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Chapter 30: The Post War WorldChapter 30: The Post War World
and Cold War, 1945-Presentand Cold War, 1945-Present
The United States and the SovietThe United States and the Soviet
Union vie for superiority, and bothUnion vie for superiority, and both
countries extend their control overcountries extend their control over
other nations.other nations.
Cold War Timeline, 1946-1980Cold War Timeline, 1946-1980
33.1 Cold War:33.1 Cold War:
Superpowers Face OffSuperpowers Face Off
The opposing economic and politicalThe opposing economic and political
philosophies of the United States andphilosophies of the United States and
the Soviet Union lead to globalthe Soviet Union lead to global
competition.competition.
A Postwar PlanA Postwar Plan
Yalta and Potsdam Conferences:Yalta and Potsdam Conferences:
A Postwar PlanA Postwar Plan

In February 1945, British,In February 1945, British,
American, and Soviet leadersAmerican, and Soviet leaders
meet at Yalta, a second meetingmeet at Yalta, a second meeting
would take place months later atwould take place months later at
PotsdamPotsdam

Europe would be split, each zoneEurope would be split, each zone
would be occupied by the soldierswould be occupied by the soldiers
of one of the main Allied powers.of one of the main Allied powers.

They also agreed that GermanyThey also agreed that Germany
would have to repay the Sovietwould have to repay the Soviet
Union for damage and loss of life.Union for damage and loss of life.

Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, inSoviet leader Joseph Stalin, in
turn, promised free elections inturn, promised free elections in
Eastern Europe.Eastern Europe.
Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin at the Yalta Conference
Churchill, Truman, and Stalin at the Potsdam Conference
Allies Become EnemiesAllies Become Enemies
Creation of the United NationsCreation of the United Nations

June 1945, 50 nations form theJune 1945, 50 nations form the UnitedUnited
NationsNations—an international organization—an international organization

All members are represented in the GeneralAll members are represented in the General
Assembly; 11 nations are on the SecurityAssembly; 11 nations are on the Security
CouncilCouncil

Five permanent members have SecurityFive permanent members have Security
Council veto powerCouncil veto power
Allies Become EnemiesAllies Become Enemies
Differing U.S. and Soviet GoalsDiffering U.S. and Soviet Goals

U.S. and Soviets split sharply after WWII endsU.S. and Soviets split sharply after WWII ends

U.S. is world’s richest and most powerfulU.S. is world’s richest and most powerful
country after WWIIcountry after WWII

Soviets still recovering from high warSoviets still recovering from high war
casualties and had many destroyed citiescasualties and had many destroyed cities
Eastern Europe’s Iron CurtainEastern Europe’s Iron Curtain
Soviets Build a BufferSoviets Build a Buffer

Soviets control Eastern European countriesSoviets control Eastern European countries
after World War IIafter World War II

Stalin installs Communist governments inStalin installs Communist governments in
several countriesseveral countries

Truman urges free elections; Stalin refuses toTruman urges free elections; Stalin refuses to
allow free electionsallow free elections

In 1946, Stalin says capitalism andIn 1946, Stalin says capitalism and
communism cannot co-existcommunism cannot co-exist
Eastern Europe’s Iron CurtainEastern Europe’s Iron Curtain
An Iron Curtain Divides East and WestAn Iron Curtain Divides East and West

Germany is divided; East Germany isGermany is divided; East Germany is
Communist, West Germany democraticCommunist, West Germany democratic

Iron CurtainIron Curtain—Winston Churchill’s name for—Winston Churchill’s name for
the division of Europethe division of Europe
The nations on the
eastern side of the
“Iron Curtain” were
known as the Eastern
Bloc
United States Tries to Contain SovietsUnited States Tries to Contain Soviets
ContainmentContainment

ContainmentContainment—U.S. plan to stop the spread—U.S. plan to stop the spread
of communismof communism
The Truman DoctrineThe Truman Doctrine

Truman DoctrineTruman Doctrine—U.S. supports countries—U.S. supports countries
that reject communismthat reject communism

Congress approves Truman’s request for aidCongress approves Truman’s request for aid
to Greece and Turkeyto Greece and Turkey
United States Tries to Contain SovietsUnited States Tries to Contain Soviets
The Marshall PlanThe Marshall Plan

Much of Western Europe lay in ruins afterMuch of Western Europe lay in ruins after
World War IIWorld War II

Marshall PlanMarshall Plan—U.S. program of assisting—U.S. program of assisting
Western European countriesWestern European countries

Congress approves plan after CommunistCongress approves plan after Communist
takeover of Czechoslovakiatakeover of Czechoslovakia
Germany is SplitGermany is Split
Following WWII, GermanyFollowing WWII, Germany
is split into two differentis split into two different
countries.countries.
East Germany is influencedEast Germany is influenced
by the USSR and theby the USSR and the
government is communist.government is communist.
West Germany isWest Germany is
influenced by the US,influenced by the US,
France and the UK andFrance and the UK and
their government is atheir government is a
democracy.democracy.
The Berlin WallThe Berlin Wall
Not only is theNot only is the
country split, thecountry split, the
capital of Berlin iscapital of Berlin is
split as well.split as well.
East GermanyEast Germany
builds a wall tobuilds a wall to
maintain themaintain the
separationseparation
between the twobetween the two
and keeps itsand keeps its
citizens confinedcitizens confined
within.within.
Crossing over isCrossing over is
strictly forbidden.strictly forbidden.
The Berlin WallThe Berlin Wall
Fence along the East/West Border in Germany
Preserved section of the border between
East Germany and West Germany called
the "Little Berlin Wall" at Mödlareuth
Divisions of GermanyDivisions of Germany
Divisions of BerlinDivisions of Berlin
United States Tries to Contain SovietsUnited States Tries to Contain Soviets
Blockade of Berlin and The Berlin AirliftBlockade of Berlin and The Berlin Airlift

In 1948, U.S., Britain, and France withdraw forcesIn 1948, U.S., Britain, and France withdraw forces
from West Germanyfrom West Germany

Their former occupation zones form one countryTheir former occupation zones form one country

Soviets oppose this, stop land and water traffic intoSoviets oppose this, stop land and water traffic into
West BerlinWest Berlin

West Berlin, located in Soviet occupation zone, facesWest Berlin, located in Soviet occupation zone, faces
starvationstarvation

U.S. and Britain fly in supplies for 11 months until theU.S. and Britain fly in supplies for 11 months until the
blockade endsblockade ends
Routes of Berlin AirliftRoutes of Berlin Airlift
The Cold War Divides the WorldThe Cold War Divides the World
The Cold WarThe Cold War

Cold-WarCold-War—struggle of U.S. and Soviet Union using—struggle of U.S. and Soviet Union using
means short of warmeans short of war
Superpowers Form Rival AlliancesSuperpowers Form Rival Alliances

In 1949, U.S., Canada, and West European countriesIn 1949, U.S., Canada, and West European countries
form NATOform NATO

NATONATO—North Atlantic Treaty Organization—is a—North Atlantic Treaty Organization—is a
defensive military alliancedefensive military alliance

In 1955, Soviets and Eastern nations sign theIn 1955, Soviets and Eastern nations sign the
Warsaw PactWarsaw Pact alliancealliance

In 1961, Soviets build the Berlin Wall to separate EastIn 1961, Soviets build the Berlin Wall to separate East
and West Berlinand West Berlin
NATO
Warsaw Pact
and
Non-aligned nations
Warsaw PactWarsaw Pact
NationsNations
Note: FederalNote: Federal
People’sPeople’s
Republic ofRepublic of
Yugoslavia isYugoslavia is
forced out of theforced out of the
Warsaw Pact inWarsaw Pact in
19481948
The Cold War Divides the WorldThe Cold War Divides the World
The Threat of Nuclear WarThe Threat of Nuclear War

Soviet Union explodes its first atomic bomb inSoviet Union explodes its first atomic bomb in
19491949

U.S. and Soviet Union both develop the moreU.S. and Soviet Union both develop the more
powerful hydrogen bombpowerful hydrogen bomb

BrinkmanshipBrinkmanship—policy of willingness to go to—policy of willingness to go to
the edge of warthe edge of war

Increasing tensions lead to military buildup byIncreasing tensions lead to military buildup by
U.S. and the SovietsU.S. and the Soviets
Nuclear Arms RaceNuclear Arms Race
During the Cold War, both countriesDuring the Cold War, both countries
vie for nuclear superiority andvie for nuclear superiority and
increase their arsenals.increase their arsenals.
The idea was that by building moreThe idea was that by building more
and more bombs; eventually, oneand more bombs; eventually, one
side would stand down.side would stand down.
This, actually, will never happen.This, actually, will never happen.
While it is a little unclear about whoWhile it is a little unclear about who
was bigger or stronger, it iswas bigger or stronger, it is
speculated that the U.S. had manyspeculated that the U.S. had many
more bombs, while the Soviets hadmore bombs, while the Soviets had
more destructive ones such as themore destructive ones such as the
Tsar (Czar) Bomba.Tsar (Czar) Bomba.
Military parades in Red SquareMilitary parades in Red Square
H Bomb TestsH Bomb Tests
Tsar Bomba (King Bomb)Tsar Bomba (King Bomb)
The Space RaceThe Space Race
Not only was the ColdNot only was the Cold
War a race to increaseWar a race to increase
military prowess, it wasmilitary prowess, it was
also a race foralso a race for
technological prowess.technological prowess.
This included the raceThis included the race
to be the first countryto be the first country
into space.into space.
The Soviets were firstThe Soviets were first
to send the satelliteto send the satellite
known as Sputnik intoknown as Sputnik into
space (1957).space (1957).
A replica of Sputnik 1
The Space RaceThe Space Race
The Soviets bested theThe Soviets bested the
United States once againUnited States once again
when they sent Sovietwhen they sent Soviet
cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin ascosmonaut Yuri Gagarin as
first human in space on Aprilfirst human in space on April
12, 1961.12, 1961.
The U.S. would have beenThe U.S. would have been
the first, but instead we sent athe first, but instead we sent a
monkey on January 31, 1961.monkey on January 31, 1961.
HamHam
The Cold War Divides the WorldThe Cold War Divides the World
The Cold War in the SkiesThe Cold War in the Skies

In 1960, Soviets shoot down American spyIn 1960, Soviets shoot down American spy
plane (a U-2), increasing tensionsplane (a U-2), increasing tensions
U-2 spy plane similar to the one shot down
over the U.S.S.R.
Francis Gary Powers with a model of a U-2 spy plane.
Wreckage of Gary Powers’ U-2
33.2 Communists Take Power in China33.2 Communists Take Power in China
After World War II, ChineseAfter World War II, Chinese
Communists defeat Nationalist forcesCommunists defeat Nationalist forces
and two separate Chinas emerge.and two separate Chinas emerge.
Communists vs. NationalistsCommunists vs. Nationalists
World War II in ChinaWorld War II in China

