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Damascus University
Higher Languages Institute
Theories of Language Teaching and Learning
Course Instructor: Dr. Ghias Barakat
Presented by: Abd Al-Rahman Al-Midani
An Introduction to Foreign Language
Learning and Teaching
December 10th, 2013
Email: thedamascene@hotmail.com
Outline:
Systematic Competence
 Morphemes:
Types of morphemes
Pronunciation:
 Final [s] functional morpheme
 Stress Patterns
 Intonation Contours

References
 Systematic Competence covers the knowledge and skill
related to the language operating as a system.
 The systematicity of language extends to many levels:
 Pronunciation: - Phonetics
- Phonology
 Grammar:
- Morphology
- Syntax
 Semantics
 Mechanisms
Morphemes
 They are the smallest meaningful unit in a language. They are
the building blocks of words and incompressible.
 Victoria Fromkin et al extend this definition to refer to: “The
smallest
unit
of
linguistics
meaning
or
function, e.g., sheep|dog|s contains three morphemes
sheep, dog, and the functional morpheme for the plural s.”
 English morphological system is easier than other languages.
 Types of morphemes:
 Free morphemes: they can stand alone & constitute a word
such as, stable, table, mouse, etc…
 Bound Morphemes: they cannot stand alone in a sentence and
must be attached to free morphemes. E.g. ing, s, er, un etc…
All affixes are bound morphemes.
Pronunciation
 English language has rules for pronunciation.

1) Final [s] functional morpheme:
• The regular plural inflection, the third-person singular presenttense inflection, and the possessive inflection all share the
same set of pronunciation rules:
• After sibilant consonants (s, z, ʃ, ʒ, tʃ, dʒ), [s] is pronounced
/ɪz/ (e.g., / brɪdʒɪz/)
• After voiceless sounds, it is pronounced /s/ (e.g., /bʊks/)
• After voiced sounds, it is pronounced /z/ (e.g., /wʊdz/).
2) Stress Patterns:
 In English there is three levels of stress: Primary
(ˊ), secondary (ˆ), and third (ˊ).
 Pattern one: (Compound Noun)
A compound noun usually consists of a (v+n), (adj+n), or (n+n).
Its stress pattern is (ˊ ˊ) e.g., ˊ
Blackˊbirdvs. black bird.
 Pattern two (modifier +n):
Its stress pattern is (ˆ ˊ) e.g., ˆblack ˊbird.
 Pattern three (v + n-object)
Its stress pattern is (ˆ ˊ) e.g., I am ˆdelivering a ˊpresentation.
 Pattern four (v + adverbial)
Its stress pattern is (ˆ ˊ) e.g., ˆtake ˊaway.
When compound nouns are derived from this form, they gain
stress pattern one e.g., ˊ
takeˊaway
.
3) Intonation contours
They are produced through the various combination of voice
pitches. We have 4 levels: 4 Extra high, 3 high, 2 normal, and 1 low.

1. 2 3 1 (2 2 1):
A. Statements:
e.g., 2We are attending a 3lecture1.
B. Command
e.g., 2Get 3out!1
C. Wh questions
e.g., 2Who is that 3man1?
2. 2 3 3
A. Yes or No questions in statement form
e.g., 2He is 3coming3
B. Yes or No questions in question form
e.g., 2is he 3coming3?
C. Initial grammatical units (phrases or clauses)
e.g., 2In 3all3,
e.g., 2If you 2remember3,
3. 2 3 2
A. Initial grammatical units (phrases or clauses). It is an
alternative to 2.C.
e.g., 2In 3all2,
e.g., 2If you 3remember2,
B. Statements in which the speaker has more to say.
e.g., 2He is a good 3student2 (but)…
References
N. C. Stageberg and D. D. Oaks, An introductory English
Grammar. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt College Publishers, 2000.
M. Celce-Murcia, Teaching Pronunciation: A Reference
for Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages.
Cambridge University Press, 1996.
R., Hyams (Author) Fromkin, An Introduction to
Language (7th Edition). Thomson Learning.
Thank You very Much

