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Korea ppt-korean war

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Korea ppt-korean war

  1. 1. Bringing Korea to the K-12 ClassroomsBringing Korea to the K-12 Classrooms The Korean WarThe Korean War ((June 25,1950 to July 27,1953June 25,1950 to July 27,1953)) National Korean Studies Seminar Copyright 2014 Sung Kim and Mary Connor
  2. 2. The Two Brothers (Korean WarThe Two Brothers (Korean War Museum, Seoul, South Korea)Museum, Seoul, South Korea)
  3. 3. The Korean War (1950-1953)The Korean War (1950-1953)  The Korean War was a civil war. Brothers foughtThe Korean War was a civil war. Brothers fought and killed one another as Americans fought andand killed one another as Americans fought and killed their fellow countrymen during the Civilkilled their fellow countrymen during the Civil War.War.  The Korean War was also part of the Cold War,The Korean War was also part of the Cold War, a struggle between the United States and thea struggle between the United States and the former Soviet Union.former Soviet Union.  The Korean War armistice was signed in 1953,The Korean War armistice was signed in 1953, but the issues of that war remain unresolved.but the issues of that war remain unresolved.
  4. 4. Table of ContentsTable of Contents  IntroductionIntroduction  The End of WWII and the Division of KoreaThe End of WWII and the Division of Korea  The Post-War World and the Cold WarThe Post-War World and the Cold War  Emerging Leaders and Occupation Forces in SouthEmerging Leaders and Occupation Forces in South and North Koreaand North Korea  The Causes and Phases of the WarThe Causes and Phases of the War  Summary and Flags of U.N. ForcesSummary and Flags of U.N. Forces  Statistics Connected to the WarStatistics Connected to the War  The Results of the Korean WarThe Results of the Korean War  Education during the Korean WarEducation during the Korean War
  5. 5. The End of WWII (1945)The End of WWII (1945)  On August 6 and 9, 1945 the UnitedOn August 6 and 9, 1945 the United States dropped two atomic bombs onStates dropped two atomic bombs on Japan and ended World War II.Japan and ended World War II.  The Soviet Union sent troops into Korea toThe Soviet Union sent troops into Korea to liberate the peninsula from Japan.liberate the peninsula from Japan.  The United States had no troops nearThe United States had no troops near Korea and feared that the USSR wouldKorea and feared that the USSR would take control of Korea.take control of Korea.
  6. 6. The Division of KoreaThe Division of Korea  As Soviet troops poured into Korea, two UnitedAs Soviet troops poured into Korea, two United States officials, without consulting any Koreans,States officials, without consulting any Koreans, made a proposal to the Soviet Union that led tomade a proposal to the Soviet Union that led to the division of Korea.the division of Korea.  This proposal suggested that Korea be dividedThis proposal suggested that Korea be divided temporarily at the 38temporarily at the 38thth parallel and that the USSRparallel and that the USSR would occupy the North and the United Stateswould occupy the North and the United States would occupy the South.would occupy the South.  The United States was surprised that the SovietThe United States was surprised that the Soviet Union accepted the proposal.Union accepted the proposal.
  7. 7. Background for Understanding theBackground for Understanding the Post World War II PeriodPost World War II Period  The United States and the Soviet UnionThe United States and the Soviet Union became the two major powers in the worldbecame the two major powers in the world after World War II ended in 1945.after World War II ended in 1945.  Although the war was over, poverty,Although the war was over, poverty, devastation, and political instability existeddevastation, and political instability existed throughout Europe and most of Asia.throughout Europe and most of Asia.  The United Nations was created in 1945 toThe United Nations was created in 1945 to maintain peace in what appeared to be amaintain peace in what appeared to be a very unstable world.very unstable world.
