SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 27
Soviet Invasion of
  Afghanistan
   1979-1989
  By Karen Ni and Kavita Shah
            D Block
General Overview
• Began in 1979 when the
    Soviets invaded
    Afghanistan
•   Afghans carried out
    guerrilla warfare that
    ultimately drives Soviets
    out
•   Ended in stalemate-
    Soviets forced to withdraw
•   Ceasefire: 1988,
•   Soviet withdrawal: 1989
Long Term Causes
• Soviets trying to spread
 Communism to
 neighboring countries
  • Wanted to create
    friendly eastern states.
  • Would open up trade
    with Asian nations

• Marxist government in
  Afghanistan is being
  opposed by majority of
  Afghans.
Short Term Causes
• 1978- Marxist government placed in Afghanistan by
    the PDPA (People's Democratic Party of
    Afghanistan)
     • Actions were unpopular with the conservative
       Afghans
     • Saw the Marxist ideals as a threat to the Afghan
       religion and customs

•   Soviets wanted to maintain the Communist
    government – invaded in 1979 to intervene
Soviet Perceptions
• Soviet people were told
 that the war was meant
 to free the Communists
 living in Afghanistan

• Communism entails
 atheism.
  • believed that the
    Afghans (mostly
    Muslims) need to be
    liberated from their
    ignorance
Soviet Motivations
• Successful invasion of
  Afghanistan would allow
  puppet state set up
  through control of Kabul.


• Geographic benefits:
    1. Access of Indian ocean
    through India.
    2. Trade with India and its
    large population
    3. Natural resources: iron
                                  Soviet soldiers in Kabul
    ore, natural gas, uranium,
    copper
Afghan Motivations/Perceptions
• Majority were Muslims-
 conflicting with the
 atheist teachings of
 Communism

• Saw the Soviets
 invasion as a threat to
 their culture and
 religion- engage in
 “jihad” or “holy war”.
Events
• Taraki Regime in place in Afghanistan
    o Terror used to reduce threat from opponents
•   Leaders launch a jihad against communism
    o Afghanistan delving into civil war and USSR starts
       to worry
         Brezhnev Doctrine: Right of the Soviet Union
           to militarily get involved to prevent the overthrow
           of a neighboring communist government
•   Soviets quickly seize Kabul as well as other major
    Afghan cities and highways
    o Mujaheedeen forces use guerilla warfare to oppose
       Soviet influence.
Events
• President Jimmy Carter
  believes that the Soviet's
  action was a "blatant
  violation of accepted
  international rules of
  behavior"
• Limited his sales with the
  USSR and restricted fishing
  privileges in the U.S.
  waters.
   o Following Carter,
      Reagan despised the
      Soviets even more,
      referring to them as the
      "evil empire."
Events
• With these oppositions, the USSR was struggling to
    survive in the war
    o Mujaheedeen got foreign assistance from the US
•   1983- US, UK, Saudi Arabia, PRC become
    supporters for Afghanistan.

•   Weapons supplied through Pakistan.
•            1985- closed in on Kabul (gov ruled by
    Moscow)
•            1986- US and UK supplied antiaircraft
    missles and ground to ground rockets that allowed
    Mujahideen to shoot down Soviet aircrafts.
•            1989- Soviet government withdrew troops
Events
• In 1988, the Soviet
    Union, now with the
    leadership of Mikhail
    Gorbachev agreed to
    withdraw the Soviet
    troops within a 10 month
    period.
1989- Soviet government
withdrew troops from           Soviet tanks withdraw from Afghanistan

Afghanistan- mujahideen
take over Kabul.
Mujahideen
•   Afghan resistance
    fighters against
    Soviet forces and the
    Soviet controlled
    Kabul government
     • made up of seven
       Sunni political      Mujaheedeen soldiers
       factions and eight
       Shiite
       organizations in
       Afghanistan.
Mujahideen (Cont.)
•   Originally divided by regional,
    sectarian, political and tribal
    ties.
    •   Not very united at the
        beginning of Soviet’s
        invasion
    •   Organized in local tribal
        militias.
    •   No central structure.
•   March 1980- formed Islamic
    Alliance for the Liberation of
    Afghanistan for international
    recognition and support.
Foreign Aid
• other participants included volunteers from neighboring
  middle east and north african countries.
• Initially trained/funded by Pakistan’s Inter-service
  intelligence (ISI)
   • Later supported by US, UK, Saudi Arabia, Iran, PRC (china),
     and Sunni nations.
• 1983- US, UK, Saudi Arabia, PRC become supporters for
  Afghanistan.
  Weapons supplied through Pakistan.
• 1986- US and UK supplied antiaircraft missiles and ground
  to ground rockets that allowed Mujahideen to shoot down
  Soviet aircrafts.
Mujahideen Soldiers
Short Term Effects (Afghans)
•   1 million Afghans died.
    • 5 million Afghans (refugees) fled to
      neighboring countries (mainly
      Pakistan)