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Systematic Competence of English Language

  • 1. Damascus University Higher Languages Institute Theories of Language Teaching and Learning Course Instructor: Dr. Ghias Barakat Presented by: Abd Al-Rahman Al-Midani An Introduction to Foreign Language Learning and Teaching December 10th, 2013 Email: thedamascene@hotmail.com
  • 2. Outline: Systematic Competence  Morphemes: Types of morphemes Pronunciation:  Final [s] functional morpheme  Stress Patterns  Intonation Contours References
  • 3.  Systematic Competence covers the knowledge and skill related to the language operating as a system.  The systematicity of language extends to many levels:  Pronunciation: - Phonetics - Phonology  Grammar: - Morphology - Syntax  Semantics  Mechanisms
  • 4. Morphemes  They are the smallest meaningful unit in a language. They are the building blocks of words and incompressible.  Victoria Fromkin et al extend this definition to refer to: “The smallest unit of linguistics meaning or function, e.g., sheep|dog|s contains three morphemes sheep, dog, and the functional morpheme for the plural s.”  English morphological system is easier than other languages.  Types of morphemes:  Free morphemes: they can stand alone & constitute a word such as, stable, table, mouse, etc…  Bound Morphemes: they cannot stand alone in a sentence and must be attached to free morphemes. E.g. ing, s, er, un etc… All affixes are bound morphemes.
  • 5. Pronunciation  English language has rules for pronunciation. 1) Final [s] functional morpheme: • The regular plural inflection, the third-person singular presenttense inflection, and the possessive inflection all share the same set of pronunciation rules: • After sibilant consonants (s, z, ʃ, ʒ, tʃ, dʒ), [s] is pronounced /ɪz/ (e.g., / brɪdʒɪz/) • After voiceless sounds, it is pronounced /s/ (e.g., /bʊks/) • After voiced sounds, it is pronounced /z/ (e.g., /wʊdz/).
  • 6. 2) Stress Patterns:  In English there is three levels of stress: Primary (ˊ), secondary (ˆ), and third (ˊ).  Pattern one: (Compound Noun) A compound noun usually consists of a (v+n), (adj+n), or (n+n). Its stress pattern is (ˊ ˊ) e.g., ˊ Blackˊbirdvs. black bird.  Pattern two (modifier +n): Its stress pattern is (ˆ ˊ) e.g., ˆblack ˊbird.  Pattern three (v + n-object) Its stress pattern is (ˆ ˊ) e.g., I am ˆdelivering a ˊpresentation.
  • 7.  Pattern four (v + adverbial) Its stress pattern is (ˆ ˊ) e.g., ˆtake ˊaway. When compound nouns are derived from this form, they gain stress pattern one e.g., ˊ takeˊaway .
  • 8. 3) Intonation contours They are produced through the various combination of voice pitches. We have 4 levels: 4 Extra high, 3 high, 2 normal, and 1 low. 1. 2 3 1 (2 2 1): A. Statements: e.g., 2We are attending a 3lecture1. B. Command e.g., 2Get 3out!1 C. Wh questions e.g., 2Who is that 3man1?
  • 9. 2. 2 3 3 A. Yes or No questions in statement form e.g., 2He is 3coming3 B. Yes or No questions in question form e.g., 2is he 3coming3? C. Initial grammatical units (phrases or clauses) e.g., 2In 3all3, e.g., 2If you 2remember3,
  • 10. 3. 2 3 2 A. Initial grammatical units (phrases or clauses). It is an alternative to 2.C. e.g., 2In 3all2, e.g., 2If you 3remember2, B. Statements in which the speaker has more to say. e.g., 2He is a good 3student2 (but)…
  • 11. References N. C. Stageberg and D. D. Oaks, An introductory English Grammar. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt College Publishers, 2000. M. Celce-Murcia, Teaching Pronunciation: A Reference for Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. Cambridge University Press, 1996. R., Hyams (Author) Fromkin, An Introduction to Language (7th Edition). Thomson Learning.