Mao ZedongMao Zedong—leads Chinese Communists—leads Chinese Communists
against Japanese invadersagainst Japanese invaders

Jiang JieshiJiang Jieshi (a.k.a.(a.k.a. Chiang Kai-shekChiang Kai-shek)—)—
leads of Chinese Nationalists in World War IIleads of Chinese Nationalists in World War II

Nationalist and Communist Chinese resumeNationalist and Communist Chinese resume
civil war after WWII endscivil war after WWII ends
Communists vs. NationalistsCommunists vs. Nationalists
Mao Zedong Jiang Jieshi (a.k.a. Chiang
Kai-shek)
Communists vs. NationalistsCommunists vs. Nationalists
Civil War ResumesCivil War Resumes

Economic problems cause Nationalist soldiersEconomic problems cause Nationalist soldiers
to desert to Communiststo desert to Communists

Mao’s troops take control of China’s majorMao’s troops take control of China’s major
citiescities

In 1949, People’s Republic of China isIn 1949, People’s Republic of China is
createdcreated

Nationalists flee to TaiwanNationalists flee to Taiwan
The Two Chinas Affect the Cold WarThe Two Chinas Affect the Cold War
The Superpowers ReactThe Superpowers React

U.S. supports Nationalist state in Taiwan,U.S. supports Nationalist state in Taiwan,
called Republic of Chinacalled Republic of China

Soviets and China agree to help each other inSoviets and China agree to help each other in
event of attackevent of attack

U.S. tries to stop Soviet expansion andU.S. tries to stop Soviet expansion and
spread of communism in Chinaspread of communism in China
The Two Chinas Affect the Cold WarThe Two Chinas Affect the Cold War
China Expands under the CommunistsChina Expands under the Communists

China takes control of Tibet and southernChina takes control of Tibet and southern
MongoliaMongolia

India welcomes Tibetan refugees fleeingIndia welcomes Tibetan refugees fleeing
revolt against Chineserevolt against Chinese

China and India clash over border; fightingChina and India clash over border; fighting
stops but tensions remainstops but tensions remain
The Communists Transform ChinaThe Communists Transform China
Communists Claim a New “Mandate ofCommunists Claim a New “Mandate of
Heaven”Heaven”

Chinese Communists organize nationalChinese Communists organize national
government and Communist Partygovernment and Communist Party
Mao’s Brand of Marxist SocialismMao’s Brand of Marxist Socialism

Mao takes property from landowners andMao takes property from landowners and
divides it among peasantsdivides it among peasants

Government seizes private companies andGovernment seizes private companies and
plans production increaseplans production increase
The Communists Transform ChinaThe Communists Transform China
The Great Leap ForwardThe Great Leap Forward

CommunesCommunes—large collective farms often—large collective farms often
supporting over 25,000 peoplesupporting over 25,000 people

Program is ended after inefficiency leads toProgram is ended after inefficiency leads to
crop failures and faminescrop failures and famines
The Communists Transform ChinaThe Communists Transform China
New Policies and Mao’s ResponseNew Policies and Mao’s Response

China and Soviet Union clash over leadershipChina and Soviet Union clash over leadership
of communist movementof communist movement

Strict socialist ideas are moderated, MaoStrict socialist ideas are moderated, Mao
reduces his role in governmentreduces his role in government

Red GuardsRed Guards— groups of violent and radical— groups of violent and radical
youth militia — close schools and execute oryouth militia — close schools and execute or
imprison many intellectuals and enforce strictimprison many intellectuals and enforce strict
communism in Chinacommunism in China
The Red
Guards:
China’s
Teenage
Police Force
Between 1966
and 1976,
students in
China’s Red
Guard waged a
Cultural
Revolution on
teachers and
professionals
that left a million
people dead
and the country
in chaos.
The Communists Transform ChinaThe Communists Transform China
The Cultural RevolutionThe Cultural Revolution

Cultural RevolutionCultural Revolution—movement to build—movement to build
society of peasants and workerssociety of peasants and workers

In 1968, Chinese army imprisons, executes,In 1968, Chinese army imprisons, executes,
or exiles most Red Guards who have beenor exiles most Red Guards who have been
labeled by the government “Counterlabeled by the government “Counter
Revolutionary.”Revolutionary.”

However, the Cultural Revolution continuesHowever, the Cultural Revolution continues
until Mao’s death in 1976until Mao’s death in 1976..
Red Guards
holding Mao’s
“Little Red Book”
of his sayings
during the cultural
revolution.
33.3 Wars in Korea and Vietnam33.3 Wars in Korea and Vietnam
In Asia, the Cold War flares intoIn Asia, the Cold War flares into
actual wars supported mainly byactual wars supported mainly by
the superpowers.the superpowers.
The KoreasThe Koreas
Following WWII, theFollowing WWII, the
Korean peninsula isKorean peninsula is
divided into twodivided into two
separate countries.separate countries.
They make theirThey make their
border along the 38border along the 38thth
Parallel line.Parallel line.
North Korea is aNorth Korea is a
Communist andCommunist and
controlled by thecontrolled by the
USSRUSSR
South Korea is aSouth Korea is a
democracy anddemocracy and
influenced by the U.S.influenced by the U.S.
War in KoreaWar in Korea
A Divided LandA Divided Land

3838thth
parallelparallel—line dividing Korea into North Korea—line dividing Korea into North Korea
and South Koreaand South Korea
The Korean WarThe Korean War
In 1950, North KoreanIn 1950, North Korean
troops invade Southtroops invade South
Korea, supported by theKorea, supported by the
USSR and the People’sUSSR and the People’s
Republic of ChinaRepublic of China
South Korea calls for helpSouth Korea calls for help
and is backed by the U.S.and is backed by the U.S.
and the United Nationsand the United Nations
(15 countries).(15 countries).
Douglas MacArthurDouglas MacArthur——
leads UN forces againstleads UN forces against
North KoreansNorth Koreans
The Korean WarThe Korean War
War in KoreaWar in Korea
North Koreans controlsNorth Koreans controls
most of the peninsulamost of the peninsula
when MacArthur attackswhen MacArthur attacks
Half of North Korea’sHalf of North Korea’s
army surrenders, thearmy surrenders, the
rest retreatrest retreat
UN troops push NorthUN troops push North
Koreans almost toKoreans almost to
Chinese borderChinese border
The UN AdvancesThe UN Advances
The Chinese Join the WarThe Chinese Join the War
Chinese send 300,000 troops against UN forcesChinese send 300,000 troops against UN forces
and capture Seoul.and capture Seoul.
The Chinese AdvanceThe Chinese Advance
A Cease FireA Cease Fire
In 1953, a cease fireIn 1953, a cease fire
is declared and endsis declared and ends
the war.the war.
The war does notThe war does not
have a clear cuthave a clear cut
winner as not muchwinner as not much
territory is gained orterritory is gained or
lost.lost.
The border at the 38The border at the 38thth
Parallel is restored.Parallel is restored.
Did You Know?Did You Know?
Even though they signedEven though they signed
a cease fire in 1953, thea cease fire in 1953, the
Korean War is technicallyKorean War is technically
still going on today!still going on today!
Even though there is notEven though there is not
full outbreak of war,full outbreak of war,
tensions remain high andtensions remain high and
2 million soldiers are2 million soldiers are
readily available on eachreadily available on each
side of the border, readyside of the border, ready
to go to war.to go to war.
The Forgotten WarThe Forgotten War
Many times theMany times the
Korean War isKorean War is
referred to in thereferred to in the
United States as theUnited States as the
“Forgotten War” or“Forgotten War” or
“Unknown War”“Unknown War”
because the issuesbecause the issues
were not as clear cutwere not as clear cut
as WWII and theas WWII and the
Vietnam War.Vietnam War.
The Forgotten WarThe Forgotten War
War in KoreaWar in Korea
Aftermath of the WarAftermath of the War

North Korea builds collective farms, heavyNorth Korea builds collective farms, heavy
industry, nuclear weaponsindustry, nuclear weapons

South Korea establishes democracy, growingSouth Korea establishes democracy, growing
economy with U.S. aideconomy with U.S. aid

Tension is still high today between the twoTension is still high today between the two
countries.countries.
A Divided PeninsulaA Divided Peninsula
Although a treaty was signed,Although a treaty was signed,
tensions remain high even to thistensions remain high even to this
day.day.
The Koreas create a 2.5 mileThe Koreas create a 2.5 mile
wide buffer zone along the 38wide buffer zone along the 38thth
Parallel between the twoParallel between the two
countries. (De-Militarized Zone)countries. (De-Militarized Zone)
The border is heavily guardedThe border is heavily guarded
and danger of war always loomsand danger of war always looms
as there are 2 million troops areas there are 2 million troops are
stationed on each side.stationed on each side.
Some talks of reunification haveSome talks of reunification have
begun, but the future isbegun, but the future is
uncertain.uncertain.
3838thth
Parallel – De-militarized Zone (DMZ)Parallel – De-militarized Zone (DMZ)
War Breaks Out in VietnamWar Breaks Out in Vietnam
The Road to WarThe Road to War

Ho Chi MinhHo Chi Minh——
Vietnamese nationalist,Vietnamese nationalist,
later Communist leaderlater Communist leader
The Fighting BeginsThe Fighting Begins

In 1954, FrenchIn 1954, French
surrender to Vietnamesesurrender to Vietnamese
after major defeatafter major defeat

Domino theoryDomino theory—U.S.—U.S.
theory of Communisttheory of Communist
expansion in Southeastexpansion in Southeast
AsiaAsia Ho Chi Minh
The War in
Vietnam, 1957-
1973
Note the Ho
Chi Minh Trail
through Laos
and Cambodia
War Breaks Out in VietnamWar Breaks Out in Vietnam
Vietnam—A DividedVietnam—A Divided
CountryCountry

International peaceInternational peace
conference agrees on aconference agrees on a
divided Vietnamdivided Vietnam

Ngo Dinh DiemNgo Dinh Diem—leads—leads
anti-Communistanti-Communist
government in Southgovernment in South
VietnamVietnam