•   Afghanistan destabilized
Short Term Effects (Soviet)
• 14,000 Soviet
 soldiers killed.
 • Soviets lost 1000
      pieces of
      equipment and
      450 aircrafts
•   Soviet Casualties=
    50,000               Soviet tanks withdrawing from
                         Afghanistan after suffering heavy
                         losses
Long Term Effects
• Costed Soviet Union
  billions of dollars of debt
  which severely weakened
  the Soviet Union.
• Contributed to the fall of
  the Soviet Union
• Afghanistan is brought to
  a state of civil unrest
  (even today)
• Soviets authorities
  became questioned by its      War in Afghanistan 2001
  people which weakened
  their empire.
Soviet Tanks Withdrawal
Soviet Troops leaving Afghanistan
1989
Key Questions
Explain why Afghanistan’s Marxist
government (took power in 1978) was
unpopular with many Muslims.
•
•   The Marxist government was unpopular with the
    Muslims primarily because of the conflicting beliefs of
    the two groups of people. First of all, Marxist teachings
    entail an atheistic point of view on religion. The
    Muslims living in Afghanistan were extremely
    conservative and religious, thus opposed Marxist
    teachings. Secondly, when the socialist government
    was set up in Afghanistan in 1978, social reforms were
    issued that directed conflicted with Muslim culture. For
    example, women, who in Islamic teachings are inferior
    to men, were given equal rights as men. Dress and the
    education system were also "westernized" causing
    upset in the conservative Muslims.
Explain how the USSR became involved in a war in
 —
 Afghanistan (1979-1988)?
Before the USSR had become involved in the war in
Afghanistan, a commitment to the Brezhnev Doctrine was
established. This doctrine stated that the Soviet Union
would get involved if a friendly communist government was
being overthrown and try to prevent any consequences.
So, as Afghanistan delved into civil war in 1979, the USSR
was obliged help and pursued towards a military
intervention. This assistance consisted of not only 4,500
combat advisers released by Leonid Brezhnev but also
Soviet aircrafts that were ready to conduct bombing raids.
This doctrine was the point of instigation that led the USSR
to becoming involved.
What were the obstacles that made the war
unwinnable for the Soviets?
The Soviets faced several obstacles making their chances at
 winning the war not possible. The first obstacle occurred at the
 end of January of 1980 as the Soviet units began to seize Afghan
 cities and major highways. After securing these locations, the
 Mujahedeen began to resort to guerilla warfare. The Mujahedeen
 were essentially the Afghan rebel groups who fought against
 Soviet influence. As the war continued, confrontations with
 guerilla warfare cause the confidence of the Soviets to decrease
 while the confidence of the Afghans increased. To make matters
 worse, the US began providing foreign assistance to the
 mujaheeden with the providing of transport vehicles, weaponry
 such as missile launchers and food. With all this assistance, the
 usage of chemical weapons or more troops for the Soviets would
 not help at all. Eventually in the April of 1988, the Soviet troops
 had withdrawn.
How did the war end? What was the effect of
the war on Afghanistan? On the Soviet
Union?
  •
  • The war ended in 1989 through a stalemate with both sides
    suffering heavy losses. The Soviets withdrew in 1989.
  • The war caused the death of 1 million Afghans, and fleeing
    of 5 million Afghans to neighboring countries. Afghanistan,
    as a result of the war, entered a state of civil instability,
    which still continues into present day.
  • The war caused 50,000 Soviet casualties and loss of 1000
    pieces of equipment and 450 aircrafts. As a result of the
    war, Soviets were in billions of dollars of debt, which
    severely weakened the USSR. Their losses also caused
    the people to question the Soviet’s authority. It is arguably
    the factor that caused the downfall of the Soviet Union.
Bibliography
Dehart, Bruce J. “Soviet-Afghanistan War.” The Encyclopedia of Middle East
  Wars: The United States in the Persian Gulf, Afghanistan, and Iraq Conflicts.
  Gale Virtual Reference Library, 2010. Web. 5 Apr. 2012.
Leitich, Keith A. “Mujahideen, Soviet-Afghanistan War.” The Encyclopedia of
  Middle East Wars: The United States in the Persian Gulf, Afghanistan, and
  Iraq Conflicts. 2010. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 5 Apr. 2012.
Pierpaoli, Paul G. “Cold War (Consequences).” World at War: Understanding
   Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2012. Web. 4 Apr. 2012.
“The Soviet-Afghan War: Key Question.” World History: The Modern Era. ABC-
  CLIO, 2012. Web. 4 Apr. 2012.
Taylor, Maxine. “The Soviet-Afghan War: a Lasting Legacy: an Overview.”
  World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2012. Web. 4
  Apr. 2012.
“Why the Soviets Invaded Afghanistan.” Mount Holyoke College. Mount
  Holyoke College, 2012. Web. 5 Apr. 2012.
Credits
Afghan Mujahideen Soldiers. N.d. Alternative Insight. Alternative Insight, n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2012.
<http://www.alternativeinsight.com/images/Image417.gif>.
Afghan tanks. N.d. Fun President . N.p., Feb. 2009. Web. 23 Apr. 2012. <http://funpresident.com/wp-
content/uploads/2009/02/the-challenge-of-afghanistan8.jpg>.
American Soldiers in Afghanistan 2001. N.d. History Guy. Roger A. Lee, n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2012.
<http://www.historyguy.com/afghanistan_war_image.jpg>.
Armand, Vitaly. A Convoy of Soviet Armoured Vehicles Crossing a Bridge at the Soviet-Afghan Border. 21 May 1988.
Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica Inc., n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2012.
<http://www.britannica.com/bps/media-view/121906/1/0/0>.
Evstafiev, Mikhail. Pullout of Soviet Troops from Afghanistan. 1988. Private Collection. Wikipedia. Web. 23 Apr. 2012.
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Evstafiev-afghan-apc-passes-russian.jpg>.
- - -. A Soviet Spetsnav Group Prepares for a Mission in Afghanistan. 1988. Private Collection. Wikipedia. Web. 23 Apr.
2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Evstafiev-spetsnaz-prepare-for-mission.jpg>.
Lux, Erwin. Mortar Attack on Shigal Tarna Garris. 1987. Wikipedia. N.p., Nov. 2008. Web. 23 Apr. 2012.
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mortar_attack_on_Shigal_Tarna_garrison,_Kunar_Province,_87.jpg>.
Map of the USSR Area. Chart. Diller, Amber. Blogger, 9 June 2011. Web. 23 Apr. 2012. <http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-
8YrQsRk3Ixo/TfEEtLSLf7I/AAAAAAAAABo/UGHiMPSyiKI/s1600/map-of-soviet-union.gif>.
Soviet Soldiers. N.d. Alternative Insight. Alternative Insight, n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2012.
<http://www.alternativeinsight.com/images/Image409.gif>.
Soviet Soldiers in Kabul . N.d. Video Fact. Video Fact, n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2012.
<http://www.videofact.com/polska/robocze%20today/afganistan6.jpg>.
Soviet Troops Preparing to Leave Afghanistan. N.d. Padresteve’s World. Wordpress, Jan. 2010. Web. 23 Apr. 2012.
<http://padresteve.files.wordpress.com/2010/01/soviet_troops_afghanistan.jpg>.

