConstruct validity requires an assessment of
how well an instrument measures a theoreticalhow well an instrument measures a theoretical
construct. The investigator is concerned withconstruct. The investigator is concerned with
the question: is the construct underthe question: is the construct under
investigation being adequately measured?investigation being adequately measured?
ReliabilityReliability
the accuracy and consistency of a measuringthe accuracy and consistency of a measuring
instrument. Reliability means repeatability,instrument. Reliability means repeatability,
whether the scale is measuring something in awhether the scale is measuring something in a
reproducible fashion.reproducible fashion.
Stability, internal consistency and equivalenceStability, internal consistency and equivalence
are the important reliability estimates. Theare the important reliability estimates. The
following is a brief description of the three.following is a brief description of the three.
 The common methods to establish constructThe common methods to establish construct
validity are: factor analysis, known groupvalidity are: factor analysis, known group
technique, and multitrait multimethodtechnique, and multitrait multimethod
approach.approach.

More Related Content

What's hot

Methods of data collection
Methods of data collectionMethods of data collection
Methods of data collectionJithin Thomas
 
data collection
data collection data collection
data collection KingMajanga
 
Data collection method
Data collection methodData collection method
Data collection methodBapu Khodnapur
 
Sampling techniques in Research
Sampling techniques in Research Sampling techniques in Research
Sampling techniques in Research Pavithra L N
 
Rm 5 Methods Of Data Collection
Rm   5   Methods Of Data CollectionRm   5   Methods Of Data Collection
Rm 5 Methods Of Data Collectionitsvineeth209
 
Method of data collection
Method of data collectionMethod of data collection
Method of data collectionBalaji P
 
Descriptive research design
Descriptive research designDescriptive research design
Descriptive research designPrateek Kakkar
 
Tools for data collection
Tools for data collectionTools for data collection
Tools for data collectionshahida baloch
 
12 data-collection-methods
12 data-collection-methods12 data-collection-methods
12 data-collection-methodsplanas11111
 
Qualitative research second copy corrected
Qualitative research  second copy correctedQualitative research  second copy corrected
Qualitative research second copy correctedMenaal Kaushal
 
Data Collection Instruments.
Data Collection Instruments.Data Collection Instruments.
Data Collection Instruments.Auver2012
 
Data Collection by Interview Method
 Data Collection by  Interview Method Data Collection by  Interview Method
Data Collection by Interview MethodAkash Dhar
 

What's hot (20)

Data collection
Data collectionData collection
Data collection
 
Survey Research
Survey ResearchSurvey Research
Survey Research
 
Methods of data collection
Methods of data collectionMethods of data collection
Methods of data collection
 
data collection
data collection data collection
data collection
 
Research.method
Research.methodResearch.method
Research.method
 
Data collection method
Data collection methodData collection method
Data collection method
 
SURVEY RESEARCH DESIGN
SURVEY RESEARCH DESIGNSURVEY RESEARCH DESIGN
SURVEY RESEARCH DESIGN
 
Sampling techniques in Research
Sampling techniques in Research Sampling techniques in Research
Sampling techniques in Research
 
Rm 5 Methods Of Data Collection
Rm   5   Methods Of Data CollectionRm   5   Methods Of Data Collection
Rm 5 Methods Of Data Collection
 
Observation
ObservationObservation
Observation
 
Method of data collection
Method of data collectionMethod of data collection
Method of data collection
 
Data collection
Data collectionData collection
Data collection
 
Descriptive research design
Descriptive research designDescriptive research design
Descriptive research design
 
types of research
types of researchtypes of research
types of research
 
Tools for data collection
Tools for data collectionTools for data collection
Tools for data collection
 
12 data-collection-methods
12 data-collection-methods12 data-collection-methods
12 data-collection-methods
 
Qualitative research second copy corrected
Qualitative research  second copy correctedQualitative research  second copy corrected
Qualitative research second copy corrected
 
Qualitative data collection
Qualitative data collectionQualitative data collection
Qualitative data collection
 
Data Collection Instruments.
Data Collection Instruments.Data Collection Instruments.
Data Collection Instruments.
 
Data Collection by Interview Method
 Data Collection by  Interview Method Data Collection by  Interview Method
Data Collection by Interview Method
 

Viewers also liked

Unit 4 methods of data collection
Unit 4 methods of data collectionUnit 4 methods of data collection
Unit 4 methods of data collectionEko Priyanto
 
Stress and management
Stress  and managementStress  and management
Stress and managementparvathysree
 
Dialysis patients’ bill of rights
Dialysis patients’ bill of rightsDialysis patients’ bill of rights
Dialysis patients’ bill of rightsReynel Dan
 
Philosophy and education
Philosophy and educationPhilosophy and education
Philosophy and educationparvathysree
 
Development and classification
Development and classification Development and classification
Development and classification Arun Madanan
 
Heart disease in pregnancy 20-5-10
Heart disease in pregnancy 20-5-10Heart disease in pregnancy 20-5-10
Heart disease in pregnancy 20-5-10rudrika
 
Shldr dystocia acog
Shldr dystocia acogShldr dystocia acog
Shldr dystocia acogrudrika
 
Integrative teaching as mode of instructional delivery
Integrative teaching as mode of instructional deliveryIntegrative teaching as mode of instructional delivery
Integrative teaching as mode of instructional deliveryReynel Dan
 
Family social science theories used in family health care
Family social science theories used in family health care Family social science theories used in family health care
Family social science theories used in family health care Arun Madanan
 
Curriculum planning and implementation based on theories
Curriculum planning and implementation based on theoriesCurriculum planning and implementation based on theories
Curriculum planning and implementation based on theoriesArun Madanan
 
Somatoform disorders
Somatoform disordersSomatoform disorders
Somatoform disordersReynel Dan
 
Models of prevention
Models of preventionModels of prevention
Models of preventionArun Madanan
 
Pulmonary embolism
Pulmonary embolismPulmonary embolism
Pulmonary embolismparvathysree
 
Cauti.dr rudrika
Cauti.dr rudrikaCauti.dr rudrika
Cauti.dr rudrikarudrika
 
Birth injuries and icterus neonatarum
Birth injuries and icterus neonatarumBirth injuries and icterus neonatarum
Birth injuries and icterus neonatarumDeepthy Philip Thomas
 

Viewers also liked (20)

Chapter 9-METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION
Chapter 9-METHODS OF DATA COLLECTIONChapter 9-METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION
Chapter 9-METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION
 
Unit 4 methods of data collection
Unit 4 methods of data collectionUnit 4 methods of data collection
Unit 4 methods of data collection
 
Stress and management
Stress  and managementStress  and management
Stress and management
 
Dialysis patients’ bill of rights
Dialysis patients’ bill of rightsDialysis patients’ bill of rights
Dialysis patients’ bill of rights
 
Philosophy and education
Philosophy and educationPhilosophy and education
Philosophy and education
 
Development and classification
Development and classification Development and classification
Development and classification
 
Heart disease in pregnancy 20-5-10
Heart disease in pregnancy 20-5-10Heart disease in pregnancy 20-5-10
Heart disease in pregnancy 20-5-10
 