  8. 8. Post WWII TensionsPost WWII Tensions (U.S. and the U.S.S.R.)(U.S. and the U.S.S.R.)  The world had not stopped Japan or Germany whenThe world had not stopped Japan or Germany when each took aggressive steps in Asia , Europe and Africaeach took aggressive steps in Asia , Europe and Africa at the beginning of WWII. After the war the U.S. believedat the beginning of WWII. After the war the U.S. believed that its lesson was now to stop aggression everywhere.that its lesson was now to stop aggression everywhere.  The Soviet Union distrusted the United States becauseThe Soviet Union distrusted the United States because of wartime decisions that contributed to the deaths of 23of wartime decisions that contributed to the deaths of 23 million lives. The death toll for WWII was 62 millionmillion lives. The death toll for WWII was 62 million people.people.  The Soviet Union believed that capitalism exploits peopleThe Soviet Union believed that capitalism exploits people all over the world because that economic systemall over the world because that economic system inevitably leads to instability and colonialism or imperialinevitably leads to instability and colonialism or imperial control over less developed countries.control over less developed countries.
  9. 9. The Cold War (1945-1989)The Cold War (1945-1989)  This tension between the Soviet Union and theThis tension between the Soviet Union and the United States led to what was called the ColdUnited States led to what was called the Cold War. This tension ultimately contributed to theWar. This tension ultimately contributed to the outbreak of the Korean War.outbreak of the Korean War.  After WWII Russian troops remained in EasternAfter WWII Russian troops remained in Eastern Europe. The U.S. took this as a sign that theEurope. The U.S. took this as a sign that the Soviet Union was not to be trusted and wasSoviet Union was not to be trusted and was spreading communism.spreading communism.  After the tremendous losses in the war theAfter the tremendous losses in the war the Soviet Union wanted Eastern Europe to protectSoviet Union wanted Eastern Europe to protect them from further invasions.them from further invasions.
  10. 10. The Pros and Cons of CommunismThe Pros and Cons of Communism  Since the Soviet Union had become aSince the Soviet Union had become a major world power in a short period ofmajor world power in a short period of time, many poor people in the worldtime, many poor people in the world thought communism could bring quickthought communism could bring quick economic growth and greater equalityeconomic growth and greater equality between people.between people.  The United States feared that communismThe United States feared that communism threatened democracy and capitalism asthreatened democracy and capitalism as well as the American way of life.well as the American way of life.
  11. 11. U.S. President, Harry TrumanU.S. President, Harry Truman (1945-1953)(1945-1953)  Since the Soviet Union occupiedSince the Soviet Union occupied Eastern Europe after the War, PresidentEastern Europe after the War, President Harry Truman established the TrumanHarry Truman established the Truman Doctrine to contain communism.Doctrine to contain communism.  Truman also created the Marshall PlanTruman also created the Marshall Plan to help the economic recovery ofto help the economic recovery of Western Europe.Western Europe.  The U.S. supported the creation ofThe U.S. supported the creation of NATO, a military alliance with WesternNATO, a military alliance with Western Europe to stop aggression.Europe to stop aggression.The U.S. President Harry Truman
  12. 12. China becomes Communist and theChina becomes Communist and the U.S.S.RU.S.S.R Tests an Atomic BombTests an Atomic Bomb  In 1949 Mao Zedong won theIn 1949 Mao Zedong won the battle with Chang Gaesokbattle with Chang Gaesok (Kai-shek) and brought(Kai-shek) and brought communism to the entirecommunism to the entire China mainland.China mainland.  The Soviet Union in the sameThe Soviet Union in the same year successfully tested anyear successfully tested an atomic bomb and ended theatomic bomb and ended the U.S. monopoly on atomicU.S. monopoly on atomic weapons.weapons. Mao Zedong, the communist leader of China
  13. 13. U.S. Occupation of South KoreaU.S. Occupation of South Korea (1945-1948)(1945-1948)  General John Hodge became the leaderGeneral John Hodge became the leader of the U.S. occupation forces and set up aof the U.S. occupation forces and set up a government. He appointed propertied,government. He appointed propertied, anti-communist, well-educated, English-anti-communist, well-educated, English- speaking people to the new government.speaking people to the new government.  He also appointed many Koreans who hadHe also appointed many Koreans who had cooperated with the Japanese duringcooperated with the Japanese during colonial occupation without realizing thecolonial occupation without realizing the resentment this would create.resentment this would create.