More Related Content

What's hot

Changing Cold War Relations - afghanistan war
Changing Cold War Relations - afghanistan warChanging Cold War Relations - afghanistan war
Changing Cold War Relations - afghanistan warmrmarr
 
War in afghanistan
War in afghanistanWar in afghanistan
War in afghanistanAftab Alam
 
War in Afghanistan
War in AfghanistanWar in Afghanistan
War in Afghanistanmrbruns
 
Chapter 8 cold war
Chapter 8 cold warChapter 8 cold war
Chapter 8 cold warBrown Cdg
 
Foreign policy of the united states of america
Foreign policy of the united states of americaForeign policy of the united states of america
Foreign policy of the united states of americaSamSnipes
 
Decolonization
DecolonizationDecolonization
Decolonizationbbednars
 
The Gulf War
The Gulf WarThe Gulf War
The Gulf WarBen Dover
 
Conflict And Change In The Middle East
Conflict And Change In The Middle EastConflict And Change In The Middle East
Conflict And Change In The Middle Eastrhalter
 
USA Foreign policy Analysis
USA Foreign policy AnalysisUSA Foreign policy Analysis
USA Foreign policy AnalysisKARAKORAM
 
Nuclear NON-PROLIFERATION TREATY
Nuclear NON-PROLIFERATION TREATYNuclear NON-PROLIFERATION TREATY
Nuclear NON-PROLIFERATION TREATYShaheera Hassan
 
Cold war, super powers, & space
Cold war, super powers, & spaceCold war, super powers, & space
Cold war, super powers, & spaceesample458
 
China foreign policy
China foreign policyChina foreign policy
China foreign policyNoman Arshad
 
Sec 5N Hist (Elec) Chapter 11: End of Cold War
Sec 5N Hist (Elec) Chapter 11: End of Cold WarSec 5N Hist (Elec) Chapter 11: End of Cold War
Sec 5N Hist (Elec) Chapter 11: End of Cold WarWeng Lun Ho
 
Breakup of the Soviet Union Causes & Consequences
Breakup of the Soviet Union Causes & ConsequencesBreakup of the Soviet Union Causes & Consequences
Breakup of the Soviet Union Causes & ConsequencesShahid Hussain Raja
 
Arab israeli conflict
Arab israeli conflictArab israeli conflict
Arab israeli conflictVeer Salaria
 
Us Foreign Policy after 1945
Us Foreign Policy after 1945Us Foreign Policy after 1945
Us Foreign Policy after 1945Noel Hogan
 

What's hot (20)

Changing Cold War Relations - afghanistan war
Changing Cold War Relations - afghanistan warChanging Cold War Relations - afghanistan war
Changing Cold War Relations - afghanistan war
 
Cold war
Cold warCold war
Cold war
 
Warsaw Pact
Warsaw PactWarsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
 
War in afghanistan
War in afghanistanWar in afghanistan
War in afghanistan
 
Cold War
Cold War Cold War
Cold War
 
War in Afghanistan
War in AfghanistanWar in Afghanistan
War in Afghanistan
 
Chapter 8 cold war
Chapter 8 cold warChapter 8 cold war
Chapter 8 cold war
 
Usa foreign policy
Usa foreign policyUsa foreign policy
Usa foreign policy
 
Foreign policy of the united states of america
Foreign policy of the united states of americaForeign policy of the united states of america
Foreign policy of the united states of america
 