Shldr dystocia acog
Shldr dystocia acogShldr dystocia acog
Shldr dystocia acog
 
Amtsl
AmtslAmtsl
Amtsl
 
Integrative teaching as mode of instructional delivery
Integrative teaching as mode of instructional deliveryIntegrative teaching as mode of instructional delivery
Integrative teaching as mode of instructional delivery
 
Family social science theories used in family health care
Family social science theories used in family health care Family social science theories used in family health care
Family social science theories used in family health care
 
Curriculum planning and implementation based on theories
Curriculum planning and implementation based on theoriesCurriculum planning and implementation based on theories
Curriculum planning and implementation based on theories
 
Somatoform disorders
Somatoform disordersSomatoform disorders
Somatoform disorders
 
Models of prevention
Models of preventionModels of prevention
Models of prevention
 
Pulmonary embolism
Pulmonary embolismPulmonary embolism
Pulmonary embolism
 
Cauti.dr rudrika
Cauti.dr rudrikaCauti.dr rudrika
Cauti.dr rudrika
 
Laboratory method
Laboratory methodLaboratory method
Laboratory method
 
Neontal inf
Neontal infNeontal inf
Neontal inf
 
Pharmaco
PharmacoPharmaco
Pharmaco
 
Birth injuries and icterus neonatarum
Birth injuries and icterus neonatarumBirth injuries and icterus neonatarum
Birth injuries and icterus neonatarum
 

Similar to TOOLS AND TECHNI

TOOLS AND METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION (Nursing Research & Statistics)
TOOLS AND METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION(Nursing Research & Statistics)TOOLS AND METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION(Nursing Research & Statistics)
TOOLS AND METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION (Nursing Research & Statistics)virengeeta
 
TOOLS AND METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION (Nursing Research & Statistics)
TOOLS AND METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION(Nursing Research & Statistics)TOOLS AND METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION(Nursing Research & Statistics)
TOOLS AND METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION (Nursing Research & Statistics)virengeeta
 
Methods used for qualitative data collection
Methods used for qualitative data collectionMethods used for qualitative data collection
Methods used for qualitative data collectionStats Statswork
 
Chapter Session 2.5 data collection 27.3.18.ppt
Chapter  Session 2.5 data collection 27.3.18.pptChapter  Session 2.5 data collection 27.3.18.ppt
Chapter Session 2.5 data collection 27.3.18.pptetebarkhmichale
 
Method for data collection 2
Method for data collection 2Method for data collection 2
Method for data collection 2PK Joshua
 
Data Collection Process
Data Collection ProcessData Collection Process
Data Collection ProcessRahul Ranjan
 
Divergent Insights - Qualitative Research Analysis
Divergent Insights - Qualitative Research AnalysisDivergent Insights - Qualitative Research Analysis
Divergent Insights - Qualitative Research AnalysisDivergent Insights
 
Final tools for learning data gathering
Final tools for learning data gatheringFinal tools for learning data gathering
Final tools for learning data gatheringPaula Nottingham
 
Abdm4064 week 05 data collection methods part 1
Abdm4064 week 05 data collection methods part 1Abdm4064 week 05 data collection methods part 1
Abdm4064 week 05 data collection methods part 1Stephen Ong
 
Lesson 4 Characteristics, Strengths, and Weaknesses of Qualitative Research.pptx
Lesson 4 Characteristics, Strengths, and Weaknesses of Qualitative Research.pptxLesson 4 Characteristics, Strengths, and Weaknesses of Qualitative Research.pptx
Lesson 4 Characteristics, Strengths, and Weaknesses of Qualitative Research.pptxAiza Santos
 
Lecture-2.0-StatIS-Data-Collection.pptx
Lecture-2.0-StatIS-Data-Collection.pptxLecture-2.0-StatIS-Data-Collection.pptx
Lecture-2.0-StatIS-Data-Collection.pptxazcarragadianneluisa
 
9.11.11 final tools for learning data gathering
9.11.11 final tools for learning data gathering9.11.11 final tools for learning data gathering
9.11.11 final tools for learning data gatheringPaula Nottingham
 
Techniques of data collection
Techniques of data collectionTechniques of data collection
Techniques of data collectionvivek mhatre
 
Techniques of data collection
Techniques of data collectionTechniques of data collection
Techniques of data collectionvivek mhatre
 
Data Collection and Data Collection Tools – Research Methodology
Data Collection and Data Collection Tools – Research MethodologyData Collection and Data Collection Tools – Research Methodology
Data Collection and Data Collection Tools – Research MethodologyZia ullah
 
442071179-qualitative-research-pptx.pptx
442071179-qualitative-research-pptx.pptx442071179-qualitative-research-pptx.pptx
442071179-qualitative-research-pptx.pptxMarleneAbalayanRamos
 

Similar to TOOLS AND TECHNI (20)

TOOLS AND METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION (Nursing Research & Statistics)
TOOLS AND METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION(Nursing Research & Statistics)TOOLS AND METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION(Nursing Research & Statistics)
TOOLS AND METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION (Nursing Research & Statistics)
 
TOOLS AND METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION (Nursing Research & Statistics)
TOOLS AND METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION(Nursing Research & Statistics)TOOLS AND METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION(Nursing Research & Statistics)
TOOLS AND METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION (Nursing Research & Statistics)
 
Methods used for qualitative data collection
Methods used for qualitative data collectionMethods used for qualitative data collection
Methods used for qualitative data collection
 
Chapter Session 2.5 data collection 27.3.18.ppt
Chapter  Session 2.5 data collection 27.3.18.pptChapter  Session 2.5 data collection 27.3.18.ppt
Chapter Session 2.5 data collection 27.3.18.ppt
 
Method for data collection 2
Method for data collection 2Method for data collection 2
Method for data collection 2
 
Data Collection Process
Data Collection ProcessData Collection Process
Data Collection Process
 
Divergent Insights - Qualitative Research Analysis
Divergent Insights - Qualitative Research AnalysisDivergent Insights - Qualitative Research Analysis
Divergent Insights - Qualitative Research Analysis
 
Data collection
Data collectionData collection
Data collection
 
Final tools for learning data gathering
Final tools for learning data gatheringFinal tools for learning data gathering
Final tools for learning data gathering
 
Abdm4064 week 05 data collection methods part 1
Abdm4064 week 05 data collection methods part 1Abdm4064 week 05 data collection methods part 1
Abdm4064 week 05 data collection methods part 1
 
Lesson 4 Characteristics, Strengths, and Weaknesses of Qualitative Research.pptx
Lesson 4 Characteristics, Strengths, and Weaknesses of Qualitative Research.pptxLesson 4 Characteristics, Strengths, and Weaknesses of Qualitative Research.pptx
Lesson 4 Characteristics, Strengths, and Weaknesses of Qualitative Research.pptx
 
Lecture-2.0-StatIS-Data-Collection.pptx
Lecture-2.0-StatIS-Data-Collection.pptxLecture-2.0-StatIS-Data-Collection.pptx
Lecture-2.0-StatIS-Data-Collection.pptx
 