  14. 14. Rhee and South Korea (ROK)Rhee and South Korea (ROK)  In August, 1948, the Republic of Korea (ROK) wasIn August, 1948, the Republic of Korea (ROK) was established in South Korea and Rhee Seungmanestablished in South Korea and Rhee Seungman (a former independence fighter and ardent anti-(a former independence fighter and ardent anti- communist) was elected the first president. Thecommunist) was elected the first president. The ROK claimed that it was the only legitimateROK claimed that it was the only legitimate government on the peninsula.government on the peninsula.  The United States and many other democraticThe United States and many other democratic nations promptly recognized the new government.nations promptly recognized the new government. U.S. troops exited South Korea, leaving poorlyU.S. troops exited South Korea, leaving poorly trained Korean forces and limited militarytrained Korean forces and limited military equipment behind.equipment behind.  The new South Korean government called forThe new South Korean government called for revolutionary changes such as land redistribution,revolutionary changes such as land redistribution, the nationalization of industry, and the right to votethe nationalization of industry, and the right to vote for men and women except for those who hadfor men and women except for those who had cooperated with the Japanese.cooperated with the Japanese. Dr. Rhee Seungman, South Korea’s 1st President
  15. 15. Soviet Occupation of North KoreaSoviet Occupation of North Korea (1945-1948)(1945-1948)  The Soviet occupation forces fired KoreanThe Soviet occupation forces fired Korean government officials who had worked with thegovernment officials who had worked with the Japanese during colonial occupation.Japanese during colonial occupation.  Large industries were nationalized, JapaneseLarge industries were nationalized, Japanese land was seized and most landlords lost theirland was seized and most landlords lost their property.property.  When Kim Il Sung was appointed in 1946 toWhen Kim Il Sung was appointed in 1946 to head the provisional government, he organizedhead the provisional government, he organized an army. Christian churches remained open, butan army. Christian churches remained open, but Christian political activities were ruthlesslyChristian political activities were ruthlessly stamped out.stamped out.  During this period two million Koreans fled to theDuring this period two million Koreans fled to the South.South.
  16. 16. Kim Il Sung and North KoreaKim Il Sung and North Korea (DPRK)(DPRK)  In 1948, the North KoreaIn 1948, the North Korea communists established thecommunists established the Democratic People’s RepublicDemocratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK), and Kim Ilof Korea (DPRK), and Kim Il Sung was elected president.Sung was elected president.  The USSR approved the NorthThe USSR approved the North Korea government andKorea government and withdrew its troops, but left awithdrew its troops, but left a large number of modernlarge number of modern military weapons and advisorsmilitary weapons and advisors to train Kim Il Sung’s forces.to train Kim Il Sung’s forces. Kim Il Sung, the first President, of North Korea
  17. 17. Kim Il SungKim Il Sung  When Kim Il Sung was 17, the JapaneseWhen Kim Il Sung was 17, the Japanese imprisoned him for three months for organizing aimprisoned him for three months for organizing a Korean youth organization.Korean youth organization.  He became a famous anti-Japanese guerillaHe became a famous anti-Japanese guerilla fighter, having close contacts with communistsfighter, having close contacts with communists in the Soviet Union and China.in the Soviet Union and China.  Once in power as the leader of North Korea, heOnce in power as the leader of North Korea, he moved quickly toward a dictatorship.moved quickly toward a dictatorship.  Determined to reunify Korea by force, he startedDetermined to reunify Korea by force, he started the Korean War with the reluctant support ofthe Korean War with the reluctant support of Joseph Stalin, the leader of the Soviet Union,Joseph Stalin, the leader of the Soviet Union, and Mao Zedong.and Mao Zedong.