Decolonization
DecolonizationDecolonization
Decolonization
 
The Gulf War
The Gulf WarThe Gulf War
The Gulf War
 
Conflict And Change In The Middle East
Conflict And Change In The Middle EastConflict And Change In The Middle East
Conflict And Change In The Middle East
 
USA Foreign policy Analysis
USA Foreign policy AnalysisUSA Foreign policy Analysis
USA Foreign policy Analysis
 
Nuclear NON-PROLIFERATION TREATY
Nuclear NON-PROLIFERATION TREATYNuclear NON-PROLIFERATION TREATY
Nuclear NON-PROLIFERATION TREATY
 
Cold war, super powers, & space
Cold war, super powers, & spaceCold war, super powers, & space
Cold war, super powers, & space
 
China foreign policy
China foreign policyChina foreign policy
China foreign policy
 
Sec 5N Hist (Elec) Chapter 11: End of Cold War
Sec 5N Hist (Elec) Chapter 11: End of Cold WarSec 5N Hist (Elec) Chapter 11: End of Cold War
Sec 5N Hist (Elec) Chapter 11: End of Cold War
 
Breakup of the Soviet Union Causes & Consequences
Breakup of the Soviet Union Causes & ConsequencesBreakup of the Soviet Union Causes & Consequences
Breakup of the Soviet Union Causes & Consequences
 
Arab israeli conflict
Arab israeli conflictArab israeli conflict
Arab israeli conflict
 
Us Foreign Policy after 1945
Us Foreign Policy after 1945Us Foreign Policy after 1945
Us Foreign Policy after 1945
 

Similar to Soviet afghan war final

Afghan war By Jug and Pun
Afghan war By Jug and PunAfghan war By Jug and Pun
Afghan war By Jug and Pundabix
 
Cold War in the 20th century An Overview
Cold War in the 20th century   An OverviewCold War in the 20th century   An Overview
Cold War in the 20th century An OverviewNathan Roher
 
Vietnam Powerpoint
Vietnam PowerpointVietnam Powerpoint
Vietnam PowerpointGreg Sill
 
Vietnam War Powerpoint presentation
Vietnam War Powerpoint presentationVietnam War Powerpoint presentation
Vietnam War Powerpoint presentationcvcvvc
 
Cold war abroad
Cold war abroadCold war abroad
Cold war abroadmeglan12
 
Soviet intervention in afghanistan
Soviet intervention in afghanistanSoviet intervention in afghanistan
Soviet intervention in afghanistanM Saffi Ullah
 
H12 ch 13_nationalism_inasia_2013
H12 ch 13_nationalism_inasia_2013H12 ch 13_nationalism_inasia_2013
H12 ch 13_nationalism_inasia_2013jkoryan
 
Russia VS China
Russia VS ChinaRussia VS China
Russia VS Chinaiakovosal
 
5.3 the cold war_abroad
5.3 the cold war_abroad5.3 the cold war_abroad
5.3 the cold war_abroadjkoryan
 
History of Afghanistan.ppt
History of Afghanistan.pptHistory of Afghanistan.ppt
History of Afghanistan.pptUlugbek7
 

Similar to Soviet afghan war final (20)

Afghan war By Jug and Pun
Afghan war By Jug and PunAfghan war By Jug and Pun
Afghan war By Jug and Pun
 
Iran (1).pptx
Iran (1).pptxIran (1).pptx
Iran (1).pptx
 
USSR Control
USSR ControlUSSR Control
USSR Control
 
e
ee
e
 
Cold War in the 20th century An Overview
Cold War in the 20th century   An OverviewCold War in the 20th century   An Overview
Cold War in the 20th century An Overview
 
Vietnam Powerpoint
Vietnam PowerpointVietnam Powerpoint
Vietnam Powerpoint
 
Vietnam War Powerpoint presentation
Vietnam War Powerpoint presentationVietnam War Powerpoint presentation
Vietnam War Powerpoint presentation
 
Cold War Overview
Cold War OverviewCold War Overview
Cold War Overview
 
Cold war abroad
Cold war abroadCold war abroad
Cold war abroad
 
Soviet intervention in afghanistan
Soviet intervention in afghanistanSoviet intervention in afghanistan
Soviet intervention in afghanistan
 
The cold war
The cold warThe cold war
The cold war
 
H12 ch 13_nationalism_inasia_2013
H12 ch 13_nationalism_inasia_2013H12 ch 13_nationalism_inasia_2013
H12 ch 13_nationalism_inasia_2013
 
Russia VS China
Russia VS ChinaRussia VS China
Russia VS China
 
5.3 the cold war_abroad
5.3 the cold war_abroad5.3 the cold war_abroad
5.3 the cold war_abroad
 
History of Afghanistan.ppt
History of Afghanistan.pptHistory of Afghanistan.ppt
History of Afghanistan.ppt
 
Coldwar 1945-1991
Coldwar 1945-1991Coldwar 1945-1991
Coldwar 1945-1991
 
Presentation1history
Presentation1historyPresentation1history
Presentation1history
 