Interview and Observation
Interview and ObservationInterview and Observation
Interview and Observation
 
9.11.11 final tools for learning data gathering
9.11.11 final tools for learning data gathering9.11.11 final tools for learning data gathering
9.11.11 final tools for learning data gathering
 
Qualitative Data Collection
Qualitative Data CollectionQualitative Data Collection
Qualitative Data Collection
 
Techniques of data collection
Techniques of data collectionTechniques of data collection
Techniques of data collection
 
Techniques of data collection
Techniques of data collectionTechniques of data collection
Techniques of data collection
 
Data Collection and Data Collection Tools – Research Methodology
Data Collection and Data Collection Tools – Research MethodologyData Collection and Data Collection Tools – Research Methodology
Data Collection and Data Collection Tools – Research Methodology
 
442071179-qualitative-research-pptx.pptx
442071179-qualitative-research-pptx.pptx442071179-qualitative-research-pptx.pptx
442071179-qualitative-research-pptx.pptx
 
EED 20
EED 20EED 20
EED 20
 

More from Arun Madanan

COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH NURSING
COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH NURSINGCOMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH NURSING
COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH NURSINGArun Madanan
 
Personality disorders
Personality disordersPersonality disorders
Personality disordersArun Madanan
 
Mental Subnormality
Mental SubnormalityMental Subnormality
Mental SubnormalityArun Madanan
 
Somatoform disorders
Somatoform disordersSomatoform disorders
Somatoform disordersArun Madanan
 
Application of theory to nursing practice
Application of theory to nursing practiceApplication of theory to nursing practice
Application of theory to nursing practiceArun Madanan
 
Application of theories, models and conceptual frameworks into family health ...
Application of theories, models and conceptual frameworks into family health ...Application of theories, models and conceptual frameworks into family health ...
Application of theories, models and conceptual frameworks into family health ...Arun Madanan
 
Application of theories in research
Application of theories in researchApplication of theories in research
Application of theories in researchArun Madanan
 
Application of theories in nursing resea5 rch
Application of theories in nursing resea5 rchApplication of theories in nursing resea5 rch
Application of theories in nursing resea5 rchArun Madanan
 
Application of theories in nursing process
Application of theories in nursing processApplication of theories in nursing process
Application of theories in nursing processArun Madanan
 
Application of theories in nursing process 2nd
Application of theories in nursing process  2ndApplication of theories in nursing process  2nd
Application of theories in nursing process 2ndArun Madanan
 
Application of nursing theories in evaluation
Application of nursing theories in evaluationApplication of nursing theories in evaluation
Application of nursing theories in evaluationArun Madanan
 
Application of nursing theories
Application of nursing theories Application of nursing theories
Application of nursing theories Arun Madanan
 
Family therapy theories used in family health care
Family therapy theories used in family health care Family therapy theories used in family health care
Family therapy theories used in family health care Arun Madanan
 
Instructional aids and devices
Instructional aids and devicesInstructional aids and devices
Instructional aids and devicesArun Madanan
 
Discussion and pannel discussion
Discussion and pannel discussionDiscussion and pannel discussion
Discussion and pannel discussionArun Madanan
 
Psychiatric emergencies
Psychiatric emergenciesPsychiatric emergencies
Psychiatric emergenciesArun Madanan
 
Dissociative D1isorder
Dissociative D1isorderDissociative D1isorder
Dissociative D1isorderArun Madanan
 
Continuing Nursing Education
Continuing Nursing EducationContinuing Nursing Education
Continuing Nursing EducationArun Madanan
 

More from Arun Madanan (20)

GEROPSYCHIATRY
GEROPSYCHIATRYGEROPSYCHIATRY
GEROPSYCHIATRY
 
COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH NURSING
COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH NURSINGCOMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH NURSING
COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH NURSING
 
Phobias
PhobiasPhobias
Phobias
 
Personality disorders
Personality disordersPersonality disorders
Personality disorders
 
Mental Subnormality
Mental SubnormalityMental Subnormality
Mental Subnormality
 
Somatoform disorders
Somatoform disordersSomatoform disorders
Somatoform disorders
 
Application of theory to nursing practice
Application of theory to nursing practiceApplication of theory to nursing practice
Application of theory to nursing practice
 
Application of theories, models and conceptual frameworks into family health ...
Application of theories, models and conceptual frameworks into family health ...Application of theories, models and conceptual frameworks into family health ...
Application of theories, models and conceptual frameworks into family health ...
 
Application of theories in research
Application of theories in researchApplication of theories in research
Application of theories in research
 
Application of theories in nursing resea5 rch
Application of theories in nursing resea5 rchApplication of theories in nursing resea5 rch
Application of theories in nursing resea5 rch
 
Application of theories in nursing process
Application of theories in nursing processApplication of theories in nursing process
Application of theories in nursing process
 
Application of theories in nursing process 2nd
Application of theories in nursing process  2ndApplication of theories in nursing process  2nd
Application of theories in nursing process 2nd
 
Application of nursing theories in evaluation
Application of nursing theories in evaluationApplication of nursing theories in evaluation
Application of nursing theories in evaluation
 
Application of nursing theories
Application of nursing theories Application of nursing theories
Application of nursing theories
 
Family therapy theories used in family health care
Family therapy theories used in family health care Family therapy theories used in family health care
Family therapy theories used in family health care
 
Instructional aids and devices
Instructional aids and devicesInstructional aids and devices
Instructional aids and devices
 
Discussion and pannel discussion
Discussion and pannel discussionDiscussion and pannel discussion
Discussion and pannel discussion
 
Psychiatric emergencies
Psychiatric emergenciesPsychiatric emergencies
Psychiatric emergencies
 
Dissociative D1isorder
Dissociative D1isorderDissociative D1isorder
Dissociative D1isorder
 
Continuing Nursing Education
Continuing Nursing EducationContinuing Nursing Education
Continuing Nursing Education
 

