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Causes of World War 2 (long)


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62 slides on causes of World War 2: the treaty of Versailles, the 29 Crash and Nazism. The presentation ended with the invasion of Poland. By Alex Liese and me.

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Causes of World War 2 (long)

  2. 2. CAUSES  Treaty ofVersailles  Fascism  Hitler and the Nazi Party  Appeasement  Great Depression  Japanese Expansion
  3. 3. Treaty of Versailles  What was it?  EndedWWI between Germany and the Allied Powers.  The treaty was harsh against Germany.  Why?  Left German people poor and hungry and the economy was ruined.
  4. 4.  Germany had to:  Accept blame for startingWW1  Had to pay damages caused by the war for other countries  Only allowed to have a small army and 6 naval ships.  No tanks, no air force and no submarines  Land was taken away and given to other countries . Treaty of Versailles
  5. 5. German War Reparations DisableWorld War I veteran begging on the streets of Berlin. 1923
  6. 6. American contemporary view of unreasonable GermanWorldWar I war reparations. Political cartoon 1921. German War Reparations
  7. 7. Trains loaded with German machinery deliver their cargo as reparation payment in kind (1920) German War Reparations
  8. 8. Hyperinflation in Germany •The hyperinflation was a three-year period in the Weimar Republic (modern- day Germany) between June 1921 and January 1924.
  9. 9. French soldiers in the Ruhr in 1923 Humiliation for Germany
  10. 10. Fascism  What is this?  Radical authoritarian nationalism  Opposes Liberalism, Marxism, and Anarchism.  After the disaster to many economies in Europe, many countries were taken over by fascist governments and dictators.  Spain: Franco  Italy: Mussolini  Eventually Hitler in Germany
  11. 11. Mussolini and his supporters during the March on Rome in 1922
  12. 12. Fascism: Guernica. Spanish Civil War. April 26, 1937). Preparing World War 2. Ruins of Guernica (1937)
  13. 13. October 23, 1940, Meeting at Hendaya, between Franco and Hitler.
  14. 14. Hitler & the Nazi Party  Germans were desperate for someone to improve their economy and restore their national pride.  On 30 January 1933, Hitler was named chancellor (Reichskanzler)  1934 Hitler became dictator of Germany.  He resented the Treaty of Versailles.
  15. 15. The Nazi Party & Persecution The Dachau camp was the first concentration camp created by the Nazis in 1933 for holding political opponents. Himmler in Dachau, May 1936
  16. 16. The Nazi Party & Persecution
  17. 17. Boycott against Jews, April 1, 1933: Don’t buy in Jewish Shops! The Nazi Party & the anti-Jewish policies
  18. 18. The Nazi Party & the anti-Jewish policies Humiliation of Jews in the streets ofVienna,Austria, after the annexing to Germany, 1938
  19. 19. A Jewish woman who is hiding her face sits on a park bench marked “Only for Jews”, Austria, 1938
  20. 20. On the night of the 9-10 November 1938 the Nazis organized 'Kristallnacht', the night of the broken glass. This mother and child pass the remains of a Jewish owned shop the morning after Kristallnacht.
  21. 21. The public humiliation of Christine Neumann und JuliusWolff . Cause: Rassenschande (‘Racial Shame’). Germany, 1935.
  22. 22. A teacher showing in biology class the differences between Germans and the Jews
  23. 23. The Kindertransport (German for “children's transport“ ) was an organized rescue effort that took place during the nine months prior to the outbreak of the Second World War. The United Kingdom took in almost 10,000 Jewish children. Often they were the only members of their families who survived the Holocaust.
  24. 24. Jewish refugees being marched away by British police at Croydon airport in March 1939. They were put on a flight to Warsaw.
  25. 25. Impact on non-Jewish minorities From 1935 the Nazis began rounding up Roma and holding them in camps. Nazi race theory saw many groups as ’undesirables’. These included: Jews, Roma, black Germans, homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses and the mentally and physically disabled. THESE PEOPLE COULD NOT BE PART OF THE NEW ‘RACIALLY PURE’ GERMANY.
  26. 26. View of the cemetery at the Hadamar Institute, where victims of the Nazi euthanasia program were buried in mass graves. Nazi Persecution of the Disabled: Murder of the “Unfit” •The “euthanasia” program was Nazi Germany's first program of mass murder. It went before the genocide of European Jews (the Holocaust) by approximately two years. •The program targeted—for systematic killing—mentally and physically disabled patients living in institutional settings in Germany and German-annexed territories.
  27. 27. Nazi Persecution of the Disabled: Murder of the “Unfit” Child Euthanasia was the name given to the organized murder of mentally and physically handicapped children and young people up to 16 years old during the Nazi. At least 5,000 children were victims of this programme.
  28. 28. Appeasement  After WW1, countries in Europe did not want another world war.  When Italy and Germany became aggressive and started to imperialize other nations, England and France hoped to keep peace through appeasement.  What is appeasement? • Appeasement means giving in to someone provided their demands are seen as reasonable • To keep Germany happy and satisfied • To not cause trouble  Why? • They thought Hitler could help stop communism