VietcongVietcong—South—South
Vietnamese CommunistVietnamese Communist
guerillas fighting againstguerillas fighting against
DiemDiemNgo Dinh Diem
Ngo Dinh Diem (1901-1963), President of South Vietnam 1955-1963, with U.S.Ngo Dinh Diem (1901-1963), President of South Vietnam 1955-1963, with U.S.
President Dwight Eisenhower at National Airport, Washington, 1957. DirectPresident Dwight Eisenhower at National Airport, Washington, 1957. Direct
U.S. involvement in the Vietnam war began in the mid-1950s, when the U.S.U.S. involvement in the Vietnam war began in the mid-1950s, when the U.S.
took over the struggle from the French. The Eisenhower administration begantook over the struggle from the French. The Eisenhower administration began
by supporting the Diem regime, and then providing military advisors andby supporting the Diem regime, and then providing military advisors and
increased support. However, by the end of the Eisenhower term, the U.S. hadincreased support. However, by the end of the Eisenhower term, the U.S. had
fewer than 2000 troops in Vietnam. Diem was murdered in a military coup infewer than 2000 troops in Vietnam. Diem was murdered in a military coup in
1963.1963.
Lyndon B. Johnson, the President
of the United States from 1963 to
1970, makes a public statement on
the Tonkin Gulf incident, August 4,
1964. When North Vietnam was said
to have attacked two U.S.
destroyers, Congress hastily
passed the Tonkin Gulf Resolution,
giving the president blanket
authority to take necessary actions
to protect U.S. forces.
Subsequently, there have been
serious questions as to what
actually occurred in the Tonkin
Gulf, but with vastly increased U.S.
expenditures, the war quickly
escalated; by 1969 the U.S. forces
totaled almost 550,000 individuals.
There was much opposition to the
war in the Congress and among the
U.S. people, and Johnson's very
considerable domestic policy
achievements were overshadowed
by the criticism of his war policy.
General William C. WestmorelandWilliam C. Westmoreland, McGeorge BundyMcGeorge Bundy
and General KanhGeneral Kanh of South Vietnam, photographed at
Camp Holloway, South Vietnam, in February 1965. Gen.
Westmoreland commanded the U.S. troops in Vietnam
1964-68; Bundy was special assistant for national security
to President Johnson from 1961 to 1966, and a key
supporter of the Vietnam war.
The United States Gets InvolvedThe United States Gets Involved
U.S. Troops Enter the FightU.S. Troops Enter the Fight

In 1964, U.S. sends troops to fight Viet CongIn 1964, U.S. sends troops to fight Viet Cong
and North Vietnameseand North Vietnamese

U.S. fights guerilla war defending increasinglyU.S. fights guerilla war defending increasingly
unpopular governmentunpopular government

Vietcong gains support from Ho Chi Minh,Vietcong gains support from Ho Chi Minh,
China, and Soviet UnionChina, and Soviet Union
The United States Gets InvolvedThe United States Gets Involved
The United States WithdrawsThe United States Withdraws

War grows unpopular in the U.S.; in 1969,War grows unpopular in the U.S.; in 1969,
Nixon starts withdrawing troopsNixon starts withdrawing troops

VietnamizationVietnamization—Nixon’s plan to withdraw—Nixon’s plan to withdraw
U.S. from war graduallyU.S. from war gradually

Last U.S. troops leave in 1973; SouthLast U.S. troops leave in 1973; South
Vietnam overrun in 1975Vietnam overrun in 1975
Nixon appeared on television January 23, 1973, to announceNixon appeared on television January 23, 1973, to announce
the ceasefire. The agreement ended nearly 12 years ofthe ceasefire. The agreement ended nearly 12 years of
warfare in which 58,000 Americans had lost their lives. It didwarfare in which 58,000 Americans had lost their lives. It did
not contain an enforceable plan for the peaceable settlementnot contain an enforceable plan for the peaceable settlement
of Vietnam's internal problems; within a year, fighting thereof Vietnam's internal problems; within a year, fighting there
had resumed. Eventually, the South Vietnamese governmenthad resumed. Eventually, the South Vietnamese government
of Thieu was defeated by the Provisional Revolutionaryof Thieu was defeated by the Provisional Revolutionary
Government (PRG) of South Vietnamese communist rebelsGovernment (PRG) of South Vietnamese communist rebels
and North Vietnamese troops. Even had Nixon wished toand North Vietnamese troops. Even had Nixon wished to
intervene, Congress passed, over his veto, a ''War Powersintervene, Congress passed, over his veto, a ''War Powers
Act'' that gave Congress the power to prevent him from actingAct'' that gave Congress the power to prevent him from acting
without its consent - a consent that Congress would havewithout its consent - a consent that Congress would have
been unwilling to extend in 1974 or 1975.been unwilling to extend in 1974 or 1975.
Postwar Southeast AsiaPostwar Southeast Asia
Cambodia in TurmoilCambodia in Turmoil

Khmer RougeKhmer Rouge——
Communist rebels whoCommunist rebels who
take control of Cambodia intake control of Cambodia in
19751975

They slaughter 2 millionThey slaughter 2 million
people; overthrown bypeople; overthrown by
Vietnamese invadersVietnamese invaders

In 1993, Cambodia adoptsIn 1993, Cambodia adopts
democracy, holds electionsdemocracy, holds elections
with UN helpwith UN help
Pol Pot, leader of the Khmer
Rouge (Cambodian Communist
Party, literally “Red Khmers”) in
1977 at the height of his power
Postwar Southeast AsiaPostwar Southeast Asia
The Killing FieldsThe Killing Fields werewere
a number of sites ina number of sites in
Cambodia where largeCambodia where large
numbers of people werenumbers of people were
killed and buried by thekilled and buried by the
Khmer Rouge regime,Khmer Rouge regime,
during its rule of theduring its rule of the
country from 1975 tocountry from 1975 to
1979, immediately after1979, immediately after
the end of the Vietnamthe end of the Vietnam
War.War.
Postwar Southeast AsiaPostwar Southeast Asia
At least 200,000 peopleAt least 200,000 people
were executed by thewere executed by the
Khmer Rouge (whileKhmer Rouge (while
estimates of the totalestimates of the total
number of deathsnumber of deaths
resulting from Khmerresulting from Khmer
Rouge policies, includingRouge policies, including
disease and starvation,disease and starvation,
range from 1.4 to 2.2range from 1.4 to 2.2
million out of a populationmillion out of a population
of around 7 million).of around 7 million).
A commemorative stupa filled
with the skulls of the victims.
Choung Ek
Killing Field:
The bones
of young
children
who were
killed by
Khmer
Rouge
soldiers.
Mass grave in Choeung Ek.
History in Film:History in Film: The Killing FieldsThe Killing Fields (1984)(1984)
The Killing FieldsThe Killing Fields is a 1984is a 1984
British drama film about theBritish drama film about the
Khmer Rouge regime inKhmer Rouge regime in
Cambodia, which is based onCambodia, which is based on
the experiences of threethe experiences of three
journalists:journalists:

CambodianCambodian Dith PranDith Pran

AmericanAmerican Sydney SchanbergSydney Schanberg

BritishBritish Jon SwainJon Swain..
The film won three AcademyThe film won three Academy
Awards, includingAwards, including

Best Supporting Actor for HaingBest Supporting Actor for Haing
S. Ngor as Dith Pran.S. Ngor as Dith Pran.

Sam Waterston from Law andSam Waterston from Law and
Order stars in the film as SydneyOrder stars in the film as Sydney
SchanbergSchanberg
Postwar Southeast AsiaPostwar Southeast Asia
Vietnam after the WarVietnam after the War

Saigon renamed Ho Chi Minh City; VietnamSaigon renamed Ho Chi Minh City; Vietnam
united as Communist nationunited as Communist nation

About 1.5 million people flee Vietnam, someAbout 1.5 million people flee Vietnam, some
settling in the U.S. and Canadasettling in the U.S. and Canada

In 1995, United States normalizes relationsIn 1995, United States normalizes relations
with Vietnamwith Vietnam
33.4 The Cold War33.4 The Cold War
Divides the WorldDivides the World
The superpowers supportThe superpowers support
opposing sides in Latin Americanopposing sides in Latin American
and Middle Eastern conflictsand Middle Eastern conflicts
Fighting for the Third WorldFighting for the Third World
More Than One “World”More Than One “World”

Third WorldThird World—developing nations; often—developing nations; often
newly independent, nonalignednewly independent, nonaligned
Cold War StrategiesCold War Strategies

U.S., Soviet Union, and China compete forU.S., Soviet Union, and China compete for
influence over the Third Worldinfluence over the Third World

They back revolutions and give economic ,They back revolutions and give economic ,
military and technical aidmilitary and technical aid
Fighting for the Third WorldFighting for the Third World
Association of Nonaligned NationsAssociation of Nonaligned Nations

Many countries, like India, want to avoidMany countries, like India, want to avoid
involvement in the Cold Warinvolvement in the Cold War

In 1955, Indonesia hosts Asian and AfricanIn 1955, Indonesia hosts Asian and African
leaders who want neutralityleaders who want neutrality

Nonaligned nationsNonaligned nations—independent countries—independent countries
not involved in the Cold Warnot involved in the Cold War
Confrontations in Latin AmericaConfrontations in Latin America
Fidel Castro and the Cuban RevolutionFidel Castro and the Cuban Revolution

Fidel CastroFidel Castro—leads revolt in Cuba against—leads revolt in Cuba against
dictator supported by the U.S.dictator supported by the U.S.

By 1959, Castro in power, nationalizesBy 1959, Castro in power, nationalizes
economy, takes U.S. propertyeconomy, takes U.S. property

In 1961, Castro defeats U.S. trained CubanIn 1961, Castro defeats U.S. trained Cuban
exiles at the Bay of Pigsexiles at the Bay of Pigs
Fidel
Castro
Confrontations in Latin AmericaConfrontations in Latin America
Nuclear Face-off: the Cuban Missile CrisisNuclear Face-off: the Cuban Missile Crisis

In 1962, U.S. demands removal of SovietIn 1962, U.S. demands removal of Soviet
missiles in Cubamissiles in Cuba

Soviets withdraw missiles; U.S. promises notSoviets withdraw missiles; U.S. promises not
to invade Cubato invade Cuba

Cuban economy is left dependent on SovietCuban economy is left dependent on Soviet
supportsupport
The Cuban Missile CrisisThe Cuban Missile Crisis
After the CubanAfter the Cuban
Revolution in the earlyRevolution in the early
1960’s, the new Cuban1960’s, the new Cuban
government adoptedgovernment adopted
communism.communism.
Shortly thereafter, theShortly thereafter, the
Soviets started buildingSoviets started building
nuclear missile silos onnuclear missile silos on
the island.the island.
Through secret, spyThrough secret, spy
photographs, the U.S.photographs, the U.S.
found out about thefound out about the
missiles.missiles.
The Cuban Missile CrisisThe Cuban Missile Crisis
Angered by these actions, the U.S. demanded the SovietsAngered by these actions, the U.S. demanded the Soviets
withdraw from Cuba.withdraw from Cuba.
The Soviets refused and it seemed a conflict wasThe Soviets refused and it seemed a conflict was
imminent.imminent.
Both sides believed that only armed combat could resolveBoth sides believed that only armed combat could resolve
the issue.the issue.
President Kennedy was even set to invade Cuba andPresident Kennedy was even set to invade Cuba and
remove the missiles by force.remove the missiles by force.
Just when it looked as if nuclear war was going to occur,Just when it looked as if nuclear war was going to occur,
the two sides came to an agreement. The Soviets wouldthe two sides came to an agreement. The Soviets would
remove their missiles from Cuba as long as the Americansremove their missiles from Cuba as long as the Americans
removed their own from Turkey.removed their own from Turkey.
Confrontations in Latin AmericaConfrontations in Latin America
Civil War in NicaraguaCivil War in Nicaragua

Anastasio Somoza DebayleAnastasio Somoza Debayle—Nicaraguan dictator—Nicaraguan dictator
supported by the U.S.supported by the U.S.