TOOLS AND TECHNI

  • 1. Data CollectionData Collection Techniques and ToolsTechniques and Tools ARUN.MARUN.M Senior LecturerSenior Lecturer KVMCONKVMCON
  • 2. Data Data are observable and measurable facts that provide information about the phenomenon under study.
  • 3. Data collection plan -why? To yield accurate, valid and meaningful data that are maximally effective in answering research question.
  • 4. Five ‘W’ of Data Collection What data to Collect ? Whom ? Who ? Where ? When ? How to collect data?
  • 5. Primary Data  are those which are collected for specific purpose directly from the field of enquiry and original in nature.  Such data are published by authorities who themselves are responsible for their collection. Example: Documents Creative works Interviews Man-made materials Surveys
  • 6. Secondary Data  This is any source cited for its second- hand information from a different work.  It also pertains on the data which have already collected by other person who entitled to organize a data. Example: Unpublished thesis and dissertations Manuscript Books Journals
  • 7. SOU SOURCES OF INFORMATION Primary SourcePrimary Source •Data is collected by researcher himself •Data is gathered through questionnaire, interviews, observations etc. Secondary SourceSecondary Source •Data collected, compiled or written by other researchers eg. books, journals, newspapers •Any reference must be acknowledged
  • 8. Data collection methods Ways of gathering information needed to address a research problem.  What data to be collected, (Problem and sub- problems)  who will collect the data (Training of data collectors)  From whom the data will be collected (Population/sample)  When will the data be collected (Time period)  From where the data will be collected (Setting)
  • 9. SELECTION OF METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION Nature of the phenomenon under study Types of research subjects  Types of research study Purpose of research study Size of the study sample
  • 10. Distribution of the target population Time frame of the study Literacy level of the subjects Availability of resources and manpower Researchers knowledge and level of competence
  • 11. Data Collection MethodsData Collection Methods
  • 12. InterviewInterview An interview involves verbal communicationAn interview involves verbal communication between the researcher and the subjectbetween the researcher and the subject during which information is provided to theduring which information is provided to the researcherresearcher
  • 13. Effective way of gathering information INTERVIEW Involves verbal and non-verbal communications Can be conducted face to face, by telephone, online or through mail
  • 14. Interview Process Prepare your interview schedule Pre-interview introduction Carrying the interview forward Recording the interview Developing Rapport Closing the Interview
  • 15. BENEFITSBENEFITS  Provide in-depth and detailed informationProvide in-depth and detailed information  Permits greater depth of responsePermits greater depth of response  Data from illiterate subjectsData from illiterate subjects  Higher responseHigher response  Clarify misunderstandingsClarify misunderstandings  Ask questions at different levelsAsk questions at different levels  Helps to gather supplementary informationHelps to gather supplementary information
  • 16. DrawbacksDrawbacks  Time consumingTime consuming  Cost affairsCost affairs  Different interviewers may understand andDifferent interviewers may understand and translate interviews in different ways.translate interviews in different ways.  High degree chance for interview biasesHigh degree chance for interview biases
  • 17. TYPESTYPES Structured InterviewStructured Interview (Standardized Interview , Directive Interview)(Standardized Interview , Directive Interview) Structured interview refers to data collection inStructured interview refers to data collection in which interviewer has an interview schedule inwhich interviewer has an interview schedule in which the questions are listed in order in whichwhich the questions are listed in order in which they are to be answered .they are to be answered . Subjects are asked to respond to the sameSubjects are asked to respond to the same questions, in the same order and with the samequestions, in the same order and with the same set of response optionsset of response options
  • 18. Unstructured InterviewUnstructured Interview Nonstandardized Interview ,Nondirective interviewNonstandardized Interview ,Nondirective interview Unstructured interview is a method wherein theUnstructured interview is a method wherein the questions can be changed to meet the respondentsquestions can be changed to meet the respondents intelligence, understanding, and beliefs.intelligence, understanding, and beliefs. Interviewer encourages the respondent to talk freelyInterviewer encourages the respondent to talk freely about the given topic with minimum prompting.about the given topic with minimum prompting. No preplanned scheduleNo preplanned schedule
  • 19. Semi-structured InterviewsSemi-structured Interviews Is a flexible method that allows newIs a flexible method that allows new questions to be brought up during thequestions to be brought up during the interview , depending upon the situationinterview , depending upon the situation during the interviewduring the interview
  • 20. Indepth InterviewIndepth Interview Is an intensive and investigative interviewIs an intensive and investigative interview conducted and aimed at studying theconducted and aimed at studying the respondents opinion and emotions on the basisrespondents opinion and emotions on the basis of interview guide.of interview guide.
  • 21. Focus Group InterviewFocus Group Interview Where 8-12 members are brought togetherWhere 8-12 members are brought together under the guidance of a trained interviewer tounder the guidance of a trained interviewer to focus on a specific phenomenon to gain insightfocus on a specific phenomenon to gain insight from the appropriate sample or targetfrom the appropriate sample or target population.population. Telephone InterviewTelephone Interview
  • 22. ObservationObservation  a method of collecting data regardinga method of collecting data regarding occurrences or behaviors that can beoccurrences or behaviors that can be observed through senses with or withoutobserved through senses with or without mechanical devices.mechanical devices.  can be used to gather a variety of informationcan be used to gather a variety of information
  • 23. UsesUses  To understand ongoing process or situationTo understand ongoing process or situation  To gather data on individual behaviors orTo gather data on individual behaviors or interactions between peopleinteractions between people  To know about a physical setting.To know about a physical setting.  Data collection where other methods are notData collection where other methods are not possible.possible.
  • 24. TypesTypes  Structured ObservationStructured Observation Researcher prepares a structured orResearcher prepares a structured or semi-structured tool in advance to observe thesemi-structured tool in advance to observe the phenomenon.phenomenon. check listcheck list rating scalerating scale
  • 25.  Unstructured ObservationUnstructured Observation Observation is made with minimally structuredObservation is made with minimally structured and carried- out by using unstructured toolsand carried- out by using unstructured tools Video recordingVideo recording
  • 26.  Participant ObservationParticipant Observation Observer may live or work in field andObserver may live or work in field and actively participate in ongoing activities foractively participate in ongoing activities for an extended periodan extended period  Nonparticipant ObservationNonparticipant Observation Observer works as an secret listener orObserver works as an secret listener or observer , where an attempt is made to observeobserver , where an attempt is made to observe people without interacting with them.people without interacting with them.
  • 27. Planning For ObservationPlanning For Observation  Focus DeterminationFocus Determination  Data collection DesignData collection Design  Site selectionSite selection  Observer selectionObserver selection  Observer trainingObserver training  Appropriate observation timingsAppropriate observation timings
  • 28. AdvantagesAdvantages  Collects data so as when and where an activityCollects data so as when and where an activity or event is happening.or event is happening.  Does not believe in peoples ability orDoes not believe in peoples ability or willingness to give informationwillingness to give information  Directly allows to notice what people do ratherDirectly allows to notice what people do rather than checking what people tell they didthan checking what people tell they did
  • 29. DisadvantagesDisadvantages  Observers biasObservers bias  Hawthorne effectHawthorne effect  Time consuming and expensiveTime consuming and expensive