The cold war
The cold warThe cold war
The cold war
 
The cold war
The cold warThe cold war
The cold war
 
The cold war
The cold warThe cold war
The cold war
 

Recently uploaded

Dominican American Coalition PAC Executive Summary
Dominican American Coalition PAC Executive SummaryDominican American Coalition PAC Executive Summary
Dominican American Coalition PAC Executive SummaryRDE GROUP CORP
 
Embed-4-1-1.pdf vm ;sdkp[kdp[kpdkpodp;p;j
Embed-4-1-1.pdf vm ;sdkp[kdp[kpdkpodp;p;jEmbed-4-1-1.pdf vm ;sdkp[kdp[kpdkpodp;p;j
Embed-4-1-1.pdf vm ;sdkp[kdp[kpdkpodp;p;jbhavenpr
 
PEACE BETWEEN ISRAEL AND PALESTINE REQUIRES EXTREMISTS OUT OF POWER AND RESTR...
PEACE BETWEEN ISRAEL AND PALESTINE REQUIRES EXTREMISTS OUT OF POWER AND RESTR...PEACE BETWEEN ISRAEL AND PALESTINE REQUIRES EXTREMISTS OUT OF POWER AND RESTR...
PEACE BETWEEN ISRAEL AND PALESTINE REQUIRES EXTREMISTS OUT OF POWER AND RESTR...Faga1939
 
2024 - Love and Madness - a book about love, madness, heartbreak and politics
2024 - Love and Madness - a book about love, madness, heartbreak and politics2024 - Love and Madness - a book about love, madness, heartbreak and politics
2024 - Love and Madness - a book about love, madness, heartbreak and politicsConradSmit5
 
21052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
21052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf21052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
21052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdfFIRST INDIA
 
Embed-3-1-1.pdf The ECI direction on April 2, 2024 can be read here:
Embed-3-1-1.pdf  The ECI direction on April 2, 2024 can be read here:Embed-3-1-1.pdf  The ECI direction on April 2, 2024 can be read here:
Embed-3-1-1.pdf The ECI direction on April 2, 2024 can be read here:bhavenpr
 
Embed-4-3 (1).pdf cvxx'f['df[p'lf][l][fl][fl][][l[
Embed-4-3 (1).pdf cvxx'f['df[p'lf][l][fl][fl][][l[Embed-4-3 (1).pdf cvxx'f['df[p'lf][l][fl][fl][][l[
Embed-4-3 (1).pdf cvxx'f['df[p'lf][l][fl][fl][][l[bhavenpr
 
Meta_AI_ads_investigation.pdfldoljjwejolejolol
Meta_AI_ads_investigation.pdfldoljjwejolejololMeta_AI_ads_investigation.pdfldoljjwejolejolol
Meta_AI_ads_investigation.pdfldoljjwejolejololbhavenpr
 
Have A Complimentary Cheat Sheet, On Us!!!
Have A Complimentary Cheat Sheet, On Us!!!Have A Complimentary Cheat Sheet, On Us!!!
Have A Complimentary Cheat Sheet, On Us!!!Abdul-Hakim Shabazz
 
R$ 78 milhões: Estado aprova 593 propostas para acordos diretos de precatórios
R$ 78 milhões: Estado aprova 593 propostas para acordos diretos de precatóriosR$ 78 milhões: Estado aprova 593 propostas para acordos diretos de precatórios
R$ 78 milhões: Estado aprova 593 propostas para acordos diretos de precatóriosMaurílio Júnior
 
Encore portal Project PPt on live portal
Encore portal Project PPt on live portalEncore portal Project PPt on live portal
Encore portal Project PPt on live portalEshantRawat2
 
israeil_bnetaniahou_panel_report_eng.pdf
israeil_bnetaniahou_panel_report_eng.pdfisraeil_bnetaniahou_panel_report_eng.pdf
israeil_bnetaniahou_panel_report_eng.pdfssuser5750e1
 
24052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
24052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf24052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
24052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdfFIRST INDIA
 
20052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
20052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf20052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
20052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdfFIRST INDIA
 
Nika Muhl Visa Approval Shirt, Nika Muhl Visa Approval T-Shirt
Nika Muhl Visa Approval Shirt, Nika Muhl Visa Approval T-ShirtNika Muhl Visa Approval Shirt, Nika Muhl Visa Approval T-Shirt
Nika Muhl Visa Approval Shirt, Nika Muhl Visa Approval T-Shirtniherranjansingha
 
25052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
25052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf25052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
25052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdfFIRST INDIA
 
19052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
19052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf19052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
19052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdfFIRST INDIA
 
23052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
23052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf23052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
23052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdfFIRST INDIA
 
Minnesota Timberwolves Bring Ya Ass T Shirt
Minnesota Timberwolves Bring Ya Ass T ShirtMinnesota Timberwolves Bring Ya Ass T Shirt
Minnesota Timberwolves Bring Ya Ass T Shirtniherranjansingha
 
May 2024 - Crypto Market Report_FINAL.pdf
May 2024 - Crypto Market Report_FINAL.pdfMay 2024 - Crypto Market Report_FINAL.pdf
May 2024 - Crypto Market Report_FINAL.pdfmanisha194592
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Dominican American Coalition PAC Executive Summary
Dominican American Coalition PAC Executive SummaryDominican American Coalition PAC Executive Summary
Dominican American Coalition PAC Executive Summary
 