Daniel OrtegaDaniel Ortega—leads—leads SandinistaSandinista rebels who takerebels who take
power in Nicaraguapower in Nicaragua

U.S. and Soviet Union both initially supportU.S. and Soviet Union both initially support
SandinistasSandinistas

Sandinistas aid Communist rebels in El SalvadorSandinistas aid Communist rebels in El Salvador

U.S. helps anti-CommunistU.S. helps anti-Communist ContrasContras in Nicaragua toin Nicaragua to
assist El Salvadorassist El Salvador

In 1990, Nicaragua holds first free elections,In 1990, Nicaragua holds first free elections,
Sandinistas loseSandinistas lose
Daniel Ortega on Time magazine,
March 31, 1986
Anastasio Somoza Debayle
(U.S. supported president of
Nicaragua from 1967-1980)
Confrontations in the Middle EastConfrontations in the Middle East
Religious and SecularReligious and Secular
Values Clash in IranValues Clash in Iran

Shah Reza Pahlavi embracesShah Reza Pahlavi embraces
Western governments and oilWestern governments and oil
companiescompanies

The U.S. and U.K. supportedThe U.S. and U.K. supported
the Shah which was verythe Shah which was very
unpopular with people of theunpopular with people of the
Middle EastMiddle East

In addition to this, the ShahIn addition to this, the Shah
tried to “modernize” histried to “modernize” his
country which clashed withcountry which clashed with
the ideals of traditionalthe ideals of traditional
IslamistsIslamists
Shah Reza PahlaviShah Reza Pahlavi
Confrontations in the Middle EastConfrontations in the Middle East
The United States SupportsThe United States Supports
Secular RuleSecular Rule

Shah Reza PahlaviShah Reza Pahlavi
westernizes Iran with U.S.westernizes Iran with U.S.
supportsupport

Ayatollah Ruholla KhomeiniAyatollah Ruholla Khomeini
—Iranian Muslim leader; lives—Iranian Muslim leader; lives
in exilein exile

In 1978, Khomeini sparks riotsIn 1978, Khomeini sparks riots
in Iran, Shah flees to the U.S.in Iran, Shah flees to the U.S.

Khomeini claims a jihad (holyKhomeini claims a jihad (holy
war) on Western influences.war) on Western influences.
Confrontations in the Middle EastConfrontations in the Middle East
Khomeini’s Anti-U.S.Khomeini’s Anti-U.S.
PoliciesPolicies

Muslim radicals takeMuslim radicals take
control in Irancontrol in Iran

Islamic revolutionariesIslamic revolutionaries
attack the U.S. Embassyattack the U.S. Embassy
in Iran and holdin Iran and hold
American hostages inAmerican hostages in
Tehran (1979-1981) forTehran (1979-1981) for
444 days444 days

They demand that theThey demand that the
U.S. hands over theU.S. hands over the
Shah in exchange for theShah in exchange for the
hostages.hostages.
Blindfolded American hostages in Iran in 1979.
Iraq-Iran War (First Persian Gulf War)Iraq-Iran War (First Persian Gulf War)
The Iranian Revolution put muchThe Iranian Revolution put much
strain on relations between Iraqstrain on relations between Iraq
(Sunnis) and Iran (Shiites).(Sunnis) and Iran (Shiites).
With the oustering of the Shah inWith the oustering of the Shah in
Iran, the U.S. supported SaddamIran, the U.S. supported Saddam
Hussein and forces in Iraq byHussein and forces in Iraq by
supplying them with weapons,supplying them with weapons,
money and intelligence.money and intelligence.
Iran, on the other hand, wasIran, on the other hand, was
supported by the USSR who soldsupported by the USSR who sold
weapons to the Iranians.weapons to the Iranians.
Despite heavy losses on eachDespite heavy losses on each
side, neither seemed to beside, neither seemed to be
Confrontations in the Middle EastConfrontations in the Middle East
The Superpowers Face Off in AfghanistanThe Superpowers Face Off in Afghanistan

Soviets invade Afghanistan to helpSoviets invade Afghanistan to help
Communist government against rebelsCommunist government against rebels

Muslim rebels fight guerilla war againstMuslim rebels fight guerilla war against
Soviets with U.S. weaponsSoviets with U.S. weapons

U.S. stops grain shipments to Soviet UnionU.S. stops grain shipments to Soviet Union

Soviets eventually withdraw in 1989Soviets eventually withdraw in 1989
33.5 The Cold War33.5 The Cold War
ThawsThaws
The Cold War begins to thaw asThe Cold War begins to thaw as
the superpowers enter an era ofthe superpowers enter an era of
uneasy diplomacyuneasy diplomacy
Soviet Policy in Eastern Europe and ChinaSoviet Policy in Eastern Europe and China
Destalinization and Rumblings ofDestalinization and Rumblings of
ProtestProtest

Nikita KhrushchevNikita Khrushchev—leader of—leader of
Soviet Union after Stalin diesSoviet Union after Stalin dies
(1953)(1953)

Khrushchev condemns Stalin;Khrushchev condemns Stalin;
Soviets and West can peacefullySoviets and West can peacefully
competecompete

Citizens of Soviet-controlledCitizens of Soviet-controlled
governments begin protestinggovernments begin protesting
communismcommunism

Khrushchev sends Soviet militaryKhrushchev sends Soviet military
to put down Hungarian protesters.to put down Hungarian protesters.
Soviet Policy in Eastern Europe and ChinaSoviet Policy in Eastern Europe and China
The Revolt inThe Revolt in
CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakia

Leonid BrezhnevLeonid Brezhnev
—Soviet leader—Soviet leader
after Khrushchev—after Khrushchev—
represses dissentrepresses dissent

In 1968, WarsawIn 1968, Warsaw
Pact troops blockPact troops block
reforms inreforms in
CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakia
Soviet Policy in Eastern Europe and ChinaSoviet Policy in Eastern Europe and China
The Soviet-Chinese SplitThe Soviet-Chinese Split

In 1950, Mao and Stalin sign friendship treaty,In 1950, Mao and Stalin sign friendship treaty,
but tensions growbut tensions grow

Chinese and Soviets each want to lead worldChinese and Soviets each want to lead world
communismcommunism

Khrushchev ends economic aid and refusesKhrushchev ends economic aid and refuses
to share nuclear secretsto share nuclear secrets

Soviets and Chinese fight small skirmishesSoviets and Chinese fight small skirmishes
across borderacross border
From Brinkmanship to DFrom Brinkmanship to Détenteétente
Brinkmanship BreaksBrinkmanship Breaks
DownDown

Brinkmanship causeBrinkmanship cause
repeated crises; nuclear warrepeated crises; nuclear war
a constant threata constant threat

John F. KennedyJohn F. Kennedy—U.S.—U.S.
president during the Cubanpresident during the Cuban
Missile CrisisMissile Crisis

Lyndon JohnsonLyndon Johnson——
president who increasespresident who increases
U.S. involvement in VietnamU.S. involvement in Vietnam
From Brinkmanship to DFrom Brinkmanship to Détenteétente
The United States Turns toThe United States Turns to
DDétenteétente

Vietnam-era turmoil fuelsVietnam-era turmoil fuels
desire for lessdesire for less
confrontational policyconfrontational policy

DétenteDétente—policy of reducing—policy of reducing
Cold War tensions to avoidCold War tensions to avoid
conflictconflict

Richard M. NixonRichard M. Nixon—U.S.—U.S.
president who launchespresident who launches
détentedétente

Détente grows out ofDétente grows out of
philosophy known asphilosophy known as
realpolitik—”realisticrealpolitik—”realistic
politics”—recognizes need topolitics”—recognizes need to
be practical and flexiblebe practical and flexible
From Brinkmanship to DFrom Brinkmanship to Détenteétente
Nixon Visits Communist PowersNixon Visits Communist Powers

Nixon visits Communist China and SovietNixon visits Communist China and Soviet
Union, signs SALT I TreatyUnion, signs SALT I Treaty

SALTSALT—Strategic Arms Limitation Talks——Strategic Arms Limitation Talks—
limits nuclear weaponslimits nuclear weapons
Nixon visiting China
The Collapse of DThe Collapse of Détenteétente
Policy ChangesPolicy Changes

Nixon and Gerald Ford improve relations withNixon and Gerald Ford improve relations with
Soviets and ChinaSoviets and China

Jimmy Carter has concerns about SovietJimmy Carter has concerns about Soviet
policies but signs SALT IIpolicies but signs SALT II

Congress will not ratify SALT II due to SovietCongress will not ratify SALT II due to Soviet
invasion of Afghanistaninvasion of Afghanistan
The Collapse of DThe Collapse of Détenteétente
Reagan Takes an Anti-Reagan Takes an Anti-
Communist StanceCommunist Stance

Ronald ReaganRonald Reagan—anti-—anti-
Communist U.S. presidentCommunist U.S. president
takes office in 1981takes office in 1981

Reagan increases militaryReagan increases military
spending and proposes aspending and proposes a
missile defense programmissile defense program
called “Star Wars”called “Star Wars”
President Ronald Reagan at desk. George H.W. Bush
behind him along with several advisors.
The Collapse of the USSRThe Collapse of the USSR
In the 1980s, new SovietIn the 1980s, new Soviet
leadership allows easingleadership allows easing
of Cold War tensions.of Cold War tensions.
In 1986, Soviet leaderIn 1986, Soviet leader
Mikhail GorbachevMikhail Gorbachev
introduces his policyintroduces his policy
known asknown as PerestroikaPerestroika
(restructuring),(restructuring), to allowto allow
more economic, politicalmore economic, political
freedom.freedom.
The Collapse of the USSRThe Collapse of the USSR
This causes a domino effectThis causes a domino effect
and the people (especiallyand the people (especially
those in the smaller republics)those in the smaller republics)
demand independence.demand independence.
This leads to collapse ofThis leads to collapse of
Soviet Union, end of ColdSoviet Union, end of Cold
War in 1991War in 1991
Region divides into 15Region divides into 15
independent republics.independent republics.
Russia becomes aRussia becomes a
democracy and remains thatdemocracy and remains that
today.today.