  18. 18. Preparing for WarPreparing for War  There had been frequent minorThere had been frequent minor skirmishes near the 38th parallelskirmishes near the 38th parallel between 1945 and 1950.between 1945 and 1950.  Kim Il Sung had repeatedlyKim Il Sung had repeatedly asked Stalin for permission toasked Stalin for permission to invade the South. In 1950 Stalininvade the South. In 1950 Stalin finally gave his permission onfinally gave his permission on the condition that Mao wouldthe condition that Mao would support the invasion.support the invasion.  Mao agreed and sent 60,000Mao agreed and sent 60,000 troops to North Korea.troops to North Korea. Joseph Stalin, the leader of the Soviet Union
  19. 19. Key Figures During theKey Figures During the The Korean WarThe Korean War Kim Il Sung Rhee Seung- man General Douglas MacArthur President Harry Truman Mao Zedong Joseph Stalin Principal Leaders
  20. 20. Time Line: Phase 1Time Line: Phase 1 (June to September 1950)(June to September 1950)  On June 25, 1950On June 25, 1950 the North Korean athe North Korean armyrmy followed by Soviet tanksfollowed by Soviet tanks crossedcrossed the 38ththe 38th parallel.parallel. Within three days the NorthWithin three days the North Korean army captured all of the KoreanKorean army captured all of the Korean peninsula except for the area aroundpeninsula except for the area around Pusan.Pusan.  Without a formal declaration of war,Without a formal declaration of war, President Truman sent U.S. air and navalPresident Truman sent U.S. air and naval forces to Korea, but could not stop theforces to Korea, but could not stop the North Korean army.North Korean army.  President Truman then requested thePresident Truman then requested the assistance of the United Nations (UN).assistance of the United Nations (UN).  The UN Security Council decided toThe UN Security Council decided to defend South Korea and voted Generaldefend South Korea and voted General Douglas MacArthur as Commander of theDouglas MacArthur as Commander of the UN forces (90% were American)UN forces (90% were American) General Douglas MacArthur, Chief Commander of UN Forces
  21. 21. Time Line: Phase 2Time Line: Phase 2 (September to October 1950)(September to October 1950)  On September 15, 1950, MacArthur carriedOn September 15, 1950, MacArthur carried off a surprise landing at Inchon harbor.off a surprise landing at Inchon harbor. Quickly moving inland, thousands of UNQuickly moving inland, thousands of UN forces liberated Seoul and pushed theforces liberated Seoul and pushed the North Korean army back to the 38North Korean army back to the 38thth parallel.parallel.  Truman believed that the entire KoreanTruman believed that the entire Korean peninsula should be liberated from thepeninsula should be liberated from the communists and authorized the UN forcescommunists and authorized the UN forces to cross the 38to cross the 38thth parallel.parallel.  In October, 1950, UN forces and the SouthIn October, 1950, UN forces and the South Korean army marched to the north,Korean army marched to the north, captured the capital (Pyongyang), andcaptured the capital (Pyongyang), and continued towards the Yalu River on thecontinued towards the Yalu River on the border of China.border of China.UN forces liberated Seoul (Sept. 15, 1950)
  22. 22. Time Line: Phase 3Time Line: Phase 3 (October 1950 to June 1951)(October 1950 to June 1951)  On October 25, 1950, MaoOn October 25, 1950, Mao Zedong sent hundreds ofZedong sent hundreds of thousands of Chinese troops intothousands of Chinese troops into North Korea. The Chinese armyNorth Korea. The Chinese army poured into Korea and UN forcespoured into Korea and UN forces retreated back to the south.retreated back to the south.  On January 4, 1951, Seoul fellOn January 4, 1951, Seoul fell again to the North’s armed forces.again to the North’s armed forces.  By March, 1951, UN forcesBy March, 1951, UN forces recaptured Seoul.recaptured Seoul.  Continuing back and forth, theContinuing back and forth, the front line then stabilized aroundfront line then stabilized around the 38the 38thth Parallel.Parallel. Many thousands of Chinese soldiers marched to the south.