Embed-4-1-1.pdf vm ;sdkp[kdp[kpdkpodp;p;j
Embed-4-1-1.pdf vm ;sdkp[kdp[kpdkpodp;p;jEmbed-4-1-1.pdf vm ;sdkp[kdp[kpdkpodp;p;j
Embed-4-1-1.pdf vm ;sdkp[kdp[kpdkpodp;p;j
 
PEACE BETWEEN ISRAEL AND PALESTINE REQUIRES EXTREMISTS OUT OF POWER AND RESTR...
PEACE BETWEEN ISRAEL AND PALESTINE REQUIRES EXTREMISTS OUT OF POWER AND RESTR...PEACE BETWEEN ISRAEL AND PALESTINE REQUIRES EXTREMISTS OUT OF POWER AND RESTR...
PEACE BETWEEN ISRAEL AND PALESTINE REQUIRES EXTREMISTS OUT OF POWER AND RESTR...
 
2024 - Love and Madness - a book about love, madness, heartbreak and politics
2024 - Love and Madness - a book about love, madness, heartbreak and politics2024 - Love and Madness - a book about love, madness, heartbreak and politics
2024 - Love and Madness - a book about love, madness, heartbreak and politics
 
21052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
21052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf21052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
21052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
 
Embed-3-1-1.pdf The ECI direction on April 2, 2024 can be read here:
Embed-3-1-1.pdf  The ECI direction on April 2, 2024 can be read here:Embed-3-1-1.pdf  The ECI direction on April 2, 2024 can be read here:
Embed-3-1-1.pdf The ECI direction on April 2, 2024 can be read here:
 
Embed-4-3 (1).pdf cvxx'f['df[p'lf][l][fl][fl][][l[
Embed-4-3 (1).pdf cvxx'f['df[p'lf][l][fl][fl][][l[Embed-4-3 (1).pdf cvxx'f['df[p'lf][l][fl][fl][][l[
Embed-4-3 (1).pdf cvxx'f['df[p'lf][l][fl][fl][][l[
 
Meta_AI_ads_investigation.pdfldoljjwejolejolol
Meta_AI_ads_investigation.pdfldoljjwejolejololMeta_AI_ads_investigation.pdfldoljjwejolejolol
Meta_AI_ads_investigation.pdfldoljjwejolejolol
 
Have A Complimentary Cheat Sheet, On Us!!!
Have A Complimentary Cheat Sheet, On Us!!!Have A Complimentary Cheat Sheet, On Us!!!
Have A Complimentary Cheat Sheet, On Us!!!
 
R$ 78 milhões: Estado aprova 593 propostas para acordos diretos de precatórios
R$ 78 milhões: Estado aprova 593 propostas para acordos diretos de precatóriosR$ 78 milhões: Estado aprova 593 propostas para acordos diretos de precatórios
R$ 78 milhões: Estado aprova 593 propostas para acordos diretos de precatórios
 
Encore portal Project PPt on live portal
Encore portal Project PPt on live portalEncore portal Project PPt on live portal
Encore portal Project PPt on live portal
 
israeil_bnetaniahou_panel_report_eng.pdf
israeil_bnetaniahou_panel_report_eng.pdfisraeil_bnetaniahou_panel_report_eng.pdf
israeil_bnetaniahou_panel_report_eng.pdf
 
24052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
24052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf24052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
24052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
 
20052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
20052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf20052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
20052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
 
Nika Muhl Visa Approval Shirt, Nika Muhl Visa Approval T-Shirt
Nika Muhl Visa Approval Shirt, Nika Muhl Visa Approval T-ShirtNika Muhl Visa Approval Shirt, Nika Muhl Visa Approval T-Shirt
Nika Muhl Visa Approval Shirt, Nika Muhl Visa Approval T-Shirt
 
25052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
25052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf25052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
25052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
 
19052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
19052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf19052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
19052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
 
23052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
23052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf23052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
23052024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
 
Minnesota Timberwolves Bring Ya Ass T Shirt
Minnesota Timberwolves Bring Ya Ass T ShirtMinnesota Timberwolves Bring Ya Ass T Shirt
Minnesota Timberwolves Bring Ya Ass T Shirt
 
May 2024 - Crypto Market Report_FINAL.pdf
May 2024 - Crypto Market Report_FINAL.pdfMay 2024 - Crypto Market Report_FINAL.pdf
May 2024 - Crypto Market Report_FINAL.pdf
 

