North Atlantic British Grand Fleet en-route to Interception
Four soldiers with different flags hung on thier bayonets: Irish, Scottish, English, Welsh
1 the main causes of wwi slideshare version
The MAIN Causes of WWI
M - Militarism• the policy of building a strong military force then using war to get more power such as colonies, land, raw materials, etc.• Countries compete to build the largest armies and navies because This helps them to get and protect their colonies around the world.
A - Alliances• a group of countries united for military protection.• Countries in Europe looked for friends to help support them if a war started.
I - Imperialism• When a country extends it’s rule over another country.• Countries form an empire by starting colonies.• More colonies = more raw materials, more markets for trade, and more land.• Countries come into conflict when competing for colonies.
N-Nationalism• strong feelings of patriotism; pride for your mother country• Countries felt national pride when their empire conquered other countries.• Some ethnic groups felt an intense desire to preserve their own cultural identity, language and traditions.• So they wanted to form independent nations, and free themselves from the control of an empire
The Alliances Triple Entente Triple Alliance (The Allies) (Central Powers)Britain, France, Russia Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, Turkey
The Major Players The Triple Entente The Triple Alliance (The Allies) (Central Powers)1. France 1. Germany gave up 2 rich provinces Kaiser Wilhelm II wants to (Alsace-Lorraine) to Germany when they lost the Franco- have a large, rich colonial Prussian War empire, like Britain and more fought with Germany over a raw materials. claim of Morocco forms an alliance with fears Germany, so forms an Austria-Hungary and Italy alliance with Russia builds up a large army and navy to compete with Britain, France and Russia.
The Major Players2. Russia 2. Austria-Hungary “The sleeping giant” Slavic nationalism is bordering on Germany. threatening to break apart Has a large army. its empire; Slavic groups want to be “Big Brother” to Serbia independent. believes in Pan-Slavism took over Bosnia, “Slavic” countries wants to take over should be united. Serbia and control all Supports these countries Slavic people. because wants access to a warm water port in the Balkans on the Mediterranean Sea
The Major Players3. Britain 3. Italy has the largest empire Has defensive alliance has largest navy will help Germany and because has to protect Austria-Hungary if its large empire. attacked. In “arms race” Their actions are (competition) with offensive so Italy stays Germany to build the neutral. largest navy. Later joins the Allies.
The Major Players4. Serbia 4.Turkey (Ottoman Empire) angry because Austria- has controlled the Balkans Hungary took over for 100 years, now empire Bosnia (a Slavic is crumbling. country), because they wanted Bosnia to join Fears losing more land to them. Russian expansion, so Bosnian Serb terrorist makes a secret alliance group, the with Black Hand Germany are ready to fight to unite all Slavic people.
Countdown to WWI Rebellions of the Slavic people inthe Austro-Hungarian Empire made the area known as the Balkans, “The Powder Keg of Europe.”It was ready to explode into a war.
1. The Assassination “The Spark that Lit the Powder Keg”• June 28, 1914 – Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the Austrian monarchy, and his wife, Sophie, were visiting Sarajevo, the capital city of Bosnia.
• Archduke Ferdinand and his wife are shot and killed by Gavrillo Princip, a member of the Serbian terrorist group, the Black Hand.
2. Blank Cheque• Austria-Hungary asks Germany for advice and Germany gives them a Blank Cheque – this means that they will support Austria even if it means war.
3. Ultimatum• Austria-Hungary prepares for war and sends the Serbs an ultimatum hand over the terrorist or face war4. Serbia agrees to only parts of the ultimatum, so Austria Hungary declares war on Serbia5. Russia’s leader Tsar Nicholas II, gives Serbia a blank cheque (full support) and prepares for war against Austria Hungary
6. Germany tells Russia to back down, Russia refuses, so Germany declares war on Russia.7. France has an alliance with Russia, so France declares war on Germany8. Germany declares war on France.
The Schlieffen Plan• realizing that it is best to attack France first, Germany attacks France through Belgium.• Goal – to defeat France in 6 weeks while Russia is still preparing for war and avoid a Two-Front War, having to fight France and Russia at the same time.• Problem – Belgium is a neutral country and has a treaty with Britain to protect its neutrality.
Aug 4, 1914• Britain declares war on Germany.• WWI begins.• All British colonies, including CANADA, are automatically at war.