  • 30. QuestionnaireQuestionnaire A questionnaire is a structured instrumentA questionnaire is a structured instrument consisting of series of questions prepared by theconsisting of series of questions prepared by the researcher that a research subject is asked toresearcher that a research subject is asked to complete , to gather data from individuals aboutcomplete , to gather data from individuals about knowledge, attitude, beliefs and feelingsknowledge, attitude, beliefs and feelings
  • 31. Type of questionsType of questions  Open format questionsOpen format questions Those questions that provideThose questions that provide opportunity for the respondents toopportunity for the respondents to express their opinion in there own wayexpress their opinion in there own way..  Closed format questionsClosed format questions These questions offer a number ofThese questions offer a number of alternative replies from which thealternative replies from which the subject must choose the one that mostsubject must choose the one that most likely matches the appropriate answer.likely matches the appropriate answer.
  • 32. Subtypes Of Closed FormatSubtypes Of Closed Format QuestionsQuestions  Dichotomous QuestionsDichotomous Questions These requires the respondents to makeThese requires the respondents to make choices between two responses.choices between two responses. eg Have you ever been hospitalisedeg Have you ever been hospitalised yes/noyes/no
  • 33.  Multiple Choice QuestionsMultiple Choice Questions These requires the respondents to makeThese requires the respondents to make choices between two or more alternativechoices between two or more alternative responsesresponses Eg which of the following disease is sexuallyEg which of the following disease is sexually transmitted ?transmitted ? a diabetes mellitusa diabetes mellitus b hypothyroidismb hypothyroidism c syphilisc syphilis d hypertensiond hypertension
  • 34.  Cafeteria QuestionsCafeteria Questions These are special type of multiple choiceThese are special type of multiple choice question that asks respondents to select a responsequestion that asks respondents to select a response that mostly correspond to their viewsthat mostly correspond to their views Eg what do you think about hormone replacementEg what do you think about hormone replacement therapytherapy a.a. Its dangerous should be avoidedIts dangerous should be avoided b.b. One should be cautious while using itOne should be cautious while using it c.c. I am uncertain about my viewI am uncertain about my view
  • 35.  Rank Order QuestionsRank Order Questions These questions that asks respondents to rankThese questions that asks respondents to rank their responses from most favorable to leasttheir responses from most favorable to least favorable.favorable. Eg what according to you is most important forEg what according to you is most important for your lifeyour life a. moneya. money b. educationb. education c. familyc. family d. healthd. health
  • 36.  Contingency QuestionsContingency Questions The questions that is asked further only if theThe questions that is asked further only if the respondents gives a particular response torespondents gives a particular response to previous questionprevious question Eg are you stressed?Eg are you stressed? a. noa. no b. yes, what are the reasons?b. yes, what are the reasons?
  • 37.  Rating QuestionsRating Questions These questions ask the respondents to judgeThese questions ask the respondents to judge something along an ordered dimensionsomething along an ordered dimension Eg how you rank educational quality in indiaEg how you rank educational quality in india 1 2 3 4 Good Fair Poor Very poor
  • 38.  Importance QuestionsImportance Questions In this respondents asked to rate the importantIn this respondents asked to rate the important of a particular issue on a rating scaleof a particular issue on a rating scale Eg exercising everyday is …………. for healthEg exercising everyday is …………. for health 1 2 3 4 5 Extremely important Very important Somewhat important Not very important Not at all important
  • 39.  Likert questionsLikert questions Likert questions help to know how strong aLikert questions help to know how strong a respondent agrees with a particular statement.respondent agrees with a particular statement.  Eg Is this community a good place to raiseEg Is this community a good place to raise children.children. 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Agree Agree Uncertain Disagree Strongly Disagree
  • 40.  Bipolar questionsBipolar questions Questions that have two extreme answers.Questions that have two extreme answers. Respondents has to mark response betweenRespondents has to mark response between two opposite ends of scaletwo opposite ends of scale
  • 41.  Matrix questionsMatrix questions Matrix questions include multiple questions,Matrix questions include multiple questions, and identical response categories are assigned.and identical response categories are assigned.
  • 42. Methods of questionnaireMethods of questionnaire administrationadministration  Personally administeredPersonally administered  PostalPostal  ElectronicElectronic  PhonePhone
  • 43. AdvantagesAdvantages  Cost effectiveCost effective  Easy to analyseEasy to analyse  Requires less time and energy to administerRequires less time and energy to administer  Reduce biasReduce bias  Used for large sample sizeUsed for large sample size  Less intrusive than phone or face to faceLess intrusive than phone or face to face interview.interview.
  • 44. DisadvantageDisadvantage  Not suitable to allNot suitable to all  Questionnaire sent by mail may be filled byQuestionnaire sent by mail may be filled by someone else.someone else.  Gives only superficial informationGives only superficial information  Chances of misinterpretationChances of misinterpretation  People can lie.People can lie.
  • 45. Guidelines For Designing GoodGuidelines For Designing Good QuestionnaireQuestionnaire General pointsGeneral points  Developed exactly in accordance with theDeveloped exactly in accordance with the study objectivestudy objective  Should begin with the instructions for theShould begin with the instructions for the respondents to provide the responserespondents to provide the response  Questionnaire should be concise, precise andQuestionnaire should be concise, precise and brief because lengthy questionnaires may leadbrief because lengthy questionnaires may lead to boredom among respondentsto boredom among respondents
  • 46.  Questions outside the respondents experienceQuestions outside the respondents experience should not be askedshould not be asked  In asking questions about the past events tooIn asking questions about the past events too much reliance should not be placed on themuch reliance should not be placed on the respondents memory.respondents memory.  Questions that are likely to lead to bias in theQuestions that are likely to lead to bias in the respondents should be avoided.respondents should be avoided.  Clear and simpleClear and simple  Open ended questions should be avoidedOpen ended questions should be avoided  Avoid questions with difficult conceptsAvoid questions with difficult concepts
  • 47.  Controversial and ambiguous questions shouldControversial and ambiguous questions should be avoidedbe avoided  Structure of the questionnaire should be inStructure of the questionnaire should be in according to the form in which the responses areaccording to the form in which the responses are to be recordedto be recorded  A mailed questionnaire should be accompaniedA mailed questionnaire should be accompanied by introduction to the study, purpose andby introduction to the study, purpose and directions to fill the questionnaire.directions to fill the questionnaire.  Abrupt ending of the questions and questionnaireAbrupt ending of the questions and questionnaire should be avoided.should be avoided.
  • 48. Sequence Of QuestionsSequence Of Questions  There should be logical sequence of theThere should be logical sequence of the questions in the questionnaire.questions in the questionnaire.  Researcher has to make sure that the answer toResearcher has to make sure that the answer to a question is not derived from a previousa question is not derived from a previous question.question.  Flow of question from general to specificFlow of question from general to specific  Flow of question from least to most sensitive.Flow of question from least to most sensitive.
  • 49.  The questionnaire should generally start withThe questionnaire should generally start with demographic profiles of the subjects anddemographic profiles of the subjects and followed by specific questions according to thefollowed by specific questions according to the objectives of the study.objectives of the study.
  • 50. Question ConstructionQuestion Construction  Use statements that can be interpreted in sameUse statements that can be interpreted in same way by all subjectsway by all subjects  Use statements that persons have differentUse statements that persons have different opinions and may give different answersopinions and may give different answers  Use only one aspect of construct in which youUse only one aspect of construct in which you are interestedare interested  Avoid asking double-barrelled questionsAvoid asking double-barrelled questions containing two distinct ideas or conceptcontaining two distinct ideas or concept