Soviet afghan war final

  • 1. Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan 1979-1989 By Karen Ni and Kavita Shah D Block
  • 2. General Overview • Began in 1979 when the Soviets invaded Afghanistan • Afghans carried out guerrilla warfare that ultimately drives Soviets out • Ended in stalemate- Soviets forced to withdraw • Ceasefire: 1988, • Soviet withdrawal: 1989
  • 3. Long Term Causes • Soviets trying to spread Communism to neighboring countries • Wanted to create friendly eastern states. • Would open up trade with Asian nations • Marxist government in Afghanistan is being opposed by majority of Afghans.
  • 4. Short Term Causes • 1978- Marxist government placed in Afghanistan by the PDPA (People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan) • Actions were unpopular with the conservative Afghans • Saw the Marxist ideals as a threat to the Afghan religion and customs • Soviets wanted to maintain the Communist government – invaded in 1979 to intervene
  • 5. Soviet Perceptions • Soviet people were told that the war was meant to free the Communists living in Afghanistan • Communism entails atheism. • believed that the Afghans (mostly Muslims) need to be liberated from their ignorance
  • 6. Soviet Motivations • Successful invasion of Afghanistan would allow puppet state set up through control of Kabul. • Geographic benefits: 1. Access of Indian ocean through India. 2. Trade with India and its large population 3. Natural resources: iron Soviet soldiers in Kabul ore, natural gas, uranium, copper
  • 7. Afghan Motivations/Perceptions • Majority were Muslims- conflicting with the atheist teachings of Communism • Saw the Soviets invasion as a threat to their culture and religion- engage in “jihad” or “holy war”.
  • 8. Events • Taraki Regime in place in Afghanistan o Terror used to reduce threat from opponents • Leaders launch a jihad against communism o Afghanistan delving into civil war and USSR starts to worry  Brezhnev Doctrine: Right of the Soviet Union to militarily get involved to prevent the overthrow of a neighboring communist government • Soviets quickly seize Kabul as well as other major Afghan cities and highways o Mujaheedeen forces use guerilla warfare to oppose Soviet influence.
  • 9. Events • President Jimmy Carter believes that the Soviet's action was a "blatant violation of accepted international rules of behavior" • Limited his sales with the USSR and restricted fishing privileges in the U.S. waters. o Following Carter, Reagan despised the Soviets even more, referring to them as the "evil empire."
  • 10. Events • With these oppositions, the USSR was struggling to survive in the war o Mujaheedeen got foreign assistance from the US • 1983- US, UK, Saudi Arabia, PRC become supporters for Afghanistan. • Weapons supplied through Pakistan. • 1985- closed in on Kabul (gov ruled by Moscow) • 1986- US and UK supplied antiaircraft missles and ground to ground rockets that allowed Mujahideen to shoot down Soviet aircrafts. • 1989- Soviet government withdrew troops
  • 11. Events • In 1988, the Soviet Union, now with the leadership of Mikhail Gorbachev agreed to withdraw the Soviet troops within a 10 month period. 1989- Soviet government withdrew troops from Soviet tanks withdraw from Afghanistan Afghanistan- mujahideen take over Kabul.
  • 12. Mujahideen • Afghan resistance fighters against Soviet forces and the Soviet controlled Kabul government • made up of seven Sunni political Mujaheedeen soldiers factions and eight Shiite organizations in Afghanistan.
  • 13. Mujahideen (Cont.) • Originally divided by regional, sectarian, political and tribal ties. • Not very united at the beginning of Soviet’s invasion • Organized in local tribal militias. • No central structure. • March 1980- formed Islamic Alliance for the Liberation of Afghanistan for international recognition and support.
  • 14. Foreign Aid • other participants included volunteers from neighboring middle east and north african countries. • Initially trained/funded by Pakistan’s Inter-service intelligence (ISI) • Later supported by US, UK, Saudi Arabia, Iran, PRC (china), and Sunni nations. • 1983- US, UK, Saudi Arabia, PRC become supporters for Afghanistan. Weapons supplied through Pakistan. • 1986- US and UK supplied antiaircraft missiles and ground to ground rockets that allowed Mujahideen to shoot down Soviet aircrafts.
  • 16. Short Term Effects (Afghans) • 1 million Afghans died. • 5 million Afghans (refugees) fled to neighboring countries (mainly Pakistan) • Afghanistan destabilized
  • 17. Short Term Effects (Soviet) • 14,000 Soviet soldiers killed. • Soviets lost 1000 pieces of equipment and 450 aircrafts • Soviet Casualties= 50,000 Soviet tanks withdrawing from Afghanistan after suffering heavy losses
  • 18. Long Term Effects • Costed Soviet Union billions of dollars of debt which severely weakened the Soviet Union. • Contributed to the fall of the Soviet Union • Afghanistan is brought to a state of civil unrest (even today) • Soviets authorities became questioned by its War in Afghanistan 2001 people which weakened their empire.
  • 20. Soviet Troops leaving Afghanistan 1989
  • 22. Explain why Afghanistan’s Marxist government (took power in 1978) was unpopular with many Muslims. • • The Marxist government was unpopular with the Muslims primarily because of the conflicting beliefs of the two groups of people. First of all, Marxist teachings entail an atheistic point of view on religion. The Muslims living in Afghanistan were extremely conservative and religious, thus opposed Marxist teachings. Secondly, when the socialist government was set up in Afghanistan in 1978, social reforms were issued that directed conflicted with Muslim culture. For example, women, who in Islamic teachings are inferior to men, were given equal rights as men. Dress and the education system were also "westernized" causing upset in the conservative Muslims.