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Cold War

  • 1. Chapter 30: The Post War WorldChapter 30: The Post War World and Cold War, 1945-Presentand Cold War, 1945-Present The United States and the SovietThe United States and the Soviet Union vie for superiority, and bothUnion vie for superiority, and both countries extend their control overcountries extend their control over other nations.other nations.
  • 2. Cold War Timeline, 1946-1980Cold War Timeline, 1946-1980
  • 3. 33.1 Cold War:33.1 Cold War: Superpowers Face OffSuperpowers Face Off The opposing economic and politicalThe opposing economic and political philosophies of the United States andphilosophies of the United States and the Soviet Union lead to globalthe Soviet Union lead to global competition.competition.
  • 4. A Postwar PlanA Postwar Plan Yalta and Potsdam Conferences:Yalta and Potsdam Conferences: A Postwar PlanA Postwar Plan  In February 1945, British,In February 1945, British, American, and Soviet leadersAmerican, and Soviet leaders meet at Yalta, a second meetingmeet at Yalta, a second meeting would take place months later atwould take place months later at PotsdamPotsdam  Europe would be split, each zoneEurope would be split, each zone would be occupied by the soldierswould be occupied by the soldiers of one of the main Allied powers.of one of the main Allied powers.  They also agreed that GermanyThey also agreed that Germany would have to repay the Sovietwould have to repay the Soviet Union for damage and loss of life.Union for damage and loss of life.  Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, inSoviet leader Joseph Stalin, in turn, promised free elections inturn, promised free elections in Eastern Europe.Eastern Europe.
  • 5. Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin at the Yalta Conference
  • 6. Churchill, Truman, and Stalin at the Potsdam Conference
  • 7. Allies Become EnemiesAllies Become Enemies Creation of the United NationsCreation of the United Nations  June 1945, 50 nations form theJune 1945, 50 nations form the UnitedUnited NationsNations—an international organization—an international organization  All members are represented in the GeneralAll members are represented in the General Assembly; 11 nations are on the SecurityAssembly; 11 nations are on the Security CouncilCouncil  Five permanent members have SecurityFive permanent members have Security Council veto powerCouncil veto power
  • 8. Allies Become EnemiesAllies Become Enemies Differing U.S. and Soviet GoalsDiffering U.S. and Soviet Goals  U.S. and Soviets split sharply after WWII endsU.S. and Soviets split sharply after WWII ends  U.S. is world’s richest and most powerfulU.S. is world’s richest and most powerful country after WWIIcountry after WWII  Soviets still recovering from high warSoviets still recovering from high war casualties and had many destroyed citiescasualties and had many destroyed cities
  • 9. Eastern Europe’s Iron CurtainEastern Europe’s Iron Curtain Soviets Build a BufferSoviets Build a Buffer  Soviets control Eastern European countriesSoviets control Eastern European countries after World War IIafter World War II  Stalin installs Communist governments inStalin installs Communist governments in several countriesseveral countries  Truman urges free elections; Stalin refuses toTruman urges free elections; Stalin refuses to allow free electionsallow free elections  In 1946, Stalin says capitalism andIn 1946, Stalin says capitalism and communism cannot co-existcommunism cannot co-exist
  • 10.
  • 11. Eastern Europe’s Iron CurtainEastern Europe’s Iron Curtain An Iron Curtain Divides East and WestAn Iron Curtain Divides East and West  Germany is divided; East Germany isGermany is divided; East Germany is Communist, West Germany democraticCommunist, West Germany democratic  Iron CurtainIron Curtain—Winston Churchill’s name for—Winston Churchill’s name for the division of Europethe division of Europe
  • 12. The nations on the eastern side of the “Iron Curtain” were known as the Eastern Bloc
  • 13.
  • 14. United States Tries to Contain SovietsUnited States Tries to Contain Soviets ContainmentContainment  ContainmentContainment—U.S. plan to stop the spread—U.S. plan to stop the spread of communismof communism The Truman DoctrineThe Truman Doctrine  Truman DoctrineTruman Doctrine—U.S. supports countries—U.S. supports countries that reject communismthat reject communism  Congress approves Truman’s request for aidCongress approves Truman’s request for aid to Greece and Turkeyto Greece and Turkey
  • 15. United States Tries to Contain SovietsUnited States Tries to Contain Soviets The Marshall PlanThe Marshall Plan  Much of Western Europe lay in ruins afterMuch of Western Europe lay in ruins after World War IIWorld War II  Marshall PlanMarshall Plan—U.S. program of assisting—U.S. program of assisting Western European countriesWestern European countries  Congress approves plan after CommunistCongress approves plan after Communist takeover of Czechoslovakiatakeover of Czechoslovakia
  • 16.
  • 17. Germany is SplitGermany is Split Following WWII, GermanyFollowing WWII, Germany is split into two differentis split into two different countries.countries. East Germany is influencedEast Germany is influenced by the USSR and theby the USSR and the government is communist.government is communist. West Germany isWest Germany is influenced by the US,influenced by the US, France and the UK andFrance and the UK and their government is atheir government is a democracy.democracy.
  • 18. The Berlin WallThe Berlin Wall Not only is theNot only is the country split, thecountry split, the capital of Berlin iscapital of Berlin is split as well.split as well. East GermanyEast Germany builds a wall tobuilds a wall to maintain themaintain the separationseparation between the twobetween the two and keeps itsand keeps its citizens confinedcitizens confined within.within. Crossing over isCrossing over is strictly forbidden.strictly forbidden.
  • 19. The Berlin WallThe Berlin Wall
  • 20. Fence along the East/West Border in Germany
  • 21. Preserved section of the border between East Germany and West Germany called the "Little Berlin Wall" at Mödlareuth
  • 24. United States Tries to Contain SovietsUnited States Tries to Contain Soviets Blockade of Berlin and The Berlin AirliftBlockade of Berlin and The Berlin Airlift  In 1948, U.S., Britain, and France withdraw forcesIn 1948, U.S., Britain, and France withdraw forces from West Germanyfrom West Germany  Their former occupation zones form one countryTheir former occupation zones form one country  Soviets oppose this, stop land and water traffic intoSoviets oppose this, stop land and water traffic into West BerlinWest Berlin  West Berlin, located in Soviet occupation zone, facesWest Berlin, located in Soviet occupation zone, faces starvationstarvation  U.S. and Britain fly in supplies for 11 months until theU.S. and Britain fly in supplies for 11 months until the blockade endsblockade ends
  • 25. Routes of Berlin AirliftRoutes of Berlin Airlift
  • 26.
  • 27.
  • 28. The Cold War Divides the WorldThe Cold War Divides the World The Cold WarThe Cold War  Cold-WarCold-War—struggle of U.S. and Soviet Union using—struggle of U.S. and Soviet Union using means short of warmeans short of war Superpowers Form Rival AlliancesSuperpowers Form Rival Alliances  In 1949, U.S., Canada, and West European countriesIn 1949, U.S., Canada, and West European countries form NATOform NATO  NATONATO—North Atlantic Treaty Organization—is a—North Atlantic Treaty Organization—is a defensive military alliancedefensive military alliance  In 1955, Soviets and Eastern nations sign theIn 1955, Soviets and Eastern nations sign the Warsaw PactWarsaw Pact alliancealliance  In 1961, Soviets build the Berlin Wall to separate EastIn 1961, Soviets build the Berlin Wall to separate East and West Berlinand West Berlin
  • 30. Warsaw PactWarsaw Pact NationsNations Note: FederalNote: Federal People’sPeople’s Republic ofRepublic of Yugoslavia isYugoslavia is forced out of theforced out of the Warsaw Pact inWarsaw Pact in 19481948
  • 31.
  • 32. The Cold War Divides the WorldThe Cold War Divides the World The Threat of Nuclear WarThe Threat of Nuclear War  Soviet Union explodes its first atomic bomb inSoviet Union explodes its first atomic bomb in 19491949  U.S. and Soviet Union both develop the moreU.S. and Soviet Union both develop the more powerful hydrogen bombpowerful hydrogen bomb  BrinkmanshipBrinkmanship—policy of willingness to go to—policy of willingness to go to the edge of warthe edge of war  Increasing tensions lead to military buildup byIncreasing tensions lead to military buildup by U.S. and the SovietsU.S. and the Soviets
  • 33. Nuclear Arms RaceNuclear Arms Race During the Cold War, both countriesDuring the Cold War, both countries vie for nuclear superiority andvie for nuclear superiority and increase their arsenals.increase their arsenals. The idea was that by building moreThe idea was that by building more and more bombs; eventually, oneand more bombs; eventually, one side would stand down.side would stand down. This, actually, will never happen.This, actually, will never happen. While it is a little unclear about whoWhile it is a little unclear about who was bigger or stronger, it iswas bigger or stronger, it is speculated that the U.S. had manyspeculated that the U.S. had many more bombs, while the Soviets hadmore bombs, while the Soviets had more destructive ones such as themore destructive ones such as the Tsar (Czar) Bomba.Tsar (Czar) Bomba.
  • 34. Military parades in Red SquareMilitary parades in Red Square
  • 35. H Bomb TestsH Bomb Tests
  • 36. Tsar Bomba (King Bomb)Tsar Bomba (King Bomb)
  • 37.
  • 38. The Space RaceThe Space Race Not only was the ColdNot only was the Cold War a race to increaseWar a race to increase military prowess, it wasmilitary prowess, it was also a race foralso a race for technological prowess.technological prowess. This included the raceThis included the race to be the first countryto be the first country into space.into space. The Soviets were firstThe Soviets were first to send the satelliteto send the satellite known as Sputnik intoknown as Sputnik into space (1957).space (1957).
  • 39. A replica of Sputnik 1
  • 40.
  • 41. The Space RaceThe Space Race The Soviets bested theThe Soviets bested the United States once againUnited States once again when they sent Sovietwhen they sent Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin ascosmonaut Yuri Gagarin as first human in space on Aprilfirst human in space on April 12, 1961.12, 1961. The U.S. would have beenThe U.S. would have been the first, but instead we sent athe first, but instead we sent a monkey on January 31, 1961.monkey on January 31, 1961.
  • 43. The Cold War Divides the WorldThe Cold War Divides the World The Cold War in the SkiesThe Cold War in the Skies  In 1960, Soviets shoot down American spyIn 1960, Soviets shoot down American spy plane (a U-2), increasing tensionsplane (a U-2), increasing tensions U-2 spy plane similar to the one shot down over the U.S.S.R.