  • 51.  Avoid leading, loaded , ambitious and longAvoid leading, loaded , ambitious and long questionsquestions  Avoid negative questionsAvoid negative questions  Use positive statementsUse positive statements  Assumptions should not be made aboutAssumptions should not be made about respondentrespondent  Comprehensive and clear wording should be usedComprehensive and clear wording should be used  Use correct spelling, grammar and punctuation.Use correct spelling, grammar and punctuation.
  • 52. Rating scalesRating scales  Rating scales refers to scales with a set ofRating scales refers to scales with a set of opinion , which describes varying degreeopinion , which describes varying degree of attitude being observed.of attitude being observed.
  • 53. TypesTypes  Graphic Rating ScaleGraphic Rating Scale In this scale the performance is printedIn this scale the performance is printed horizontally at various points from lowest tohorizontally at various points from lowest to highest. It includes the numerical point .It ishighest. It includes the numerical point .It is anchored by two extremes to respondents foranchored by two extremes to respondents for evaluation of a concept or object.evaluation of a concept or object. Eg – How much are you satisfied with noise controlEg – How much are you satisfied with noise control in your wardin your ward LeastLeast MostMost
  • 54.  Descriptive Rating ScaleDescriptive Rating Scale Do not use number , but divide theDo not use number , but divide the assessment into series of verbal phrases toassessment into series of verbal phrases to indicate the level of performance.indicate the level of performance. Eg Judge the level of performance in causalityEg Judge the level of performance in causality level of clinical performancelevel of clinical performance Nursing personne l in the ward Very active Active Moderat ely Active Passive Anandu Arun Nithin
  • 55.  Numerical Rating ScaleNumerical Rating Scale Divides the evaluation criteria into a fixedDivides the evaluation criteria into a fixed number of points, but defines only numbers atnumber of points, but defines only numbers at the extremes. In these scales, each statement isthe extremes. In these scales, each statement is generally assigned a numerical score ranginggenerally assigned a numerical score ranging from 1-10 or even more.from 1-10 or even more. Eg pain assessment numerical scaleEg pain assessment numerical scale no painno pain 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 worst pain2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 worst pain
  • 56.  Comparative Rating ScaleComparative Rating Scale The researcher makes a judgment about anThe researcher makes a judgment about an attribute of a person by comparing it with thatattribute of a person by comparing it with that of a similar other person.of a similar other person.
  • 57. AdvantagesAdvantages  Easy to measure and score the measuredEasy to measure and score the measured attributes.attributes.  Has a wide range of application in nursingHas a wide range of application in nursing researchresearch  Easily used for a large group.Easily used for a large group.  Used for assessment of interests, attitudes, andUsed for assessment of interests, attitudes, and personal characteristics.personal characteristics.  Used to evaluate performance and skills.Used to evaluate performance and skills.  Are adaptable and flexible research instruments.Are adaptable and flexible research instruments.
  • 58. DisadvantagesDisadvantages  It is difficult to fix up rating about manyIt is difficult to fix up rating about many aspects of an individual.aspects of an individual.  Misuse can result in decrease in objectivity.Misuse can result in decrease in objectivity.
  • 59. Likert scalesLikert scales  named after the psychologist Rensis Likertnamed after the psychologist Rensis Likert  used to assess attitude or opinion of subjects regardingused to assess attitude or opinion of subjects regarding some phenomenonsome phenomenon  consists of several declarative statements that express aconsists of several declarative statements that express a view point on a topicview point on a topic  Respondents are asked to indicate the degree to whichRespondents are asked to indicate the degree to which they agree or disagree with the opinionthey agree or disagree with the opinion  The number of responses may range from four to sevenThe number of responses may range from four to seven  Values are placed on each response, with a value ofValues are placed on each response, with a value of oneone on the most negative response and a value of five on theon the most negative response and a value of five on the most positive responsivemost positive responsive on a five point scaleon a five point scale ..
  • 60. DefinitionDefinition Likert scale is a composite measureLikert scale is a composite measure of attitude that involve summation of scores onof attitude that involve summation of scores on set of items to which respondents are asked toset of items to which respondents are asked to indicate their degree of agreement orindicate their degree of agreement or disagreement.disagreement.
  • 61. Direct- ion of scoring* Items SA A U D SD + _ _ + + 1. I like to give care to patients with HIV/AIDS 2. AIDS is a punishment from God 3.Immoral people develop AIDS 4.AIDS patients are to be treated like any other patients 5. AIDS patients rights are to be protected.
  • 62.  Agreement with positively worded items andAgreement with positively worded items and disagreement with negatively worded items aredisagreement with negatively worded items are assigned scores.assigned scores.  Thus a higher score indicates higher degree ofThus a higher score indicates higher degree of agreement.agreement.  A person’s total score is determined by addingA person’s total score is determined by adding together individual item scorestogether individual item scores  The summation feature of such scales makes itThe summation feature of such scales makes it possible to make fine discriminations amongpossible to make fine discriminations among people with different viewpointspeople with different viewpoints
  • 63. UsesUses  Used to measure the attitudes, values and feelingsUsed to measure the attitudes, values and feelings of the people about specific concepts such asof the people about specific concepts such as situations, people, places, objects, programmes,situations, people, places, objects, programmes, practices, policies and so on.practices, policies and so on.  It may also be used to assess the opinions of theIt may also be used to assess the opinions of the respondents about a particular abstract concept.respondents about a particular abstract concept.  It collects the opinions of people with variousIt collects the opinions of people with various attitudes, emotions, and feelings towards aattitudes, emotions, and feelings towards a particular concept.particular concept.
  • 64. AdvantagesAdvantages  Relatively easy to construct.Relatively easy to construct.  More reliable and valid tool to measure theMore reliable and valid tool to measure the psychosocial variables.psychosocial variables.  It is less time consuming during constructionIt is less time consuming during construction and administration.and administration.
  • 65. DisadvantagesDisadvantages  Respondents may feel forced to answer theRespondents may feel forced to answer the questions.questions.  Feeling of the respondents may not be fullyFeeling of the respondents may not be fully assessed due to researchers preplannedassessed due to researchers preplanned statements and categories.statements and categories.  Casual approach of respondents in these scalesCasual approach of respondents in these scales may provide misleading data.may provide misleading data.
  • 66. Semantic Differential ScaleSemantic Differential Scale  consists of two opposite adjectives with a 7-consists of two opposite adjectives with a 7- point scale between thempoint scale between them  The respondents are asked to rate a conceptThe respondents are asked to rate a concept by selecting one point on the scale that bestby selecting one point on the scale that best describes his or her view of the conceptdescribes his or her view of the concept  The values for the scale are summed toThe values for the scale are summed to obtain one score for each subjectobtain one score for each subject..
  • 67. DefinitionDefinition Semantic differential scale is a type ofSemantic differential scale is a type of rating scale designed to measure therating scale designed to measure the connotative meaning of objects, events andconnotative meaning of objects, events and concepts.concepts.