  29. 29. Hitler  Was secretly building up the German Army.  Because England and France didn't stop him he had more time to build up his army and make allies.  Two important alliances:  With Mussolini in Italy  With Japan  First thing he did was take back the land given to Austria in 1939.
  30. 30. Hitler (Right) and Mussolini (left)
  31. 31.  Hitler promised this was the only land he would take over so other European countries agreed wanting to avoid war
  32. 32.  6 months later, he broke his word and demanded a part of Czechoslovakia be given to Germany  France and Britain did not want to go to war so they tried to peacefully settle an agreement with Hitler  This did not work and Hitler invaded Poland 1st, September 1939
  33. 33. Great Depression  Great economic suffering throughout the world.  Many people were out of work and struggling to survive.  Created unstable governments.  Created weak governments.
  34. 34. Great Depression: The Wall Street Crash (October 24, 1929)
  35. 35. Great Depression: Unemployment
  36. 36. Release us from Hunger! We demand Winter Relief! Great Depression: Hunger & Poverty
  37. 37. Clients of a Bank in Berlin try to take out their savings, Berlin, July 13, 1931 Great Depression: Europe
  38. 38. Great Depression: Europe Looking for a job. Doctor! Berlin 1930 Woman looking for a job, Berlin 1931
  39. 39. Japanese Expansion  Japan was growing rapidly  Did not have enough natural resources to sustain their growth  So they looked elsewhere  Started to take over other lands  Invaded China in 1931  China called the League of Nations for Help  What is the League of Nations?
  40. 40. League of Nations  International organization set up in 1919 to help keep world peace  Intended that all countries would be members.  If there were arguments between countries, the league could help settle the fights peacefully rather than by force.  IT FAILED!!!
  41. 41. Japanese Forces of the Imperial Japanese Navy pose triumphantly after their success at the Battle of Shanghai, 1937 1937
  42. 42. ‘THE DOORMAT’: Japanese expansion in East Asia began in 1931 with the invasion of Manchuria and continued in 1937 with a brutal attack on China. •This cartoon of 1933, by the British cartoonist David Low, is entitled: 'The Doormat'. •What is the cartoonist suggesting about the League of Nations, the JapaneseArmy and the western diplomats?
  43. 43. David Low, Evening Standard (8th July, 1936)
  44. 44. WHY did it fail?  Not all countries joined  The league had no power  The league had no army  They were unable to act quickly
  45. 45. Before... the invasion of Poland  The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, also known as the Nazi–Soviet Pact, was a NON-AGGRESSION PACT signed between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union (!!!) in Moscow on 23 August 1939.  The pact remained in force until the German attack on the Soviet positions in Eastern Poland on 22 June 1941.  The treaty included also a secret protocol that divided territories of Romania, Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and Finland into German and Soviet "spheres of influence“.
  46. 46. Poland, September 1939 Cartoon in the Evening Standard depicting Hitler greeting Stalin after the invasion of Poland, with the words: "The scum of the earth, I believe?". To which Stalin replies: "The bloody assassin of the workers, I presume?"; 20 September 1939  Germany invaded Poland on 1 September 1939.  Stalin ordered his own invasion of Poland on 17 September.
  47. 47. THE OUTBREAK OF WORLD WAR 2 Poland, 1939
  48. 48. Hitler watching German soldiers marching into Poland in September 1939
  49. 49. Ten-year-old Polish girl Kazimiera Mika mourning the death of her sister, caused by strafing German aircraft, nearWarsaw. Photo: Julien Bryan (1899 - 1974) Poland, 13 September 1939.
  50. 50. A young boy sits next to the corpse of his mother who was killed when a German airplane dropped bombs on them while their were digging for potatoes.
  51. 51. Two Polish nurses attend to corpses lying on the ground in besiegedWarsaw.
  52. 52. A group of Polish women stare ahead in front of a bombed out building in besiegedWarsaw.
  53. 53. Two nurses tend to a sick and wounded Polish woman in the besieged city of Warsaw.
  54. 54. Nurses and mothers care for infants in a makeshift maternity ward in besieged Warsaw.
  55. 55. DESTRUCTION: View of an operating table in the bombed out maternity ward of the Catholic Hospital of the Transfiguration (one of Warsaw's largest hospitals).
  56. 56. Polish boy in the ruins of Warsaw September 1939. Photographer: Julien Bryan
  57. 57. HUNGER: Polish citizens line up for bread in the besieged city of Warsaw
  58. 58. HUNGER: Polish women forage for potatoes in the besieged city of Warsaw
  59. 59. German soldiers parade through Warsaw to celebrate the conquest of Poland. October 05, 1939.
  60. 60. EXPULSION OF POLES FOLLOWING THE GERMAN INVASION OF POLAND IN 1939. The Poles are removed to make place for German colonists as part of a PLAN TO GERMANIZE WESTERN POLAND. LEBENSRAUM
  61. 61. The Nazi establishment of German Lebensraum required the expulsion of the Poles from Poland, such as their expulsion from Wartheland in 1939. LEBENSRAUM