  • 44. Francis Gary Powers with a model of a U-2 spy plane.
  • 45. Wreckage of Gary Powers’ U-2
  • 46. 33.2 Communists Take Power in China33.2 Communists Take Power in China After World War II, ChineseAfter World War II, Chinese Communists defeat Nationalist forcesCommunists defeat Nationalist forces and two separate Chinas emerge.and two separate Chinas emerge.
  • 47. Communists vs. NationalistsCommunists vs. Nationalists World War II in ChinaWorld War II in China  Mao ZedongMao Zedong—leads Chinese Communists—leads Chinese Communists against Japanese invadersagainst Japanese invaders  Jiang JieshiJiang Jieshi (a.k.a.(a.k.a. Chiang Kai-shekChiang Kai-shek)—)— leads of Chinese Nationalists in World War IIleads of Chinese Nationalists in World War II  Nationalist and Communist Chinese resumeNationalist and Communist Chinese resume civil war after WWII endscivil war after WWII ends
  • 48. Communists vs. NationalistsCommunists vs. Nationalists Mao Zedong Jiang Jieshi (a.k.a. Chiang Kai-shek)
  • 49.
  • 50. Communists vs. NationalistsCommunists vs. Nationalists Civil War ResumesCivil War Resumes  Economic problems cause Nationalist soldiersEconomic problems cause Nationalist soldiers to desert to Communiststo desert to Communists  Mao’s troops take control of China’s majorMao’s troops take control of China’s major citiescities  In 1949, People’s Republic of China isIn 1949, People’s Republic of China is createdcreated  Nationalists flee to TaiwanNationalists flee to Taiwan
  • 51. The Two Chinas Affect the Cold WarThe Two Chinas Affect the Cold War The Superpowers ReactThe Superpowers React  U.S. supports Nationalist state in Taiwan,U.S. supports Nationalist state in Taiwan, called Republic of Chinacalled Republic of China  Soviets and China agree to help each other inSoviets and China agree to help each other in event of attackevent of attack  U.S. tries to stop Soviet expansion andU.S. tries to stop Soviet expansion and spread of communism in Chinaspread of communism in China
  • 52. The Two Chinas Affect the Cold WarThe Two Chinas Affect the Cold War China Expands under the CommunistsChina Expands under the Communists  China takes control of Tibet and southernChina takes control of Tibet and southern MongoliaMongolia  India welcomes Tibetan refugees fleeingIndia welcomes Tibetan refugees fleeing revolt against Chineserevolt against Chinese  China and India clash over border; fightingChina and India clash over border; fighting stops but tensions remainstops but tensions remain
  • 53. The Communists Transform ChinaThe Communists Transform China Communists Claim a New “Mandate ofCommunists Claim a New “Mandate of Heaven”Heaven”  Chinese Communists organize nationalChinese Communists organize national government and Communist Partygovernment and Communist Party Mao’s Brand of Marxist SocialismMao’s Brand of Marxist Socialism  Mao takes property from landowners andMao takes property from landowners and divides it among peasantsdivides it among peasants  Government seizes private companies andGovernment seizes private companies and plans production increaseplans production increase
  • 54. The Communists Transform ChinaThe Communists Transform China The Great Leap ForwardThe Great Leap Forward  CommunesCommunes—large collective farms often—large collective farms often supporting over 25,000 peoplesupporting over 25,000 people  Program is ended after inefficiency leads toProgram is ended after inefficiency leads to crop failures and faminescrop failures and famines
  • 55.
  • 56. The Communists Transform ChinaThe Communists Transform China New Policies and Mao’s ResponseNew Policies and Mao’s Response  China and Soviet Union clash over leadershipChina and Soviet Union clash over leadership of communist movementof communist movement  Strict socialist ideas are moderated, MaoStrict socialist ideas are moderated, Mao reduces his role in governmentreduces his role in government  Red GuardsRed Guards— groups of violent and radical— groups of violent and radical youth militia — close schools and execute oryouth militia — close schools and execute or imprison many intellectuals and enforce strictimprison many intellectuals and enforce strict communism in Chinacommunism in China
  • 57. The Red Guards: China’s Teenage Police Force Between 1966 and 1976, students in China’s Red Guard waged a Cultural Revolution on teachers and professionals that left a million people dead and the country in chaos.
  • 58. The Communists Transform ChinaThe Communists Transform China The Cultural RevolutionThe Cultural Revolution  Cultural RevolutionCultural Revolution—movement to build—movement to build society of peasants and workerssociety of peasants and workers  In 1968, Chinese army imprisons, executes,In 1968, Chinese army imprisons, executes, or exiles most Red Guards who have beenor exiles most Red Guards who have been labeled by the government “Counterlabeled by the government “Counter Revolutionary.”Revolutionary.”  However, the Cultural Revolution continuesHowever, the Cultural Revolution continues until Mao’s death in 1976until Mao’s death in 1976..
  • 59. Red Guards holding Mao’s “Little Red Book” of his sayings during the cultural revolution.
  • 60. 33.3 Wars in Korea and Vietnam33.3 Wars in Korea and Vietnam In Asia, the Cold War flares intoIn Asia, the Cold War flares into actual wars supported mainly byactual wars supported mainly by the superpowers.the superpowers.
  • 61. The KoreasThe Koreas Following WWII, theFollowing WWII, the Korean peninsula isKorean peninsula is divided into twodivided into two separate countries.separate countries. They make theirThey make their border along the 38border along the 38thth Parallel line.Parallel line. North Korea is aNorth Korea is a Communist andCommunist and controlled by thecontrolled by the USSRUSSR South Korea is aSouth Korea is a democracy anddemocracy and influenced by the U.S.influenced by the U.S.
  • 62. War in KoreaWar in Korea A Divided LandA Divided Land  3838thth parallelparallel—line dividing Korea into North Korea—line dividing Korea into North Korea and South Koreaand South Korea
  • 63. The Korean WarThe Korean War In 1950, North KoreanIn 1950, North Korean troops invade Southtroops invade South Korea, supported by theKorea, supported by the USSR and the People’sUSSR and the People’s Republic of ChinaRepublic of China South Korea calls for helpSouth Korea calls for help and is backed by the U.S.and is backed by the U.S. and the United Nationsand the United Nations (15 countries).(15 countries). Douglas MacArthurDouglas MacArthur—— leads UN forces againstleads UN forces against North KoreansNorth Koreans
  • 64. The Korean WarThe Korean War
  • 65. War in KoreaWar in Korea North Koreans controlsNorth Koreans controls most of the peninsulamost of the peninsula when MacArthur attackswhen MacArthur attacks Half of North Korea’sHalf of North Korea’s army surrenders, thearmy surrenders, the rest retreatrest retreat UN troops push NorthUN troops push North Koreans almost toKoreans almost to Chinese borderChinese border
  • 66. The UN AdvancesThe UN Advances
  • 67. The Chinese Join the WarThe Chinese Join the War Chinese send 300,000 troops against UN forcesChinese send 300,000 troops against UN forces and capture Seoul.and capture Seoul.
  • 68. The Chinese AdvanceThe Chinese Advance
  • 69. A Cease FireA Cease Fire In 1953, a cease fireIn 1953, a cease fire is declared and endsis declared and ends the war.the war. The war does notThe war does not have a clear cuthave a clear cut winner as not muchwinner as not much territory is gained orterritory is gained or lost.lost. The border at the 38The border at the 38thth Parallel is restored.Parallel is restored.
  • 70. Did You Know?Did You Know? Even though they signedEven though they signed a cease fire in 1953, thea cease fire in 1953, the Korean War is technicallyKorean War is technically still going on today!still going on today! Even though there is notEven though there is not full outbreak of war,full outbreak of war, tensions remain high andtensions remain high and 2 million soldiers are2 million soldiers are readily available on eachreadily available on each side of the border, readyside of the border, ready to go to war.to go to war.
  • 71. The Forgotten WarThe Forgotten War Many times theMany times the Korean War isKorean War is referred to in thereferred to in the United States as theUnited States as the “Forgotten War” or“Forgotten War” or “Unknown War”“Unknown War” because the issuesbecause the issues were not as clear cutwere not as clear cut as WWII and theas WWII and the Vietnam War.Vietnam War.
  • 72. The Forgotten WarThe Forgotten War
  • 73.
  • 74. War in KoreaWar in Korea Aftermath of the WarAftermath of the War  North Korea builds collective farms, heavyNorth Korea builds collective farms, heavy industry, nuclear weaponsindustry, nuclear weapons  South Korea establishes democracy, growingSouth Korea establishes democracy, growing economy with U.S. aideconomy with U.S. aid  Tension is still high today between the twoTension is still high today between the two countries.countries.
  • 75. A Divided PeninsulaA Divided Peninsula Although a treaty was signed,Although a treaty was signed, tensions remain high even to thistensions remain high even to this day.day. The Koreas create a 2.5 mileThe Koreas create a 2.5 mile wide buffer zone along the 38wide buffer zone along the 38thth Parallel between the twoParallel between the two countries. (De-Militarized Zone)countries. (De-Militarized Zone) The border is heavily guardedThe border is heavily guarded and danger of war always loomsand danger of war always looms as there are 2 million troops areas there are 2 million troops are stationed on each side.stationed on each side. Some talks of reunification haveSome talks of reunification have begun, but the future isbegun, but the future is uncertain.uncertain.
  • 76. 3838thth Parallel – De-militarized Zone (DMZ)Parallel – De-militarized Zone (DMZ)
  • 77.
  • 78. War Breaks Out in VietnamWar Breaks Out in Vietnam The Road to WarThe Road to War  Ho Chi MinhHo Chi Minh—— Vietnamese nationalist,Vietnamese nationalist, later Communist leaderlater Communist leader The Fighting BeginsThe Fighting Begins  In 1954, FrenchIn 1954, French surrender to Vietnamesesurrender to Vietnamese after major defeatafter major defeat  Domino theoryDomino theory—U.S.—U.S. theory of Communisttheory of Communist expansion in Southeastexpansion in Southeast AsiaAsia Ho Chi Minh
  • 79. The War in Vietnam, 1957- 1973 Note the Ho Chi Minh Trail through Laos and Cambodia
  • 80. War Breaks Out in VietnamWar Breaks Out in Vietnam Vietnam—A DividedVietnam—A Divided CountryCountry  International peaceInternational peace conference agrees on aconference agrees on a divided Vietnamdivided Vietnam  Ngo Dinh DiemNgo Dinh Diem—leads—leads anti-Communistanti-Communist government in Southgovernment in South VietnamVietnam  VietcongVietcong—South—South Vietnamese CommunistVietnamese Communist guerillas fighting againstguerillas fighting against DiemDiemNgo Dinh Diem