  • 68. Example of a Semantic DifferentialExample of a Semantic Differential Male NurseMale Nurse Competent ___7*___6___5___4____3____2____1__ incompetentCompetent ___7*___6___5___4____3____2____1__ incompetent Cold ___1____2___3___4____5____6____7 WarmCold ___1____2___3___4____5____6____7 Warm BadBad ________________________________ Good________________________________ Good Responsible ________________________________ irresponsibleResponsible ________________________________ irresponsible Successful ________________________________ UnsuccessfulSuccessful ________________________________ Unsuccessful Important ________________________________ unimportantImportant ________________________________ unimportant
  • 69. AdvantagesAdvantages  A convenient method to assess the beliefs,A convenient method to assess the beliefs, attitudes, and values in quantitative form.attitudes, and values in quantitative form.  Easy to administerEasy to administer  Provide reasonable valid and reliableProvide reasonable valid and reliable quantitative data.quantitative data.
  • 70. DisadvantagesDisadvantages  It is difficult to select the relevant concepts,It is difficult to select the relevant concepts, which are appropriate for any givenwhich are appropriate for any given investigation.investigation.  It is time consuming to find the appropriateIt is time consuming to find the appropriate adjective pairs.adjective pairs.
  • 71. Visual analogue ScalesVisual analogue Scales  used to assess perception of stimuli such as pain,used to assess perception of stimuli such as pain, sleep quality, anxiety, severity of symptoms etc.sleep quality, anxiety, severity of symptoms etc.  consists of a linear scale, anchored by two words orconsists of a linear scale, anchored by two words or phrasesphrases  The subject is asked to place a mark through a lineThe subject is asked to place a mark through a line to indicate the intensity of the stimulus.to indicate the intensity of the stimulus.  The distance between the mark and the left of theThe distance between the mark and the left of the scale is considered as the value of the stimuliscale is considered as the value of the stimuli
  • 72. DefinitionDefinition  Visual analogous scale is a tool used to help aVisual analogous scale is a tool used to help a person rate the intensity of certain sensationsperson rate the intensity of certain sensations and feelings, such as pain.and feelings, such as pain. For example, the visual analogue scale forFor example, the visual analogue scale for pain is a straight line with no pain at one end thepain is a straight line with no pain at one end the worst pain imaginable at the other end, Aworst pain imaginable at the other end, A patient marks a point on the line that matchespatient marks a point on the line that matches the amount of pain he or she feels.the amount of pain he or she feels.
  • 73. Example of a Visual analogue scaleExample of a Visual analogue scale No ____________________________________No ____________________________________ Pain as badPain as bad painpain as it can be.as it can be.
  • 74. AdvantagesAdvantages  It is a reliable and valid tool to measure theIt is a reliable and valid tool to measure the intensity of certain sensations and feelings.intensity of certain sensations and feelings.  The quantitative assessment is highlyThe quantitative assessment is highly subjective phenomenon is possible by thissubjective phenomenon is possible by this scale.scale.  This scale is of most value when looking atThis scale is of most value when looking at changes within individual.changes within individual.
  • 75. DisadvantagesDisadvantages  This scale cannot be used for comparingThis scale cannot be used for comparing results across a group of individuals at theresults across a group of individuals at the same time.same time.  In measuring pain, the scale does not affordIn measuring pain, the scale does not afford the patient an opportunity to record increasesthe patient an opportunity to record increases in pain, thereby creating a bias in favour ofin pain, thereby creating a bias in favour of treatment.treatment.
  • 76.  In measuring pain or such sensations, theIn measuring pain or such sensations, the reliability of this scale is low owing to thereliability of this scale is low owing to the patient's need to recall their initial painpatient's need to recall their initial pain severity.severity.
  • 77. BIOPHYSIOLOGICALBIOPHYSIOLOGICAL METHODSMETHODS Involves the collection of biophysiological data from the subjects by using specialized equipments to determine determine physical and biological statistics of subjects
  • 78. PURPOSESPURPOSES  To study basic physiological process basic physiological processes that are relevant to nursing care. eg A study of the person related to biophysiological reactions during period of stress.
  • 79.  To study physiological outcome ofTo study physiological outcome of nursing carenursing care Used in studies exploring and documenting the ways in which nursing actions affect patients biophysiologic outcome. Eg Effect of tepid and cold sponging on core body temperature of patient
  • 80.  To evaluate nursing interventionsTo evaluate nursing interventions Involve a new intervention being tested usually in comparison with standard method of care. eg A study to assess the effect of music on heartbeat rate and blood pressure of cardiac surgery patients..
  • 81.  To study correlation ofTo study correlation of physiological functioning inphysiological functioning in patients with health problemspatients with health problems Used for comparison of physiological functioning of patients with several health problems.
  • 82. TYPESTYPES In vivoIn vivo  Performed directly to measure process occurring internally with in the organism In vitroIn vitro  Physiological processes are measured and analyzed outside the organism
  • 83. ADVANTAGESADVANTAGES  More accurate and less error  More objective in nature  Provide valid measure for targeted variable  Easy access to most of the instruments
  • 84. DISADVANTAGESDISADVANTAGES  Very expensive  Requires significant amount of training and experience  Instruments may cause fear and anxiety  Health risk for the subjects
  • 85. PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUEPROJECTIVE TECHNIQUE Are methods for measuring psychological attributes by providing respondents with unstructured stimuli to which they respond  Ex: Value, attitude, personality etc
  • 86. Q - SortsQ - Sorts Is a technique in which the participants are provided with pre written cards with words, phrases and statements and asked to arrange these cards in order along with a specific bipolar dimension
  • 87.
  • 88. ReliabilityReliability Reliability is the degree of consistency andReliability is the degree of consistency and accuracy with which an instrument measuresaccuracy with which an instrument measures the attribute for which it is designed.the attribute for which it is designed.
  • 89. Factors that depends to measureFactors that depends to measure reliabilityreliability  StabilityStability The stability aspect of reliability means aThe stability aspect of reliability means a research instrument provides same resultsresearch instrument provides same results when it is consecutively used for two or morewhen it is consecutively used for two or more times. Stability is estimated to make sure thattimes. Stability is estimated to make sure that research instrument is constant in providingresearch instrument is constant in providing similar results with repeated administration.similar results with repeated administration.
  • 90.  Internal consistencyInternal consistency Internal consistency ensures that all theInternal consistency ensures that all the subparts of the research instrument measure thesubparts of the research instrument measure the same characteristic.same characteristic. E.g.- A patients satisfaction measurement scaleE.g.- A patients satisfaction measurement scale developed to measure the patients satisfactiondeveloped to measure the patients satisfaction with nursing care must include all the subpartswith nursing care must include all the subparts related to the measurement of satisfaction withrelated to the measurement of satisfaction with nursing care only, including a subpart related tonursing care only, including a subpart related to patients satisfaction with health care would bepatients satisfaction with health care would be inappropriate in the scale.inappropriate in the scale.
  • 91.  EquivalenceEquivalence In this aspect of reliability it is done forIn this aspect of reliability it is done for testing the reliability of a tool. In this twotesting the reliability of a tool. In this two different observers observe a singledifferent observers observe a single phenomenon simultaneously andphenomenon simultaneously and independently.independently.
  • 92. ValidityValidity Validity refers to which an instrumentValidity refers to which an instrument measures what it is suppose to measuringmeasures what it is suppose to measuring
  • 93. Types Of ValidityTypes Of Validity  Face ValidityFace Validity Overall look of a instrument regarding itsOverall look of a instrument regarding its appropriateness to measure a particularappropriateness to measure a particular phenomenon.phenomenon. In simple words this aspect of validity refers toIn simple words this aspect of validity refers to the face value and the outlook of anthe face value and the outlook of an instrument.instrument.