  23. 23. Truman Fires MacArthurTruman Fires MacArthur  With some stability around the 38With some stability around the 38thth parallel,parallel, the United States and the Soviet Unionthe United States and the Soviet Union welcomed negotiations.welcomed negotiations.  MacArthur wanted to extend the war intoMacArthur wanted to extend the war into China to liberate it from communism.China to liberate it from communism.  Truman fired MacArthur because heTruman fired MacArthur because he disagreed with the Commander of the UNdisagreed with the Commander of the UN and believed that a war with China couldand believed that a war with China could cause WWIII.cause WWIII.
  24. 24. The Prisoners of War IssueThe Prisoners of War Issue  During negotiations, the mostDuring negotiations, the most controversial issue was the fate of thecontroversial issue was the fate of the prisoners of war.prisoners of war.  The U.S. insisted it would only returnThe U.S. insisted it would only return those North Korean and Chinesethose North Korean and Chinese prisoners who wanted to go home. Butprisoners who wanted to go home. But North Korea objected.North Korea objected.
  25. 25. Time Line: Phase 4Time Line: Phase 4 (June 1951 to July 27,1953)(June 1951 to July 27,1953)  Finally after two years of negotiations, a truce wasFinally after two years of negotiations, a truce was signed at Panmunjom on July 27, 1953.signed at Panmunjom on July 27, 1953.  A four-mile wide demilitarized zone (DMZ), calledA four-mile wide demilitarized zone (DMZ), called the Joint Security Area (JSA), was establishedthe Joint Security Area (JSA), was established across the peninsula.across the peninsula.
  26. 26. Panmujom (the armistice wasPanmujom (the armistice was signed in one of these buildings)signed in one of these buildings)
  27. 27. Viewing North Korea from the DMZViewing North Korea from the DMZ
  28. 28. 한국전쟁의 경과한국전쟁의 경과 Korean War Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 9. 15.1950 - 10. 25.1950 MacArthur at Inchon Seoul liberated March Northward 10. 25.1950 - 6. 23.1951 6.23.1951 - 7.27.1953 Front line stabilized Chinese Invasion 6. 25.1950 -9. 15.1950 North Korea Invaded Seoul Captured Retreat to the south Truce signed DMZ settled Summary of the War
  29. 29. United Nations ForcesUnited Nations Forces Australia ( 호주 ) Belgium ( 벨기에 ) Army Canada ( 캐나다 ) Army Navy Air Force Colombia ( 콜롬비 아 ) Army Navy battleship Army, Air Force Navy
  30. 30. UN ForcesUN Forces Ethiopia ( 이디오피아 ) Army France ( 프랑스 ) Army United Kingdom ( 영국 ) Army Navy Air Force battleship Greece ( 그리스 ) Army fighter planes
  31. 31. UN ForcesUN Forces Netherlands ( 네덜란드 ) Army Navy Luxembourg ( 룩셈부르크 ) Army New Zealand ( 뉴질랜드 ) Army Philippines ( 필리핀 ) Army tank corps
  32. 32. UN Forces (16 countries)UN Forces (16 countries) South Africa ( 남 아프리카 ) Air Force Thailand ( 태국 ) Army Navy Air Force Turkey ( 터키 ) Army United States ( 미국 ) 90% of UN Forces: Army, Navy, Air Force, battleships, fighter planes, weapons, supplies
  33. 33. Other SupportOther Support Medical Support Denmark India Italy Norway Sweden Japan ( 일본 ) Joined unofficially Navy and battleships
  34. 34. Korean War StatisticsKorean War Statistics CiviliansCivilians SoldiersSoldiers U.S.U.S. UNUN forcesforces totaltotal 990,000990,000 MostlyMostly SouthSouth KoreansKoreans 900,000Chinese900,000Chinese 520,000 North520,000 North 270,000 South270,000 South 54,00054,000 130,000130,000 3,000,0003,000,000  Around three million people, almost one- tenth ofAround three million people, almost one- tenth of the entire population were killed, wounded, andthe entire population were killed, wounded, and missing.missing.  One-third of the dead were civilians. Another fiveOne-third of the dead were civilians. Another five million became refugees and orphans.million became refugees and orphans.