  • 23. Explain how the USSR became involved in a war in — Afghanistan (1979-1988)? Before the USSR had become involved in the war in Afghanistan, a commitment to the Brezhnev Doctrine was established. This doctrine stated that the Soviet Union would get involved if a friendly communist government was being overthrown and try to prevent any consequences. So, as Afghanistan delved into civil war in 1979, the USSR was obliged help and pursued towards a military intervention. This assistance consisted of not only 4,500 combat advisers released by Leonid Brezhnev but also Soviet aircrafts that were ready to conduct bombing raids. This doctrine was the point of instigation that led the USSR to becoming involved.
  • 24. What were the obstacles that made the war unwinnable for the Soviets? The Soviets faced several obstacles making their chances at winning the war not possible. The first obstacle occurred at the end of January of 1980 as the Soviet units began to seize Afghan cities and major highways. After securing these locations, the Mujahedeen began to resort to guerilla warfare. The Mujahedeen were essentially the Afghan rebel groups who fought against Soviet influence. As the war continued, confrontations with guerilla warfare cause the confidence of the Soviets to decrease while the confidence of the Afghans increased. To make matters worse, the US began providing foreign assistance to the mujaheeden with the providing of transport vehicles, weaponry such as missile launchers and food. With all this assistance, the usage of chemical weapons or more troops for the Soviets would not help at all. Eventually in the April of 1988, the Soviet troops had withdrawn.
  • 25. How did the war end? What was the effect of the war on Afghanistan? On the Soviet Union? • • The war ended in 1989 through a stalemate with both sides suffering heavy losses. The Soviets withdrew in 1989. • The war caused the death of 1 million Afghans, and fleeing of 5 million Afghans to neighboring countries. Afghanistan, as a result of the war, entered a state of civil instability, which still continues into present day. • The war caused 50,000 Soviet casualties and loss of 1000 pieces of equipment and 450 aircrafts. As a result of the war, Soviets were in billions of dollars of debt, which severely weakened the USSR. Their losses also caused the people to question the Soviet’s authority. It is arguably the factor that caused the downfall of the Soviet Union.
  • 26. Bibliography Dehart, Bruce J. “Soviet-Afghanistan War.” The Encyclopedia of Middle East Wars: The United States in the Persian Gulf, Afghanistan, and Iraq Conflicts. Gale Virtual Reference Library, 2010. Web. 5 Apr. 2012. Leitich, Keith A. “Mujahideen, Soviet-Afghanistan War.” The Encyclopedia of Middle East Wars: The United States in the Persian Gulf, Afghanistan, and Iraq Conflicts. 2010. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 5 Apr. 2012. Pierpaoli, Paul G. “Cold War (Consequences).” World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2012. Web. 4 Apr. 2012. “The Soviet-Afghan War: Key Question.” World History: The Modern Era. ABC- CLIO, 2012. Web. 4 Apr. 2012. Taylor, Maxine. “The Soviet-Afghan War: a Lasting Legacy: an Overview.” World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2012. Web. 4 Apr. 2012. “Why the Soviets Invaded Afghanistan.” Mount Holyoke College. Mount Holyoke College, 2012. Web. 5 Apr. 2012.
  • 27. Credits Afghan Mujahideen Soldiers. N.d. Alternative Insight. Alternative Insight, n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2012. <http://www.alternativeinsight.com/images/Image417.gif>. Afghan tanks. N.d. Fun President . N.p., Feb. 2009. Web. 23 Apr. 2012. <http://funpresident.com/wp- content/uploads/2009/02/the-challenge-of-afghanistan8.jpg>. American Soldiers in Afghanistan 2001. N.d. History Guy. Roger A. Lee, n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2012. <http://www.historyguy.com/afghanistan_war_image.jpg>. Armand, Vitaly. A Convoy of Soviet Armoured Vehicles Crossing a Bridge at the Soviet-Afghan Border. 21 May 1988. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica Inc., n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2012. <http://www.britannica.com/bps/media-view/121906/1/0/0>. Evstafiev, Mikhail. Pullout of Soviet Troops from Afghanistan. 1988. Private Collection. Wikipedia. Web. 23 Apr. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Evstafiev-afghan-apc-passes-russian.jpg>. - - -. A Soviet Spetsnav Group Prepares for a Mission in Afghanistan. 1988. Private Collection. Wikipedia. Web. 23 Apr. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Evstafiev-spetsnaz-prepare-for-mission.jpg>. Lux, Erwin. Mortar Attack on Shigal Tarna Garris. 1987. Wikipedia. N.p., Nov. 2008. Web. 23 Apr. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mortar_attack_on_Shigal_Tarna_garrison,_Kunar_Province,_87.jpg>. Map of the USSR Area. Chart. Diller, Amber. Blogger, 9 June 2011. Web. 23 Apr. 2012. <http://2.bp.blogspot.com/- 8YrQsRk3Ixo/TfEEtLSLf7I/AAAAAAAAABo/UGHiMPSyiKI/s1600/map-of-soviet-union.gif>. Soviet Soldiers. N.d. Alternative Insight. Alternative Insight, n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2012. <http://www.alternativeinsight.com/images/Image409.gif>. Soviet Soldiers in Kabul . N.d. Video Fact. Video Fact, n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2012. <http://www.videofact.com/polska/robocze%20today/afganistan6.jpg>. Soviet Troops Preparing to Leave Afghanistan. N.d. Padresteve’s World. Wordpress, Jan. 2010. Web. 23 Apr. 2012. <http://padresteve.files.wordpress.com/2010/01/soviet_troops_afghanistan.jpg>.