  • 94.  Content ValidityContent Validity It is concerned with scope of coverage ofIt is concerned with scope of coverage of content area to be measured.content area to be measured.  Criterion validityCriterion validity In this validity is a relationship betweenIn this validity is a relationship between measurements of the instrument with somemeasurements of the instrument with some external criteria.external criteria.
  • 95.  Construct validityConstruct validity Construct validity is the key criterion forConstruct validity is the key criterion for assessing the quality of a study. A construct isassessing the quality of a study. A construct is founded in this type of validity.founded in this type of validity. Construct validity requires an assessmentConstruct validity requires an assessment of how well an instrument measures aof how well an instrument measures a theoretical construct.theoretical construct.
  • 96. PILOT STUDYPILOT STUDY A pilot study is referred to a small scaleA pilot study is referred to a small scale preliminary tryout of the method to be used inpreliminary tryout of the method to be used in the large research study, which acquaints thethe large research study, which acquaints the researcher with problems that can be correctedresearcher with problems that can be corrected in proportion for the large research study or isin proportion for the large research study or is done to provide the researcher with andone to provide the researcher with an opportunity to try out the procedure, methodsopportunity to try out the procedure, methods and tool of data collection.and tool of data collection.
  • 97. PurposesPurposes  To study the feasibility and practicability ofTo study the feasibility and practicability of the research study.the research study.  To assess the availability of the study subjects.To assess the availability of the study subjects.  To assess the validity and reliability of theTo assess the validity and reliability of the research tool.research tool.  To ensure the appropriateness of methods andTo ensure the appropriateness of methods and procedures of data collection.procedures of data collection.
  • 98.  To understand the study variables and otherTo understand the study variables and other variables.variables.  To estimate the actual and potential problemsTo estimate the actual and potential problems researcher may encounter during the actualresearcher may encounter during the actual large research study.large research study.  To refine methodologyTo refine methodology  To plan for data analysis and interpretation forTo plan for data analysis and interpretation for the final larger research study.the final larger research study.
  • 99. Bio-physiologic MethodsBio-physiologic Methods  most reliable and valid of measurementsmost reliable and valid of measurements  Techniques like direct observation, self-report,Techniques like direct observation, self-report, paper and pencil scalespaper and pencil scales  specialized equipments and instruments ( details ofspecialized equipments and instruments ( details of the exact procedures followed and specificthe exact procedures followed and specific description of the equipment used)description of the equipment used)  Comparison of physiologic measures withComparison of physiologic measures with psychological phenomena possiblepsychological phenomena possible  Risk of false-positive and false-negative test resultsRisk of false-positive and false-negative test results
  • 100. Self- reportsSelf- reports  Collecting information directly from theCollecting information directly from the subjects by questioning themsubjects by questioning them  Human beings can communicate whatHuman beings can communicate what they think, feel or believe through thisthey think, feel or believe through this method.method.  Efficient in gathering data which areEfficient in gathering data which are difficult to get by other meansdifficult to get by other means
  • 101. Self-report….Self-report….limitationslimitations  concern about the validity and accuracy ofconcern about the validity and accuracy of the information.the information.  The researcher cannot guarantee that whatThe researcher cannot guarantee that what people say is exactly what they think or feelpeople say is exactly what they think or feel especially if the data are embarrassing or onespecially if the data are embarrassing or on socially undesirable matterssocially undesirable matters
  • 102. Self-report: techniquesSelf-report: techniques  InterviewInterview  administration of questionnaire oradministration of questionnaire or other instrumentsother instruments  projective techniquesprojective techniques
  • 103. The most common data collection instrument Survey Questionnaire Useful to collect quantitative and qualitative information Should contain 3 elements: 1. Introduction – to explain the objectives 2. Instructions – must be clear, simple language & short 3. User-friendly – avoid difficult or ambiguous questions
  • 104. Types of survey questionaire: 1. Open-ended Questions – Free-response (Text Open End) – Fill-in relevant information 2. Close-ended Questions – Dichotomous question – Multiple-choice – Cafeteria question – Rank Order Question – Contingency question – Rating Questions
  • 105. Steps To An Effective Survey Questionnaire Prepare your survey questions (Formulate & choose types of questions, order them, write instructions, make copies) Select your respondents/sampling Random/Selected Administer the survey questionnaire (date, venue, time ) Analyze and interpret data collected Tabulate data collected (Statistical analysis-frequency/mean/correlation/% )
  • 106. Characteristics of ResearchCharacteristics of Research InstrumentsInstruments  Validity refers to the degree to which anValidity refers to the degree to which an instrument measures what it is intended toinstrument measures what it is intended to measure.measure.  Validity of an instrument is a determination ofValidity of an instrument is a determination of how well it reflects the abstract concept beinghow well it reflects the abstract concept being examinedexamined  Validation of a tool is an ongoing process.Validation of a tool is an ongoing process.
  • 107.  Content ValidityContent Validity  Content validity is concerned with theContent validity is concerned with the sampling adequacy of the content area beingsampling adequacy of the content area being measured. Content validation requires themeasured. Content validation requires the systematic investigation of an instrument tosystematic investigation of an instrument to determine whether its items adequately sampledetermine whether its items adequately sample the domain being measured and whether theythe domain being measured and whether they are constructed in the most appropriate formare constructed in the most appropriate form
  • 108.  Criterion related ValidityCriterion related Validity  Criterion related validity refers to the degree to whichCriterion related validity refers to the degree to which scores on the test are correlated with some externalscores on the test are correlated with some external criterioncriterion  concurrentconcurrent validityvalidity refers to an instrument’s ability torefers to an instrument’s ability to distinguish individuals who differ on a presentdistinguish individuals who differ on a present criterion andcriterion and predictive validitypredictive validity refers to the adequacyrefers to the adequacy of an instrument in predicting the performance orof an instrument in predicting the performance or behaviour of individuals on some future criteria.behaviour of individuals on some future criteria.
  • 109.  Construct validityConstruct validity  Construct validity requires an assessment ofConstruct validity requires an assessment of how well an instrument measures a theoreticalhow well an instrument measures a theoretical construct. The investigator is concerned withconstruct. The investigator is concerned with the question: is the construct underthe question: is the construct under investigation being adequately measured?investigation being adequately measured?
  • 110. ReliabilityReliability the accuracy and consistency of a measuringthe accuracy and consistency of a measuring instrument. Reliability means repeatability,instrument. Reliability means repeatability, whether the scale is measuring something in awhether the scale is measuring something in a reproducible fashion.reproducible fashion. Stability, internal consistency and equivalenceStability, internal consistency and equivalence are the important reliability estimates. Theare the important reliability estimates. The following is a brief description of the three.following is a brief description of the three.
  • 111.  The common methods to establish constructThe common methods to establish construct validity are: factor analysis, known groupvalidity are: factor analysis, known group technique, and multitrait multimethodtechnique, and multitrait multimethod approach.approach.