  35. 35. Civilian VictimsCivilian Victims  When the North Korean troops captured Seoul,When the North Korean troops captured Seoul, thousands of South Koreans were killed.thousands of South Koreans were killed.  When the North Koreans retreated to the north,When the North Koreans retreated to the north, many South Korean civilians were kidnapped ormany South Korean civilians were kidnapped or missing.missing. DeadDead WoundedWounded MissingMissing TotalTotal 374,160374,160 229,625229,625 388,234388,234 992,019992,019
  36. 36. The Results of the Korean WarThe Results of the Korean War  Korea remains divided, and U.S. troops are stillKorea remains divided, and U.S. troops are still stationed in South Korea.stationed in South Korea.  The war resolved none of the issues of the warThe war resolved none of the issues of the war and left a legacy of bitterness and tension.and left a legacy of bitterness and tension.  Korea was one of the poorest areas of the world,Korea was one of the poorest areas of the world, and both North and South Korea were virtuallyand both North and South Korea were virtually destroyed. After 3 years of U.S. bombing hardlydestroyed. After 3 years of U.S. bombing hardly a building remained in North Koreaa building remained in North Korea  Ten million people remained separated fromTen million people remained separated from their families by the 38their families by the 38thth parallel.parallel.
  37. 37. Results of the Korean WarResults of the Korean War  Each of the Koreas blamed the other asEach of the Koreas blamed the other as the sole aggressor of the war.the sole aggressor of the war.  The results contributed to the growth ofThe results contributed to the growth of authoritarian rule and suppression of civilauthoritarian rule and suppression of civil rights both north and south of the DMZ.rights both north and south of the DMZ.  The U.S. concluded that it could containThe U.S. concluded that it could contain communism and entered the Vietnamcommunism and entered the Vietnam War.War.
  38. 38. Education during the Korean WarEducation during the Korean War  During the Korean War about 80 percent of allDuring the Korean War about 80 percent of all educational facilities were damaged oreducational facilities were damaged or destroyed. In spite of the widespread hunger,destroyed. In spite of the widespread hunger, death, destruction, dislocation, and a shortage ofdeath, destruction, dislocation, and a shortage of teachers, textbooks, supplies, and buildings,teachers, textbooks, supplies, and buildings, efforts were made as early as 1951 to resumeefforts were made as early as 1951 to resume education. Korean parents willingly sent theireducation. Korean parents willingly sent their children to factories, refugee camps, tents, orchildren to factories, refugee camps, tents, or even street schools if this was all that waseven street schools if this was all that was available.available.
  39. 39. Picture GalleryPicture Gallery
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  47. 47. BibliographyBibliography  Cumings, Bruce.Cumings, Bruce. Korea’s Place in the SunKorea’s Place in the Sun  Connor, Mary E.Connor, Mary E. The Koreas: A Global StudiesThe Koreas: A Global Studies Handbook (Handbook (20022002).). Santa Barbara, CA, ABC-CLIO, Inc.Santa Barbara, CA, ABC-CLIO, Inc.  Norton, Mary Beth, et al.Norton, Mary Beth, et al. A People and a NationA People and a Nation  http://www.korean-war.com/TimeLine/1950/06-25to08-03-50.hhttp://www.korean-war.com/TimeLine/1950/06-25to08-03-50.h  http://images.google.com/images?svnum=10&hl=en&lr=&q=ghttp://images.google.com/images?svnum=10&hl=en&lr=&q=g  http://www.panmunjomtour.com/dmz/dmz_2.htmhttp://www.panmunjomtour.com/dmz/dmz_2.htm  http://preview.britannica.co.kr/bol/topic.asp?article_id=b25h34http://preview.britannica.co.kr/bol/topic.asp?article_id=b25h34

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