  • 81. Ngo Dinh Diem (1901-1963), President of South Vietnam 1955-1963, with U.S.Ngo Dinh Diem (1901-1963), President of South Vietnam 1955-1963, with U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower at National Airport, Washington, 1957. DirectPresident Dwight Eisenhower at National Airport, Washington, 1957. Direct U.S. involvement in the Vietnam war began in the mid-1950s, when the U.S.U.S. involvement in the Vietnam war began in the mid-1950s, when the U.S. took over the struggle from the French. The Eisenhower administration begantook over the struggle from the French. The Eisenhower administration began by supporting the Diem regime, and then providing military advisors andby supporting the Diem regime, and then providing military advisors and increased support. However, by the end of the Eisenhower term, the U.S. hadincreased support. However, by the end of the Eisenhower term, the U.S. had fewer than 2000 troops in Vietnam. Diem was murdered in a military coup infewer than 2000 troops in Vietnam. Diem was murdered in a military coup in 1963.1963.
  • 82. Lyndon B. Johnson, the President of the United States from 1963 to 1970, makes a public statement on the Tonkin Gulf incident, August 4, 1964. When North Vietnam was said to have attacked two U.S. destroyers, Congress hastily passed the Tonkin Gulf Resolution, giving the president blanket authority to take necessary actions to protect U.S. forces. Subsequently, there have been serious questions as to what actually occurred in the Tonkin Gulf, but with vastly increased U.S. expenditures, the war quickly escalated; by 1969 the U.S. forces totaled almost 550,000 individuals. There was much opposition to the war in the Congress and among the U.S. people, and Johnson's very considerable domestic policy achievements were overshadowed by the criticism of his war policy.
  • 83. General William C. WestmorelandWilliam C. Westmoreland, McGeorge BundyMcGeorge Bundy and General KanhGeneral Kanh of South Vietnam, photographed at Camp Holloway, South Vietnam, in February 1965. Gen. Westmoreland commanded the U.S. troops in Vietnam 1964-68; Bundy was special assistant for national security to President Johnson from 1961 to 1966, and a key supporter of the Vietnam war.
  • 84. The United States Gets InvolvedThe United States Gets Involved U.S. Troops Enter the FightU.S. Troops Enter the Fight  In 1964, U.S. sends troops to fight Viet CongIn 1964, U.S. sends troops to fight Viet Cong and North Vietnameseand North Vietnamese  U.S. fights guerilla war defending increasinglyU.S. fights guerilla war defending increasingly unpopular governmentunpopular government  Vietcong gains support from Ho Chi Minh,Vietcong gains support from Ho Chi Minh, China, and Soviet UnionChina, and Soviet Union
  • 85. The United States Gets InvolvedThe United States Gets Involved The United States WithdrawsThe United States Withdraws  War grows unpopular in the U.S.; in 1969,War grows unpopular in the U.S.; in 1969, Nixon starts withdrawing troopsNixon starts withdrawing troops  VietnamizationVietnamization—Nixon’s plan to withdraw—Nixon’s plan to withdraw U.S. from war graduallyU.S. from war gradually  Last U.S. troops leave in 1973; SouthLast U.S. troops leave in 1973; South Vietnam overrun in 1975Vietnam overrun in 1975
  • 86. Nixon appeared on television January 23, 1973, to announceNixon appeared on television January 23, 1973, to announce the ceasefire. The agreement ended nearly 12 years ofthe ceasefire. The agreement ended nearly 12 years of warfare in which 58,000 Americans had lost their lives. It didwarfare in which 58,000 Americans had lost their lives. It did not contain an enforceable plan for the peaceable settlementnot contain an enforceable plan for the peaceable settlement of Vietnam's internal problems; within a year, fighting thereof Vietnam's internal problems; within a year, fighting there had resumed. Eventually, the South Vietnamese governmenthad resumed. Eventually, the South Vietnamese government of Thieu was defeated by the Provisional Revolutionaryof Thieu was defeated by the Provisional Revolutionary Government (PRG) of South Vietnamese communist rebelsGovernment (PRG) of South Vietnamese communist rebels and North Vietnamese troops. Even had Nixon wished toand North Vietnamese troops. Even had Nixon wished to intervene, Congress passed, over his veto, a ''War Powersintervene, Congress passed, over his veto, a ''War Powers Act'' that gave Congress the power to prevent him from actingAct'' that gave Congress the power to prevent him from acting without its consent - a consent that Congress would havewithout its consent - a consent that Congress would have been unwilling to extend in 1974 or 1975.been unwilling to extend in 1974 or 1975.
  • 87. Postwar Southeast AsiaPostwar Southeast Asia Cambodia in TurmoilCambodia in Turmoil  Khmer RougeKhmer Rouge—— Communist rebels whoCommunist rebels who take control of Cambodia intake control of Cambodia in 19751975  They slaughter 2 millionThey slaughter 2 million people; overthrown bypeople; overthrown by Vietnamese invadersVietnamese invaders  In 1993, Cambodia adoptsIn 1993, Cambodia adopts democracy, holds electionsdemocracy, holds elections with UN helpwith UN help Pol Pot, leader of the Khmer Rouge (Cambodian Communist Party, literally “Red Khmers”) in 1977 at the height of his power
  • 88. Postwar Southeast AsiaPostwar Southeast Asia The Killing FieldsThe Killing Fields werewere a number of sites ina number of sites in Cambodia where largeCambodia where large numbers of people werenumbers of people were killed and buried by thekilled and buried by the Khmer Rouge regime,Khmer Rouge regime, during its rule of theduring its rule of the country from 1975 tocountry from 1975 to 1979, immediately after1979, immediately after the end of the Vietnamthe end of the Vietnam War.War.
  • 89. Postwar Southeast AsiaPostwar Southeast Asia At least 200,000 peopleAt least 200,000 people were executed by thewere executed by the Khmer Rouge (whileKhmer Rouge (while estimates of the totalestimates of the total number of deathsnumber of deaths resulting from Khmerresulting from Khmer Rouge policies, includingRouge policies, including disease and starvation,disease and starvation, range from 1.4 to 2.2range from 1.4 to 2.2 million out of a populationmillion out of a population of around 7 million).of around 7 million). A commemorative stupa filled with the skulls of the victims.
  • 90. Choung Ek Killing Field: The bones of young children who were killed by Khmer Rouge soldiers.
  • 91. Mass grave in Choeung Ek.
  • 92. History in Film:History in Film: The Killing FieldsThe Killing Fields (1984)(1984) The Killing FieldsThe Killing Fields is a 1984is a 1984 British drama film about theBritish drama film about the Khmer Rouge regime inKhmer Rouge regime in Cambodia, which is based onCambodia, which is based on the experiences of threethe experiences of three journalists:journalists:  CambodianCambodian Dith PranDith Pran  AmericanAmerican Sydney SchanbergSydney Schanberg  BritishBritish Jon SwainJon Swain.. The film won three AcademyThe film won three Academy Awards, includingAwards, including  Best Supporting Actor for HaingBest Supporting Actor for Haing S. Ngor as Dith Pran.S. Ngor as Dith Pran.  Sam Waterston from Law andSam Waterston from Law and Order stars in the film as SydneyOrder stars in the film as Sydney SchanbergSchanberg
  • 93. Postwar Southeast AsiaPostwar Southeast Asia Vietnam after the WarVietnam after the War  Saigon renamed Ho Chi Minh City; VietnamSaigon renamed Ho Chi Minh City; Vietnam united as Communist nationunited as Communist nation  About 1.5 million people flee Vietnam, someAbout 1.5 million people flee Vietnam, some settling in the U.S. and Canadasettling in the U.S. and Canada  In 1995, United States normalizes relationsIn 1995, United States normalizes relations with Vietnamwith Vietnam
  • 94. 33.4 The Cold War33.4 The Cold War Divides the WorldDivides the World The superpowers supportThe superpowers support opposing sides in Latin Americanopposing sides in Latin American and Middle Eastern conflictsand Middle Eastern conflicts
  • 95. Fighting for the Third WorldFighting for the Third World More Than One “World”More Than One “World”  Third WorldThird World—developing nations; often—developing nations; often newly independent, nonalignednewly independent, nonaligned Cold War StrategiesCold War Strategies  U.S., Soviet Union, and China compete forU.S., Soviet Union, and China compete for influence over the Third Worldinfluence over the Third World  They back revolutions and give economic ,They back revolutions and give economic , military and technical aidmilitary and technical aid
  • 96. Fighting for the Third WorldFighting for the Third World Association of Nonaligned NationsAssociation of Nonaligned Nations  Many countries, like India, want to avoidMany countries, like India, want to avoid involvement in the Cold Warinvolvement in the Cold War  In 1955, Indonesia hosts Asian and AfricanIn 1955, Indonesia hosts Asian and African leaders who want neutralityleaders who want neutrality  Nonaligned nationsNonaligned nations—independent countries—independent countries not involved in the Cold Warnot involved in the Cold War
  • 97. Confrontations in Latin AmericaConfrontations in Latin America Fidel Castro and the Cuban RevolutionFidel Castro and the Cuban Revolution  Fidel CastroFidel Castro—leads revolt in Cuba against—leads revolt in Cuba against dictator supported by the U.S.dictator supported by the U.S.  By 1959, Castro in power, nationalizesBy 1959, Castro in power, nationalizes economy, takes U.S. propertyeconomy, takes U.S. property  In 1961, Castro defeats U.S. trained CubanIn 1961, Castro defeats U.S. trained Cuban exiles at the Bay of Pigsexiles at the Bay of Pigs
  • 99. Confrontations in Latin AmericaConfrontations in Latin America Nuclear Face-off: the Cuban Missile CrisisNuclear Face-off: the Cuban Missile Crisis  In 1962, U.S. demands removal of SovietIn 1962, U.S. demands removal of Soviet missiles in Cubamissiles in Cuba  Soviets withdraw missiles; U.S. promises notSoviets withdraw missiles; U.S. promises not to invade Cubato invade Cuba  Cuban economy is left dependent on SovietCuban economy is left dependent on Soviet supportsupport
  • 100. The Cuban Missile CrisisThe Cuban Missile Crisis After the CubanAfter the Cuban Revolution in the earlyRevolution in the early 1960’s, the new Cuban1960’s, the new Cuban government adoptedgovernment adopted communism.communism. Shortly thereafter, theShortly thereafter, the Soviets started buildingSoviets started building nuclear missile silos onnuclear missile silos on the island.the island. Through secret, spyThrough secret, spy photographs, the U.S.photographs, the U.S. found out about thefound out about the missiles.missiles.
  • 101.
  • 102. The Cuban Missile CrisisThe Cuban Missile Crisis Angered by these actions, the U.S. demanded the SovietsAngered by these actions, the U.S. demanded the Soviets withdraw from Cuba.withdraw from Cuba. The Soviets refused and it seemed a conflict wasThe Soviets refused and it seemed a conflict was imminent.imminent. Both sides believed that only armed combat could resolveBoth sides believed that only armed combat could resolve the issue.the issue. President Kennedy was even set to invade Cuba andPresident Kennedy was even set to invade Cuba and remove the missiles by force.remove the missiles by force. Just when it looked as if nuclear war was going to occur,Just when it looked as if nuclear war was going to occur, the two sides came to an agreement. The Soviets wouldthe two sides came to an agreement. The Soviets would remove their missiles from Cuba as long as the Americansremove their missiles from Cuba as long as the Americans removed their own from Turkey.removed their own from Turkey.
  • 103. Confrontations in Latin AmericaConfrontations in Latin America Civil War in NicaraguaCivil War in Nicaragua  Anastasio Somoza DebayleAnastasio Somoza Debayle—Nicaraguan dictator—Nicaraguan dictator supported by the U.S.supported by the U.S.  Daniel OrtegaDaniel Ortega—leads—leads SandinistaSandinista rebels who takerebels who take power in Nicaraguapower in Nicaragua  U.S. and Soviet Union both initially supportU.S. and Soviet Union both initially support SandinistasSandinistas  Sandinistas aid Communist rebels in El SalvadorSandinistas aid Communist rebels in El Salvador  U.S. helps anti-CommunistU.S. helps anti-Communist ContrasContras in Nicaragua toin Nicaragua to assist El Salvadorassist El Salvador  In 1990, Nicaragua holds first free elections,In 1990, Nicaragua holds first free elections, Sandinistas loseSandinistas lose
  • 104. Daniel Ortega on Time magazine, March 31, 1986 Anastasio Somoza Debayle (U.S. supported president of Nicaragua from 1967-1980)
  • 105. Confrontations in the Middle EastConfrontations in the Middle East Religious and SecularReligious and Secular Values Clash in IranValues Clash in Iran  Shah Reza Pahlavi embracesShah Reza Pahlavi embraces Western governments and oilWestern governments and oil companiescompanies  The U.S. and U.K. supportedThe U.S. and U.K. supported the Shah which was verythe Shah which was very unpopular with people of theunpopular with people of the Middle EastMiddle East  In addition to this, the ShahIn addition to this, the Shah tried to “modernize” histried to “modernize” his country which clashed withcountry which clashed with the ideals of traditionalthe ideals of traditional IslamistsIslamists Shah Reza PahlaviShah Reza Pahlavi
  • 106. Confrontations in the Middle EastConfrontations in the Middle East The United States SupportsThe United States Supports Secular RuleSecular Rule  Shah Reza PahlaviShah Reza Pahlavi westernizes Iran with U.S.westernizes Iran with U.S. supportsupport  Ayatollah Ruholla KhomeiniAyatollah Ruholla Khomeini —Iranian Muslim leader; lives—Iranian Muslim leader; lives in exilein exile  In 1978, Khomeini sparks riotsIn 1978, Khomeini sparks riots in Iran, Shah flees to the U.S.in Iran, Shah flees to the U.S.  Khomeini claims a jihad (holyKhomeini claims a jihad (holy war) on Western influences.war) on Western influences.
  • 107. Confrontations in the Middle EastConfrontations in the Middle East Khomeini’s Anti-U.S.Khomeini’s Anti-U.S. PoliciesPolicies  Muslim radicals takeMuslim radicals take control in Irancontrol in Iran  Islamic revolutionariesIslamic revolutionaries attack the U.S. Embassyattack the U.S. Embassy in Iran and holdin Iran and hold American hostages inAmerican hostages in Tehran (1979-1981) forTehran (1979-1981) for 444 days444 days  They demand that theThey demand that the U.S. hands over theU.S. hands over the Shah in exchange for theShah in exchange for the hostages.hostages.
  • 108. Blindfolded American hostages in Iran in 1979.
  • 109. Iraq-Iran War (First Persian Gulf War)Iraq-Iran War (First Persian Gulf War) The Iranian Revolution put muchThe Iranian Revolution put much strain on relations between Iraqstrain on relations between Iraq (Sunnis) and Iran (Shiites).(Sunnis) and Iran (Shiites). With the oustering of the Shah inWith the oustering of the Shah in Iran, the U.S. supported SaddamIran, the U.S. supported Saddam Hussein and forces in Iraq byHussein and forces in Iraq by supplying them with weapons,supplying them with weapons, money and intelligence.money and intelligence. Iran, on the other hand, wasIran, on the other hand, was supported by the USSR who soldsupported by the USSR who sold weapons to the Iranians.weapons to the Iranians. Despite heavy losses on eachDespite heavy losses on each side, neither seemed to beside, neither seemed to be
  • 110. Confrontations in the Middle EastConfrontations in the Middle East The Superpowers Face Off in AfghanistanThe Superpowers Face Off in Afghanistan  Soviets invade Afghanistan to helpSoviets invade Afghanistan to help Communist government against rebelsCommunist government against rebels  Muslim rebels fight guerilla war againstMuslim rebels fight guerilla war against Soviets with U.S. weaponsSoviets with U.S. weapons  U.S. stops grain shipments to Soviet UnionU.S. stops grain shipments to Soviet Union  Soviets eventually withdraw in 1989Soviets eventually withdraw in 1989
  • 111. 33.5 The Cold War33.5 The Cold War ThawsThaws The Cold War begins to thaw asThe Cold War begins to thaw as the superpowers enter an era ofthe superpowers enter an era of uneasy diplomacyuneasy diplomacy
  • 112. Soviet Policy in Eastern Europe and ChinaSoviet Policy in Eastern Europe and China Destalinization and Rumblings ofDestalinization and Rumblings of ProtestProtest  Nikita KhrushchevNikita Khrushchev—leader of—leader of Soviet Union after Stalin diesSoviet Union after Stalin dies (1953)(1953)  Khrushchev condemns Stalin;Khrushchev condemns Stalin; Soviets and West can peacefullySoviets and West can peacefully competecompete  Citizens of Soviet-controlledCitizens of Soviet-controlled governments begin protestinggovernments begin protesting communismcommunism  Khrushchev sends Soviet militaryKhrushchev sends Soviet military to put down Hungarian protesters.to put down Hungarian protesters.
  • 113. Soviet Policy in Eastern Europe and ChinaSoviet Policy in Eastern Europe and China The Revolt inThe Revolt in CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakia  Leonid BrezhnevLeonid Brezhnev —Soviet leader—Soviet leader after Khrushchev—after Khrushchev— represses dissentrepresses dissent  In 1968, WarsawIn 1968, Warsaw Pact troops blockPact troops block reforms inreforms in CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakia
  • 114. Soviet Policy in Eastern Europe and ChinaSoviet Policy in Eastern Europe and China The Soviet-Chinese SplitThe Soviet-Chinese Split  In 1950, Mao and Stalin sign friendship treaty,In 1950, Mao and Stalin sign friendship treaty, but tensions growbut tensions grow  Chinese and Soviets each want to lead worldChinese and Soviets each want to lead world communismcommunism  Khrushchev ends economic aid and refusesKhrushchev ends economic aid and refuses to share nuclear secretsto share nuclear secrets  Soviets and Chinese fight small skirmishesSoviets and Chinese fight small skirmishes across borderacross border
  • 115. From Brinkmanship to DFrom Brinkmanship to Détenteétente Brinkmanship BreaksBrinkmanship Breaks DownDown  Brinkmanship causeBrinkmanship cause repeated crises; nuclear warrepeated crises; nuclear war a constant threata constant threat  John F. KennedyJohn F. Kennedy—U.S.—U.S. president during the Cubanpresident during the Cuban Missile CrisisMissile Crisis  Lyndon JohnsonLyndon Johnson—— president who increasespresident who increases U.S. involvement in VietnamU.S. involvement in Vietnam
  • 116. From Brinkmanship to DFrom Brinkmanship to Détenteétente The United States Turns toThe United States Turns to DDétenteétente  Vietnam-era turmoil fuelsVietnam-era turmoil fuels desire for lessdesire for less confrontational policyconfrontational policy  DétenteDétente—policy of reducing—policy of reducing Cold War tensions to avoidCold War tensions to avoid conflictconflict  Richard M. NixonRichard M. Nixon—U.S.—U.S. president who launchespresident who launches détentedétente  Détente grows out ofDétente grows out of philosophy known asphilosophy known as realpolitik—”realisticrealpolitik—”realistic politics”—recognizes need topolitics”—recognizes need to be practical and flexiblebe practical and flexible
  • 117. From Brinkmanship to DFrom Brinkmanship to Détenteétente Nixon Visits Communist PowersNixon Visits Communist Powers  Nixon visits Communist China and SovietNixon visits Communist China and Soviet Union, signs SALT I TreatyUnion, signs SALT I Treaty  SALTSALT—Strategic Arms Limitation Talks——Strategic Arms Limitation Talks— limits nuclear weaponslimits nuclear weapons
  • 119. The Collapse of DThe Collapse of Détenteétente Policy ChangesPolicy Changes  Nixon and Gerald Ford improve relations withNixon and Gerald Ford improve relations with Soviets and ChinaSoviets and China  Jimmy Carter has concerns about SovietJimmy Carter has concerns about Soviet policies but signs SALT IIpolicies but signs SALT II  Congress will not ratify SALT II due to SovietCongress will not ratify SALT II due to Soviet invasion of Afghanistaninvasion of Afghanistan
  • 120. The Collapse of DThe Collapse of Détenteétente Reagan Takes an Anti-Reagan Takes an Anti- Communist StanceCommunist Stance  Ronald ReaganRonald Reagan—anti-—anti- Communist U.S. presidentCommunist U.S. president takes office in 1981takes office in 1981  Reagan increases militaryReagan increases military spending and proposes aspending and proposes a missile defense programmissile defense program called “Star Wars”called “Star Wars”
  • 121. President Ronald Reagan at desk. George H.W. Bush behind him along with several advisors.
  • 122. The Collapse of the USSRThe Collapse of the USSR In the 1980s, new SovietIn the 1980s, new Soviet leadership allows easingleadership allows easing of Cold War tensions.of Cold War tensions. In 1986, Soviet leaderIn 1986, Soviet leader Mikhail GorbachevMikhail Gorbachev introduces his policyintroduces his policy known asknown as PerestroikaPerestroika (restructuring),(restructuring), to allowto allow more economic, politicalmore economic, political freedom.freedom.
  • 123. The Collapse of the USSRThe Collapse of the USSR This causes a domino effectThis causes a domino effect and the people (especiallyand the people (especially those in the smaller republics)those in the smaller republics) demand independence.demand independence. This leads to collapse ofThis leads to collapse of Soviet Union, end of ColdSoviet Union, end of Cold War in 1991War in 1991 Region divides into 15Region divides into 15 independent republics.independent republics. Russia becomes aRussia becomes a democracy and remains thatdemocracy and remains that today.today.